Standard 3-2 The student will read and comprehend a variety of

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Standard 3-2 The student will read and comprehend a variety of Powered By Docstoc
					     Standard 6-6              The student will access and use information from a
                               variety of sources.

       The teacher should continue to address earlier indicators as they apply to more
       difficult texts.


     Indicator 6-6.1           Clarify and refine a research topic.

     Definition of Revised Bloom’s Verb
     Clarify:                Changing from one form of representation to another

     For example, students will need to clarify (translate, interpret, paraphrase) a
     research topic to refine (narrow or widen) the scope of the research. Most problem-
     solving research models suggest that students restate the research topic as a
     question that the student requires information to answer.

     Explanation of Indicator
     A research topic is the subject matter that requires the student to access and use
     information. Students will need to clarify (translate, interpret, paraphrase) a
     research topic to refine (narrow or widen) the scope of the research. Most problem-
     solving research models suggest that students restate the research topic as a
     question the student requires information to answer.

     Instructional Progression of Indicator
     The level of difficulty of the text increases at each grade level. Additionally, some
     areas of focus for clarifying and refining a research topic (such as subject matter)
     differ at each grade level.

           What do students need to know before they can understand
           how to clarify and refine a research topic?
              Students must know how to generate how and why questions about
                topics of interest.
              Students must know the type of information answers to questions
                provide.
              Students need to experience selecting topics of interest.
              Students need to know how to paraphrase information (state in their
                own words).
              Students need to know how to appropriately credit the words and
                work of others.

           Within clarifying and refining a research topic, what have
           students been taught and what will they be taught in the
           future?
           The words in bold indicate a change from grade to grade.
                 3-6.1        Generate a topic for inquiry.
                 4-6.1        Clarify and refine a research topic.
                 5-6.1        Clarify and refine a research topic.


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                   6-6.1     Clarify   and   refine   a   research   topic.
                   7-6.1     Clarify   and   refine   a   research   topic.
                   8-6.1     Clarify   and   refine   a   research   topic.
                   E1-6.1    Clarify   and   refine   a   research   topic.
                   E2-6.1    Clarify   and   refine   a   research   topic.
                   E3-6.1    Clarify   and   refine   a   research   topic.
                   E4-6.1    Clarify   and   refine   a   research   topic.

           When teaching how to clarify and refine a research topic, what
           connections, links, or ties can be made to other indicators
           and/or content areas?

     English Language Arts
                6-1.1      Analyze literary texts to draw conclusions and make
                           inferences.
                6-1.5      Interpret the effect of the author’s craft (including tone
                           and the use of flashback and foreshadowing) on the
                           meaning of literary texts.
                6.1.4      Analyze the details that support the expression of the
                           main idea in a given literary text.
                6-1.7      Create responses to literary texts through a variety of
                           methods (for example, written works, oral and auditory
                           presentations, discussions, media productions, and the
                           visual and performing arts).
                6-2.1      Analyze central ideas within and across informational
                           texts.
                6-2.2      Analyze informational texts to draw conclusions and make
                           inferences.
                6-2.3      Summarize author bias based on the omission of relevant
                           facts and statements of unsupported opinions).
                6-2.5      Interpret information that text elements (for example,
                           print styles and chapter headings) provide to the reader.
                6-2.7      Interpret information from functional text features (for
                           example, tables of contents and glossaries).
                6-2.9      Identify propaganda techniques (including testimonials
                           and bandwagon) in informational texts.
                6-2:10     Read independently for extended periods of time to gain
                           information.
                6-4.4      Use grammatical conventions of written Standard
                           American English including
                            main and subordinate clauses,
                            indefinite pronouns,
                            pronoun-antecedent agreement, and
                            consistent verb tenses.
                6-6.2      Use direct quotations, paraphrasing, or summaries to
                           incorporate into written, oral, auditory, and visual works
                           the information gathered from a variety of research
                           sources.


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                   6-6.4      Use vocabulary (including Standard American English)
                              that is appropriate for the particular audience or purpose.
                   6-6.7      Use a variety of print and electronic reference materials.
                   6-6.8      Design and carry out research projects by selecting a
                              topic, constructing inquiry questions, accessing resources,
                              and organizing information.
        Mathematics
               6-1.1          Generate and solve complex abstract problems that
                              involve modeling physical, social, or mathematical
                              phenomena.
        Science
                   6-1.4      Use a technological design process to plan and produce a
                              solution to a problem or a product (including identifying a
                              problem, designing a solution or a product, implementing
                              the design, and evaluating the solution or the product).

     Classroom Assessments
     Students should be taught and assessed using similar methods. This indicator
     addresses one part, and a critical part, of a larger whole in which students will
     ultimately participate. At this grade level, students should be assessed based upon that
     what the indicator is asking of them, in this case clarifying and refining a topic for
     research. The topics students choose to inquire about should become more complex,
     therefore the need to clarify and refine becomes more important. Students must learn
     and expand upon the foundational components of the research process before
     demonstrating their knowledge of the total process in later grades.

     Because the research topic is the foundation upon which the student builds the overall
     research project, the teacher should assess the student’s research topic for clarity and
     refinement and prompt the student as needed to revise the topic before proceeding
     with research. Conferencing with the student as well as providing specific written
     feedback is an excellent way to assess this indicator.

     Students might also keep a research journal or log. The student should spend a few
     minutes each day to reflect on his list of topics and the types of questions and the
     search strategies needed to gather the most relevant information. The journal or log
     serves as both a self-assessment mechanism as well as a tool for use for assessing
     classroom performance.

     Suggested Instructional Resources

     Professional Texts
     Berkowitz, Robert E. and Eisenberg, Michael B. The Big6 Research Notebook. Columbus,

           OH: Linworth Books, 2006.

     Buzzeo, Toni. Collaborating to Meet Standards: Teacher/Librarian Partnerships for K-6.

           Worthington, OH: Linworth Publishing Co., 2007.


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     Harrington, LaDawna. Guided Research in Middle School: Mystery in the Media Center.

           Columbus, OH: Linworth Books, 2007.

     Jansen, Barbara A. The Big 6 in Middle School: Teaching Information and

           Communications Technology Skills. Columbus, OH: Linworth Books, 2007.

     Johnson, Doug. Learning Right From Wrong in the Digital Age: An Ethics Guide for

           Parents, Teachers, Librarians, and Others Who Care About Computer-Using

           Young People. Worthington, OH: Linworth Publishing Co., 2003.

     Keane, Nancy J. Middle School Pathfinders: Guiding Student Research. Columbus,

           OH: Linworth Books, 2005.

     Koechlin, Carol, and Sandi Zwaan. Build Your Own Information Literate School. Salt

             Lake City: Hi Willow Research and Publishing, 2003.

     Koechlin, Carol, and Sandi Zwaan. Info Tasks for Successful Learning. Portland, ME:

           Pembroke Publishers, 2001.

     Loertscher, David V., and Blanche Wools. Information Literacy. 2nd ed. San Jose, CA:

           Hi Willow Research and Publishing, 2002.

     Loertscher, David V., Carol Koechlin, and Sandi Zwaan. Ban Those Bird Units: 15

           Models for Teaching and Learning in Information-Rich and Technology-Rich

           Environments. Salt Lake City: Hi Willow Research & Publishing, 2005.

     Ryan, Jenny, and Steph Capra. Information Literacy Toolkit. Chicago: American Library

           Association, 2001.

     Thompson, Helen M, and Susan A. Henley. Fostering Information Literacy: Connecting

           National Standards, Goals 2000, and the SCANS Report. Englewood, CO:

           Libraries Unlimited, Inc., 2000.




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     Valenza, Joyce Kasman. Power Research Tools: Learning Activities and Posters.

           Chicago: American Library Association, 2003.

     Whitley, Peggy, Catherine Olson, and Susan Goodwin. 98 Jumpstarts to Research: Topic

           Guidelines for Finding Information on Current Issues. Englewood, CO: Libraries

           Unlimited, 2001.


     Student Texts
     There are many titles that teachers and students may select to better understand
     how to clarify and refine a research topic. Library Media Specialists from the South
     Carolina Association of School Librarians (SCASL) are collaborating with the South
     Carolina Department of Education to provide a sampling of texts to match the
     indicators. This will continue to be a work in progress. Teachers should collaborate
     with their library media specialists for additional suggestions. These titles can be
     used for read alouds, shared reading, and independent reading. While each title on
     the list has been read and reviewed by professionals, some of these titles may not
     meet the needs of each classroom environment. Teachers are encouraged to read
     the texts prior to using them in class. Use the following link for the SCASL
     suggested texts. http://scasl.pbwiki.com/ELA+Standards

     Nonprint Materials

     Alewine, Martha. “The Simple Four: An Information Problem-Solving Model.” School

           Library Media Services, South Carolina Department of Education. 9 Sept 2007.

           http://martha.alewine.googlepages.com/thesimplefour

     Baker, Frank. “Media Literacy Clearinghouse.” 28 Sept. 2007.

           http://www.frankwbaker.com/

     “Changing     the   Questions.”   Springfield   Township   High   School.   6   Sept   2007

           http://www.sdst.org/shs/library/questions.html

     “Detailed Explanation of an "Essential Question".” Bellingham Public Schools. 6 Sept

           2007.

           http://wwwgen.bham.wednet.edu/probsol2.html




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     Discovering Language Arts: Research Skills (Grades 6-8). 2006. United Learning. ETV

           StreamlineSC. 12 June 2008

           http://www.scetv.org/education/streamlinesc/index.cfm

     Eisenberg, Mike, and Bob Berkowitz. "The Big6: Information Skills for Student

           Achievement." Big6: an Information Problem-Solving Model. 27 Aug. 2007. Big6

           Associates. 27 Aug. 2007

           http://www.big6.com/

     "The Four Phases of Instruction in an I-Search Unit: Phase 1: Becoming Immersed in a

           Topic and Generating a Question." Literacy Matters. 23 Aug. 2007. Education

           Development Center, Inc.

           http://www.literacymatters.org/content/isearch/phase1.htm

     “Information   Studies:   K-12.”   Ontario   Library   Association.   6   Sept   2007.

           http://www.accessola.com/action/positions/info_studies/html/

     Jansen, Barbara A. “Questioning Strategies.” 2006. St. Andrews Episcopal School. 6

           Sept 2007.

           http://library.sasaustin.org/questioning.php

     McKenzie, Jamie. “Framing Essential Questions.” Sept. 1996. From Now On.Org. 6 Sept

           2007

           http://www.fno.org/sept96/questions.html

     Online Research Techniques. 1998. United Learning. ETV StreamlineSC. 12 June 2008

           http://www.scetv.org/education/streamlinesc/index.cfm

     Whelan, Debra Lau. "Making Research Count." School Library Journal (Nov. 2002). 9

           Sept. 2007

     http://www.schoollibraryjournal.com/index.asp?layout=article




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