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Summarizing

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									Summarizing

A “Rule Based”
   Strategy
 Summarizing Has 3 Steps…

To summarize, a student must…
1. Delete things
2. Substitute (replace) things
3. Keep things
 Follow these steps to
 summarize a paragraph…

1. Delete material that is unnecessary for
understanding…
…like introductions that contain no real
information…
Example: “Have you ever wondered how
birds fly?”
 Follow these steps to
 summarize a paragraph…

2. Delete redundant material…
…sentences that say the same thing as a
previous sentence…
Example: “Both kites and birds have a
frame”. “The frame in a bird is made of
bones, while the frame in a kite is made of
wood.”
Follow these steps to
summarize a paragraph…
3. Substitute a single word for a list…
…sentences that contain a list of words that
all fit into a category…
Example: “Birds have beaks, bones, two claws,
two legs, and, most importantly, feathers,
which are one key to a bird’s flight.”
“The feathers are one part of a bird that is
important to flight.”
 Follow these steps to
 summarize a paragraph…

4. Select a topic sentence… or create one,
by rewriting the information left!
Example: “One key to a bird’s ability to fly
is its’ feathers”
 Try this one…
Earthquake History of Florida
Although Florida is not usually considered to
be a state subject to earthquakes, several
minor shocks have occurred there. Only one
of these caused damage. Additional shocks
of doubtful seismic origin also are listed in
earthquake documents.
 One Possible Summary
First, delete unnecessary information…
Earthquake History of Florida
Although Florida is not usually considered to
be a state subject to earthquakes, several
minor shocks have occurred there. Only one
of these caused damage. Additional shocks
of doubtful seismic origin also are listed in
earthquake documents.
 One Possible Summary
Second, replace lists of words with a single
word… (in this paragraph there is no list).
Earthquake History of Florida
Although Florida is not usually considered to
be a state subject to earthquakes, several
minor shocks have occurred there. Only one of
these caused damage. Additional shocks of
doubtful seismic origin also are listed in
earthquake documents.
 One Possible Summary
Third, decide what to keep…
Earthquake History of Florida
Although Florida is not usually considered to
be a state subject to earthquakes, several
minor shocks have occurred there. Only one
of these caused damage. Additional shocks
of doubtful seismic origin also are listed in
earthquake documents.
 One Possible Summary
Fourth, change, or rewrite information into a
topic sentence…
Earthquake History of Florida
Florida, several minor shocks have occurred.
Only one caused damage.

In Florida, several minor shocks have
occurred, but only one caused damage.
 More Practice…

The following pages contain several more
paragraphs from the article on Florida
Earthquakes (which was taken from the
internet).
Feel free to practice!
A shock occurred near St. Augustine, in the
northeast part of the State, in January
1879. The Nation's oldest permanent
settlement, founded by Spain in 1565,
reported that heavy shaking knocked plaster
from walls and articles from shelves. Similar
effects were noted at Daytona Beach, 50
miles south. At Tampa, the southernmost
point of the felt area, the trembling was
preceded by a rumbling sound at 11:30 p.m.
Two shocks were reported in other areas, at
11:45 p.m. and 11:55 p.m. The tremor was
felt through north and central Florida, and at
Savannah, Georgia.
In January 1880, Cuba was the center of
two strong earthquakes that sent severe
shock waves through the town of Key West,
Florida. The tremors occurred at 11 p.m. on
January 22 and at 4 a.m. on the 23rd. At
Buelta Abajo and San Christobal, Cuba, many
buildings were thrown down and some people
were killed.
The next tremor to be felt by Floridians also
centered outside the State. It was the
famous Charleston, South Carolina, shock in
August 1886. The shock was felt throughout
northern Florida, ringing church bells at St.
Augustine and severely jolting other towns
along that section of Florida's east coast.
Jacksonville residents felt many of the strong
aftershocks that occurred in September,
October, and November 1886.
On June 20, 1893, Jacksonville experienced
another slight shock, apparently local, that
lasted about 10 seconds. Another minor
earthquake shook Jacksonville at 11:15 a.m.,
October 31, 1900. It caused no damage.
A sudden jar caused doors and windows to
rattle at Captiva in November 1948. The
apparent earthquake was accompanied by
sounds like distant heavy explosions. Captiva
is located on Captiva Island, in the Gulf west
of Fort Myers.
On November 18, 1952, a slight tremor was
felt by many at Quincy, a small town about
20 miles northwest of Tallahassee. Windows
and doors rattled, but no serious effects
were noted. One source notes, "The shock
interfered with writing of a parking ticket."
It didn't say in what way.
The three Florida shocks of doubtful seismic
origin rumbled through the Everglades - La
Belle - Fort Myers area in July 1930, Tampa
in December 1940, and the Miami -
Everglades - Fort Myers area in January
1942. Most authorities attribute these
incidents to blasting, but a few contend they
were seismic.

								
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