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LED's The Future of Lighting - M

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					Kelly Gordon                                                             January 17, 2006
PNNL




                LEDs – The Future of Lighting?


                           Jeff McCullough, LC
                         Pacific Northwest National Laboratory



                                February 14, 2008

                                                                     1




                                Today’s Topics

               • Introduction
               • LEDs “101”
                 – Along the way we will “bust” some myths
                   about LEDs
               • DOE’s SSL Commercialization Strategy
                 – Lighting for Tomorrow® Design Competition
                 – ENERGY STAR® Criteria
                 – CALiPER® Program
                                                                 2




                                           1
Kelly Gordon                                                                                                                                                       January 17, 2006
PNNL




                            “Solid State Lighting is the
                            most disruptive technology
                            to hit the lighting industry in
                            50 years…”


                                                                                                                                                               3




                                            U.S. Buildings Energy End-Use
                                                  Breakdown, 2001
                           Site Electricity Consumption                                          Total Primary Energy (all fuels)

                                                Computers                                                Ventilation     Computers
                             Ventilation           3%                                                       3%              2%
                                4%                           Space Heating
                                                                 10%                             Appliances
                        Appliances                                                                    7%                                       Space Heating
                           7%                                                                 Electronics                                          27%
                                                                                                  6%
                    Electronics
                                                                                              Refrigeration
                        9%
                                                                            Lighting               8%
                                               2390 TWh                       30%                                      37.6 quads
                       Refrigeration
                           11%                                                               Space Cooling
                                                                                                 12%
                                                                                                                                              Lighting
                                                                                                                                                21%
                               Space Cooling                   Water Heating                              Water Heating
                                   17%                             9%                                         14%



                                                                                                                                                               4
               Source: Building Technology Program Core Databook, August 2003. http://buildingsdatabook.eren.doe.gov/frame.asp?p=tableview.asp&TableID=509&t=xls




                                                                                        2
Kelly Gordon                                                                                                                                                 January 17, 2006
PNNL




                                                            DOE Solid-State Lighting
                                                                          5 Thrust – Total Program




               Guiding technology advances from laboratory to marketplace
                                                                                                                                                       5




                                            Accelerated R&D for White Light SSL
                                            200

                                            175                                                                                      White Light SSL
               Efficacy (lumens per watt)




                                                                                                                                      Laboratory
                                            150
                                                                                                                                     White Light SSL
                                                                                                                                      Commercial
                                            125                                Conventional Lighting           Metal Halide               Potential Growth
                                                                                  Technologies                  Pulse start               for Conventional
                                            100                                                                                            Light Sources
                                                                     T-12 ES                T-8 lamp
                                            75
                                                  T-12 fluorescent

                                            50                                                    Mono
                                                                                                  LED

                                            25                                                                Mono
                                                                                                              OLED

                                              0
                                              1970               1980                    1990                 2000            2010    2020
                                                                                                       Year
                                                                     SSL Laboratory and Commercial Curves, revised May 2006
                                                                                                                                                       6




                                                                                                        3
Kelly Gordon                                                                                                                       January 17, 2006
PNNL




                                            White-Light LED Efficacy Targets
                                      180


                                      160


                                      140


                                      120
                    Efficacy (lm/W)




                                      100


                                       80


                                       60
                                                                        Laboratory Projection- Cool White
                                                                        Commercial Product Projection - Cool White
                                                                        Commercial Product Projection- Warm White
                                       40                               Laboratory
                                                                        Foreign Competition- Laboratory
                                                                        Commercial Product- Cool White
                                       20                               Foreign Competition - Commercial Product, Cool White
                                                                        Commercial Product, Warm White
                                                                        Foreign Competition - Commercial Product, Warm White
                                        0
                                            2002   2004   2006   2008        2010        2012         2014         2016
               Note: Efficacy projections assume CRI=70 → 80, Color temperature = 5000-6000°K, 350ma drive current, and
                                                                              Year                                             7
                     lamp-level specification only (driver/luminaire not included), reasonable lamp life.




                                            What’s an LED you ask?




                                                                                                                               8




                                                                        4
Kelly Gordon                                                         January 17, 2006
PNNL




               How does an LED make Light?




                                                                 9




                           LED Types
               Indicator                          Illuminator




                             Courtesy: Lumileds




                                                                10




                                     5
Kelly Gordon                                                                             January 17, 2006
PNNL




                            What do LEDs look like?




               Cree XLamp             Philips Lumileds K2       GE Lumination Vio




                                      LED Devices
                                                                                    11




                            What do LEDs look like?




                                                            Lamina Titan
                        Osram OSTAR


                            LED Packages or Light Engines
                                                                                    12




                                              6
Kelly Gordon                                                                          January 17, 2006
PNNL




                            What do LEDs look like?




               Mule Lighting        Lighting Sciences Group          Enlux



                               LED Drop-in Replacements
                                                                                 13




                            What do LEDs look like?




               Lighting Services Inc LumeLEX           Color Kinetics iW Blast



                                Integrated LED Systems
                                                                                 14




                                               7
Kelly Gordon            January 17, 2006
PNNL




                   15




                   16




               8
Kelly Gordon                                                                          January 17, 2006
PNNL




                                                                                 17




                            Top 5 Reasons not to own
                           BrightFeet™ Lighted Slippers
               #5. They're not machine washable which means they will
                   never be cleaned during their useful life........ Ewuuuu!!!
               #4. Do they come with parental controls to prevent your
                   children from using them as flashlights..... outside?
               #3. Gee.... that's neeeat..... but do they keep your feet
                   warm?
               #2. Do they come with a strap so that they can be warn on
                   your head for night reading?
                   …. and the #1 reason not to own BrightFeet Slippers:
                Is it really a good idea to wake up your pet Doberman when
                 all he can see are two "beadie" eyes staring him down???
                                                                                 18




                                              9
Kelly Gordon                                                                                                   January 17, 2006
PNNL




                                               Myth #1:


                 LEDs create no heat


                                                                                                          19




               Power Conversion for “White” Light Sources
                                     Incandescent† Fluorescent†                        Metal
                                                                                                 LED
                                         (60W)           (Typical linear CW)          Halide‡

                    Visible Light         8%                    21 %                   27 %     15-25 %

                         Infrared        73 %                   37 %                   17 %      ~0%

                       Ultraviolet        0%                    0%                     19 %      0%

                Total Radiant
                                         81 %                   58 %                   63 %     15-25 %
                Energy

                    Heat
                 (Conduction +           19 %                   42 %                   37 %     75-85 %
                  Convection)

                    Total                100 %                 100 %                  100 %     100 %
                                          †   IESNA Lighting Handbook –   9th   Ed.
                                                                                                          20
                                          ‡   Osram Sylvania




                                                           10
Kelly Gordon                                                     January 17, 2006
PNNL




               Light Output vs. Junction Temperature (Tj)




                                                            21




                          Anatomy of an LED




                                                            22




                                   11
Kelly Gordon                                                                     January 17, 2006
PNNL




                                     Myth #2:


                     LEDs last 100,000
                           hours
                 (or forever depending on whom you ask!)


                                                                            23




                        Traditional Lamp Life Rating

                                             Typical lamp mortality curve
               • Lumen depreciation
                 vs. failure
               • LED life definition
                 – L70 for general
                   illumination
               • IESNA LM-80 test
                 procedure in process



                                                                            24




                                        12
Kelly Gordon                                                     January 17, 2006
PNNL




                   Light Output over Time




                                            Courtesy: LRC



                                                            25




                         Myth #3:


               LEDs are “White Light”
                     Sources

                                                            26




                             13
Kelly Gordon                              January 17, 2006
PNNL




                                     27




               The Visible Spectra




                                     28




                             14
Kelly Gordon                               January 17, 2006
PNNL




                                      29




               CIE 1931 x,y Diagram




                                      30




                        15
Kelly Gordon                                    January 17, 2006
PNNL




                   Daylight Spectra




                                           31




               3000K Fluorescent Spectra




                                           32




                          16
Kelly Gordon                                                           January 17, 2006
PNNL




                 5000K Fluorescent Spectra




                                                                  33




               How do LEDs make white light?




                                             Courtesy: Lumileds
                                                                  34




                            17
Kelly Gordon                                                     January 17, 2006
PNNL




                                        Myth #4:


               LEDs are more efficient
                 than Fluorescent

                                                            35




               • “Nichia delivers 92 lm/W at 350 mA”
                Nov 2006


               • “Philips Lumileds shatters 350 mA
                 performance records with 115 lm/W LED”
                Jan 2007 (R&D result)


               • “Cree achieves 1000 lumens from a single
                 LED” [ 52 – 72 lm/W]
                Sep 7, 2007 (R&D result)

               • “Seoul Semiconductor to launch 420
                 lumen LED next quarter” [52 lm/W]
                                                            36
                Sep 19, 2007




                                           18
Kelly Gordon                                                                   January 17, 2006
PNNL




                 Interpreting Industry Announcements
               • R&D result or commercial product?
                 – “25/25” testing
                 – R&D to market typically 12-24 months
               • What drive current is assumed?
                 – High output devices are 350 mA to more than 1 Amp
                 – Lower current devices usually ~20 mA
               • How much total luminous flux per device?
               • Luminous efficacy in lumens per watt (lm/W) is
                 for LED device only, not including driver or
                 thermal effects
               • Chip size varies
                 – Makes apples to apples comparison difficult
                                                                          37




                                             Terms

                                             Rated Lamp Lumens
                       Lamp Efficacy =
                                              Lamp Input Power

                                             Rated Lamp Lumens x BF
                    System Efficacyfluor =
                                             Ballast/Driver Input Power

                                              Luminaire Light Output
                   Luminaire Efficacy =
                                             Ballast/Driver Input Power



                                                                          38




                                               19
Kelly Gordon                                                                                                                     January 17, 2006
PNNL




                                                         Candela Curve
                                                        0
                                             350
                                               150            10
                                       340                          20                               100 W Incandescent
                                 330                                      30
                           320                                                  40
                       310                     100                                   50
                     300                                                                  60

                290                                50                                      70

               280                                                                             80

               270                                  0                                           90

               260                                                                             100

                250                                                                        110

                     240                                                                  120
                       230                                                           130
                           220                                                  140
                                 210                                      150
                                       200                          160
                                             190              170
                                                        180
                                                                                                                            39




                                                         Candela Curve
                                                         0
                                             350
                                               150            10
                                       340                          20                               100 W Incandescent
                                 330                                      30                         Z-LED P4
                           320                                                  40                   Luxeon Batwing
                       310                     100                                   50              Luxeon Side Emitting

                     300                                                                  60

                290                                50                                      70

               280                                                                             80

               270                                  0                                           90

               260                                                                             100

                250                                                                        110

                     240                                                                  120
                       230                                                           130
                           220                                                  140
                                 210                                      150
                                       200                          160
                                             190              170
                                                        180
                                                                                                                            40




                                                                    20
Kelly Gordon                                                                            January 17, 2006
PNNL




                                                          Luminaire Efficacy
                                                              35 lm/W




                                                                                   41




                   LED energy efficiency is a function of:



               LED device efficacy
                                        +
                                                    Thermal management


                                                                               +




                                                 Driver/power supply efficiency
                                            +
                     Luminaire design
                                                                                   42




                                            21
Kelly Gordon                                                             January 17, 2006
PNNL




                       Efficiency & Quality Trade-offs

               Color Temperature*                  Efficacy

               Color Temperature*                  Efficacy

               CRI*                                Efficacy

               Heat                         Efficiency / Output


               Heat                             Life / Durability

               * Phosphor-converted LEDs                            43




                       2007 SSL Competition




                                                                    44




                                           22
Kelly Gordon                                                                  January 17, 2006
PNNL




                                         2007 SSL Competition



               •   Niche applications
                   –   Undercabinet and in-cabinet
                   –   Portable desk/task
                   –   Outdoor porch, path, step
                   –   Recessed downlights
               •   LED luminous efficacy – min requirements
                   – 40 lm/W for < 5000K
                   – 50 lm/W for 5000K +
                                                                         45




                                       2007 Grand Prize Winner
                                   •   LR6 by LLF Inc
                                       – 11 watts, 600 lumens, 54 lm/W
                                       – 2700 K, 92 CRI




                                                                         46




                                            23
Kelly Gordon                                               January 17, 2006
PNNL




                   Winner – Undercabinet
               •    PLS Undercabinet by Finelite
                    – 8 watts, 344 lumens, 43 lm/W
                    – 3500 K, 71 CRI




                                                      47




               Winner – Portable desk/task
               •     PLS Task by Finelite
                    – 10 watts, 430 lumens, 43 lm/W
                    – 3500 K, 71 CRI




                                                      48




                        24
Kelly Gordon                                          January 17, 2006
PNNL




               Winner – Outdoor

                    •    Strata by Progress
                         Lighting
                         – 5 watts, 125 lumens
                         – 25 lm/W
                         – 3200 K, 70 CRI




                                                 49




                   Honorable Mention
               •    Wall sconces by
                    Justice Design Group




                                                 50




                        25
Kelly Gordon                                                       January 17, 2006
PNNL




                     ENERGY STAR® v1.0




                                                              51




                            Activities to Date

               • 1st Draft released December 20, 2006
               • Stakeholder meeting February 8, 2007
               • 2nd Draft released April 9, 2007
               • Final Criteria released September 12, 2007
               • ENERGY STAR Lighting Partner Meeting in
                 Phoenix February 25-27, 2008
               • Effective date set for September 30, 2008

                                                              52




                                     26
Kelly Gordon                                                                       January 17, 2006
PNNL




                                                 Scope
               • Excludes OLEDs… for now
               • Limits coverage to LED systems for “white light”
                 general illumination only
               • Both commercial and residential
               • Luminaire efficacy key metric
               • Establish 2-category specification:
                    – Category A: prescriptive specifications for near-term
                      lighting applications
                    – Category B: performance specification for all
                      applications (long-term)
                                                                              53




               Compact Fluorescent Lighting in America:
                Lessons Learned on the Way to Market
               •   Valuable lessons
                   – Be aggressive about dealing with
                     technology failures that affect main
                     benefit claims
                   – Know and admit technology limitations
                   – Don’t introduce inferior products; first
                     impressions are long lasting
                   – Accurate incandescent equivalency on
                     packaging is critical
                   – Manufacturers and energy-efficiency
                     groups should coordinate to establish
                     minimum performance requirements
               •   Use to avoid “CFL Part II”
               •   Apply to SSL commercialization path
                                                                              54




                                                     27
Kelly Gordon                                                                    January 17, 2006
PNNL




                 Transitional Two-Category Approach
                • Approach recognizes rapidly changing
                  technology
                • Allows early participation of limited range of
                  SSL products for directional lighting
                  applications (Category A)
                • At some point (~3 years), Category A will be
                  dropped entirely; Category B then becomes
                  basis of criteria
                    Lighting industry is learning the unique issues of
                    applying SSL to general illumination. Going slow
                    allows industry and DOE to learn, and adjust           55




               Significant Standard and Test Procedure
                                Activity
               • Photometric measurements (IESNA LM-79)
                 – In final ballot
               • Chromaticity (ANSI C78.377a)
                 – In final committee Review/Approval cycle
               • Lumen Depreciation (Life) (IESNA LM-80)
                 – First draft under development
               • Driver Standard (ANSI C82.XX1)
                 – In first committee review
               • Definitions (IESNA RP-16)
                 – In second draft and currently in working group review
               • UL “Outline of Investigation”
                                                                           56




                                          28
Kelly Gordon                                                                     January 17, 2006
PNNL




                      Category A: Overall Approach
               • Establish minimum luminaire efficacy
                 – Benchmark to fluorescent
                      • Consistent with current ENERGY STAR lighting
                        criteria
                 – Use IES recommendations wherever possible:
                   Handbook, RP-33-99, etc.
                 – Use ASHRAE/IESNA 90.1 Lighting sub-
                   committee consensus system efficacy for CFL
                      • 58.8 lm/W
                      • 50 lm/W (lower wattage applications and E* min.)
                                                                            57




                            Overall Requirements
               • Luminaire
                  – CCTs: 8 nominal CCTs
                  –   Color Spatial Uniformity: 4-step
                  –   Color Maintenance: 7-step
                  –   CRI: ≥ 75 for indoor, silent on outdoor
                  –   Off-state Power prohibited
                       • Exception for integral controls, limited to 0.5W
                  – 3 Year Warranty
                  – Thermal Management


                                                                            58




                                            29
Kelly Gordon                                                                                                                                      January 17, 2006
PNNL




                                                                                                                                            59
                                                                                                        ANSI C78.377A DRAFT 3.3 (Nov. 22, 2006)




               Seoul
                              CIE 1931 x,y Chromaticity Diagram - with existing ANSI, "proposed" SSL, LumiLeds' old
                                                        and new color bins for white light
                   0.46

                                                                                                                             2500 K
                   0.44                                                             4000 K

                                                                                               "Proposed"
                   0.42                                                                            SSL


                   0.40
                                                           5000 K               Cree


                   0.38
                                               6000 K
                                                                                                           Seoul
               y   0.36                                                                ANSI
                                      7000 K
                              LL Old                                 OSRAM                               Seoul
                   0.34
                               Bins
                                                                 LumiLeds            Iso-CCT line: ±0.02 Duv
                   0.32                                          New Bins

                                                            Seoul
                   0.30


                   0.28
                                                                                      Planckian locus              Illuminant A
                                                 Nichia                               D65                          Daylight Locus
                                                                                      K                            K
                   0.26                                                                                                                      60
                       0.26    0.28     0.30      0.32    0.34      0.36    0.38        0.40      0.42      0.44    0.46     0.48     0.50
                                                                                x




                                                                           30
Kelly Gordon                                                                       January 17, 2006
PNNL




                      Overall Requirements (cont.)
               • Modules/Arrays
                 – Lumen depreciation (L70)
                    • Residential Indoor ≥ 25,000 hours
                    • Residential Outdoor and all Commercial ≥ 35,000 hours
               • Residential Outdoor Luminaires
                 – Attached to buildings and > 13 watts requires
                   photo-control
               • Power Supplies
                 – Power Factor
                    • ≥ 0.7 Residential   ≥ 0.9 Commercial
                 – ≥ 120 Hz Output Operating Frequency
                                                                              61




                    Category A: Niche Applications
               • Directed light applications
                  – Energy efficiency potential due to directional
                    light source
                  – minimize fixtures losses
               • Source relatively close to illuminated
                 surface
               • Relatively modest illuminance
                 requirements
               • Current fixtures ≤ 60% fixture efficiency
                                                                              62




                                          31
Kelly Gordon                                                                                 January 17, 2006
PNNL




                     Category A: Niche Applications

                   1. Undercabinet Kitchen
                   2. Undercabinet Shelf-mounted Task
                   3. Portable Desk/Task
                   4. Recessed Downlights (Res./Com.)
                   5. Outdoor Wall-mounted Porch
                   6. Outdoor Step
                   7. Outdoor Pathway
                                                                                        63




                      Assumptions for Establishing
                          Luminaire Efficacy
                                                         CFL     Typical   Calculated
                       Niche Application               System    Fixture   Luminaire
                                                       Efficacy Efficiency  Efficacy
               Under-cabinet Kitchen                    58.8      40%          24
               Under-cabinet Shelf-mounted Task         58.8      50%          29
               Portable Task                            58.8      50%          29
               Recessed Downlight (residential)         58.8      60%          35
               Recessed Downlight (commercial)          58.8      60%          35
               Outdoor Wall-mounted Porch               58.8      40%          24
               Outdoor Step                              50       40%          20
               Outdoor Pathway                           50       50%          25

                                                                                        64




                                                  32
Kelly Gordon                                                                   January 17, 2006
PNNL




                            Under-cabinet Kitchen
               • Minimum Light Output
                 – 125 lumens per lineal foot
               • Zonal Lumen Density
                                                          Min. 25%
                 – Min. 60% in 0-60° zone
                 – Min. 25% in 60-90° zone
               • Luminaire Efficacy
                 – ≥ 24 lm/W                       Min. 60%

               • CCTs limited to: 2700,
                 3000 and 3500K

                                                                          65




                  Category A: Under-cabinet Lighting




                                                  Philips SSL Solutions




                                          Osram
                                                                          66




                                         33
Kelly Gordon                                                          January 17, 2006
PNNL




                   Under-cabinet Shelf Mounted Task
               • Minimum Light Output
                 – 125 lumens per lineal foot
               • Zonal Lumen Density                  Min. 25%
                 – Min. 60% in 0-60° zone
                 – Min. 25% in 60-90° zone
               • Luminaire Efficacy
                                                Min. 60%
                 – ≥ 29 lm/W
               • CCTs Limited to
                 – 2700K, 3000K, 3500K,
                   4000k, 4500K and 5000K
                                                                 67




                        Portable Desk Task Lamps
               • Minimum Light Output
                 – 200 lumens
               • Zonal Lumen Density
                 – Minimum 85% of total
                   light output within 0-60°
                   zone
               • Luminaire Efficacy
                                                Min. 85%
                 – ≥ 29 lm/W
               • CCTs Limited to
                 – 2700K, 3000K, 3500K,
                   4000k, 4500K and 5000K
                                                                 68




                                          34
Kelly Gordon                                                              January 17, 2006
PNNL




                Category A: Portable Desk/Task Lighting




                  6 Watt LED Desk Lamp        Halley LED Desk Lamp


                                                                     69




                                Recessed Downlights
               • Minimum Light Output
                 – ≤ 4.5˝ Aperture 345 lm.
                 – > 4.5˝ Aperture 575 lm.
               • Zonal Lumen Density
                 – Minimum 75% total light
                   output within 0-60° zone
               • Luminaire Efficacy
                                                     Min. 75%
                 – ≥ 35 lm/W
               • Residential CCTs
                 limited to:
                 – 2700K, 3000K and 3500K
                                                                     70




                                         35
Kelly Gordon                                                          January 17, 2006
PNNL




                    Category A: Recessed Downlights



                    Renaissance




                                                    Progress




                                  Prescolite

                                                                 71




                      Outdoor Wall-mounted Porch
               • Minimum Light Output
                 – 150 lumens
               • Zonal Lumen Density
                 – Minimum 85% of total
                   light output within 0-90°
                   zone
                                                       Min.85%
               • Luminaire Efficacy
                 – ≥ 24 lm/W



                                                                 72




                                               36
Kelly Gordon                                                                 January 17, 2006
PNNL




                         Category A: Outdoor Porch




                       “Lakeland” by Progress Lighting

                                                                        73




                                       Outdoor Step
               • Minimum Light Output
                 – 50 lumens
               • Luminaire Efficacy
                 – ≥ 20 lm/W


                                                              Min.85%




                                                                        74




                                                         37
Kelly Gordon                                                        January 17, 2006
PNNL




                         Category A: Outdoor Step




                                                               75




                               Outdoor Pathway
               • Minimum Light Output
                 – 100 lumens (initial)
               • Zonal Lumen Density
                 – Minimum 85% of total
                   light output within 0-90°
                   zone
                                                 Minimum 85%
               • Luminaire Efficacy
                 – ≥ 25 lm/W



                                                               76




                                          38
Kelly Gordon                                                             January 17, 2006
PNNL




                     Category A: Outdoor Pathway




                                                                    77




                      Category B: Efficacy Based
                            Performance

               • Aggressive efficacy requirement: 70 lm/W
               • Simpler; no total flux or zonal lumen
                 requirements
               • Allows for non-directional lighting applications
               • Manufacturers able to qualify under Category
                 B approximately three (3) years after the
                 effective date
               • Serves as future target for manufacturers
                                                                    78




                                       39
Kelly Gordon                                                            January 17, 2006
PNNL




                      In Situ Testing Requirement

               • Life (lumen depreciation) determined by in situ
                 temperature measurements of:
                 – Module, Array or “Light Engine”
                 – Power Supply/Driver
               • Testing may be conducted at the same time as
                 UL 1598.




                                                                   79




                         UL 1598 Environments




                                                                   80




                                        40
Kelly Gordon                                                              January 17, 2006
PNNL




                Temperature Measurement Point (TMP)
               • Manufacturer designated TMP correlating
                 to LM-80 test report or power supply
                 warranty
                 – Module/Array
                   • Case Temperature Tc
                   • Board Temperature Tb
                 – Power Supply
                   • Case Temperature Tc
                   • Could also be Tb for integral Power Supplies
                                                                     81




                   Lumen Depreciation Qualification

               • Option 1: Component Performance
                 – Applicable if:
                    • Module/Array has a current LM-80 test report
                    • Module/Array has a designated TMP
                    • TMP is accessible for in situ measurement
                 – Otherwise manufacturer must use Option 2
               • Option 2: Luminaire Performance
                 – Entire luminaire subjected to LM-80
                                                                     82




                                        41
Kelly Gordon                                                                         January 17, 2006
PNNL




                 Lumen Depreciation Passing Criteria
               A luminaire passes if the L70 threshold (≥ 25,000
               hours for indoor residential and ≥ 35,000 for all
               others) …
                  – if the in situ measured drive current is the same or
                    lower
                                          AND
                  – if the in situ measured TMP for the module/array is
                    the same or lower
               … than the LM-80 test report provided for the
               module/array.
                                                                                83




                       Sample LM-80 Test Report


                         L70




                                                              Courtesy of LRC



                                                                                84




                                          42
Kelly Gordon                                                               January 17, 2006
PNNL




                        Quality Assurance Testing
               • Products selected both on a random basis and
                 through a product nomination process.
               • (3) samples of each luminaire purchased
                 through normal market channels.
               • Products tested for:
                 –   Total Luminous Flux
                 –   Luminaire Efficacy
                 –   Correlated Color Temperature
                 –   Color Rendering Index
                 –   Steady State Module/Array Temperature
                 –   Maximum Power Supply Case/TMP Temperature   85




               Commercially Available LED
                 Product Evaluation and
                  Reporting (CALiPER)
                       Program


                                                                      86




                                       43
Kelly Gordon                                                                    January 17, 2006
PNNL




                            Purposes of CALiPER
               • Provide objective, high quality performance information
               • Know performance of market available products
                  – To support R & D planning
                  – To support ENERGY STAR
               • Inform industry test procedures and
                 standards development
               • Discourage low quality products
               • Reduce SSL market risk due to buyer
                 dissatisfaction from products that
                 do not perform as claimed
                                                                           87




                           Testing Program Scope

               Commercially-available
               SSL products for the
               general illumination market
                   • Luminaires and replacement
                     lamps (white light)
                   • Indoor and outdoor
                   • Residential and commercial



                                                                           88




                                            44
Kelly Gordon                                                                                   January 17, 2006
PNNL




                             SSL Luminaire Testing

                  SSL energy efficiency is a               •   Must measure luminaire
                  function of:                                 as a complete system
                                                           •   Uses ‘absolute
                                                               photometry’ rather than
                                                               ‘relative photometry’
               LED device            Thermal               •   Based on IESNA draft
                efficacy
                             +      management                 standard LM-79
                                                                – Photometric testing
                                                                  methods under
                                                                  development
                                                           •   Stakeholders are not all
                Luminaire            Driver/power              familiar with these new
                 design      +     supply efficiency   +       testing paradigms


                                                                                          89




               Testing Program Quarterly Process
               • Product selection & acquisition
               • Multiple independent test labs
               • Assembly and analysis of results
                  – Courtesy sharing of results with
                    manufacturers
                  – Retesting options
               • Publication of results
                  – Summary reports
                  – Detailed test reports
                  – Analyses and studies
               • “No Commercial Use” Policy

                                                                                          90




                                                 45
Kelly Gordon                                                                                                                                                  January 17, 2006
PNNL




                                                                   Testing Rounds 1-4 Results


                                          • 70+ products tested
                                          • Focus: overall
                                            luminaire
                                            performance
                                          • Wide range in
                                            products & results

                                                                                                                                                         91




                                                                                      SSL Downlight Performance

                                                       Range of Output and CCT of SSL Downlight Products
                                                                                                          Correlated Color
                                     800                                                                                      – Different sizes and
               Output (Lumens)




                                                                                                          Temperature (CCT)
                                     600                                                                       2650-3000K       configurations
                                     400                                                                       3200-3500K     – Different color
                                     200                                                                       4000-4500K       temperatures
                                       0                                                                       5900-8000K     – Outputs
                                                  4” 3W

                                                  6” 6W

                                                    30 W




                                                          0W
                                                R 16W
                                                6” 11W

                                                R 12W

                                                6” 14W

                                                            W



                                                  30 W




                                                            W
                                                 R 9W

                                                           W




                                                 x7 7W

                                                           W




                                                                                                                                  • From 29 to 719 lumens
                                                        -9



                                                        -9




                                               x7 15



                                                          6




                                             Tr - 31
                                                        15




                                                                                                               Tunable
                                                      -1




                                                      -4
                                                      -1
                                                        -

                                                        -



                                                        -
                                        ø

                                                      ø

                                                      ø




                                                      -

                                                      -



                                                      -
                                                      -



                                                     "-




                                                    "-
                                                    30

                                                    ø

                                                    ø



                                                    ø




                                                    ø

                                                    k
                                                  30




                                                  30
                                     2”




                                                  .5




                                                                                                                                  • 389 lumens on
                                                 ac
                                                 R



                                                6”




                                                6”
                                                R

                                              7"
                                           PA
                                            5"




                                                                                                                                    average
                                          7.




                                                                                                                              – Efficacies
                                                            Range of Efficacy of SSL Downlight Products                           • From 11 to 61 lm/W
                                                                                                                                  • 28 lm/W on average
               Efficacy (lumens/W)




                                      70
                                      60                                                                  Best = 61 lm/W
                                      50                                                                                      – CRI
                                      40
                                                                                                                                  • Maximum = 95
                                      30                                                                  Average = 28 lm/W
                                      20                                                                                          • Average = 76
                                      10                                                                  Worst = 11 lm/W
                                       0
                                                                                                                                  • 3 RGB products
                                            W

                                            W

                                                         W




                                                                                  R 16W




                                                                                           0W
                                                                  1W

                                                                                           2W




                                                                                             W




                                                                                             W
                                                        W

                                                                   W




                                                                                           4W




                                                                                  R 16W




                                                                                             W
                                                                                   x7 7W
                                          -3

                                          -6

                                                      -9

                                                      -9

                                                                 -9




                                                                                 x7 15




                                                                               Tr - 31
                                                                                          15
                                                                -1

                                                                                        -1

                                                                                        -1




                                                                                        -4
                                                                                        -1
                                      ø

                                             ø

                                                  ø




                                                                                        -
                                                                                       "-

                                                                                        -



                                                                                      "-
                                                       30

                                                             30

                                                                   ø

                                                                        ø



                                                                                      ø




                                                                                      ø

                                                                                      k
                                                                             30




                                                                                    30

                                                                                    30
                                     2”

                                            4”

                                                 6”




                                                                                    .5




                                                                                   ac
                                                      R

                                                            R

                                                                  6”

                                                                       6”



                                                                                  6”




                                                                                  6”
                                                                            R




                                                                                7"
                                                                              PA
                                                                              5"
                                                                            7.




                                                                                                                                                         92




                                                                                                 46
Kelly Gordon                                                                                                                                               January 17, 2006
PNNL




                                                                                   Downlight Benchmarking

                                                                       Downlight Comparison:
                                                           Luminaire Output vs Efficacy for Different Sources

                                       1200       Incandescents & Halogens                                     SSL Downlight Fixtures and
               Light Output (lumens)




                                                                                                               Retrofits, 3-40W
                                       1000
                                                                             CFL               SSL             SSL R30 Replacement Lamps, 9-
                                       800                                                                     17W

                                                                                                               Downlights with Incandescent BR
                                       600                                                                     and A-lamps, 45-75W

                                       400                                                                     Downlights with Halogen PAR38
                                                                                                               (FL and IR) Lamps, 50-60W
                                       200                                                                     Downlights with CFLs (spiral, pin, &
                                                                                                               reflector), 9-21W
                                          0
                                              0              20              40          60            80
                                                              Efficacy (Lumens/Watts)


               --Values for SSL downlight products are from CALiPER testing.
               --Values for CFL and incandescents are assembled from CALiPER testing, earlier photometric testing and product catalogs.
               --Fixture efficiencies are applied to replacement lamp values (factor depends on lamp type).
                                                                                                                                                      93




                                                                         Round 4 Replacement Lamps

                              •         T8: Look for direct comparisons with fluorescents in troffers in Round 5
                                          –       Respectable performance (42 lm/W), but misleading manufacturer literature
                              •         MR16: not quite competing with 20W Halogen MR16 Flood (40° beam angle)
                                          –       ↑ Efficacy: SSL-MR16 @ 16-27 lm/W > 20W Halogen flood @ 9-19 lm/W
                                          –       ↓ Output: SSL-MR16 @ 75-133 lm < 20W Halogen flood @ 200-450 lm
                                          –       ↓ CBCP: SSL-MR16 @ 59-283 cd << 20W Halogen flood @ ~500 cd
                              •         Candelabra: Low wattage level, advantage or disadvantage?
                                          –       No comparably small wattage incandescent products
                                          –       CFL 5W candelabra rated at 200 lm (40 lm/W), Halogen 25W rated at 280 lm (11 lm/W)

                               Replacement Lamps                                     Power        Output    Efficacy          CCT          CRI
                               SSL T8                                        07-56       25          1058        42         3494            75
                               SSL MR16, CBCP=283                            07-53        3           82         27         3007            74
                               SSL MR16, CBCP=220                            07-59        9           133        16         3338            89
                               SSL MR16, CBCP=59                             07-64        3           75         26         3458            74
                               SSL Candelabra                                07-57      2.2           28         13         2855            71


                                                                                                                                                      94




                                                                                      47
Kelly Gordon                                                                                                                                                            January 17, 2006
PNNL




                                                                     SSL Task Lamp Performance

                                         SSL Task Lights            Task lamps tested                                              CFL & Halogen Task Lights
                                 60                                   • 6 SSL                                                 60

                                                                        undercabinets, 11
                                 50                                     SSL desk lamps                                        50

                                                                      • 3 fluorescent tube
                                                                        undercabinets, 2
               EFFICACY (lm/W)




                                                                                                            EFFICACY (lm/W)
                                 40                                                                                           40

                                                                        CFL desk lamps
                                 30                                   • 1 halogen desk lamp                                   30

                                                                    SSL undercabinets
                                 20                                                                                           20
                                                                      • Perform as well or
                                                                        better than
                                 10
                                                                        fluorescent                                           10

                                                                        undercabinets
                                  0                                                                                            0

                                       Measured       Effective
                                                                    SSL desk lamps                                                    Measured       Effective
                                       Luminaire      Efficacy        • One SSL desk lamp                                             Luminaire      Efficacy
                                        Efficacy   3 hours on/day       rivals CFL energy                                              Efficacy   3 hours on/day

                                                                        star desk lamp
                                                                      • Off-state power use                                            Fluorescent Undercabinets
                                       SSL Undercabinets
                                                                        ranges from 0 W to
                                       SSL Desk Lamps                   2.6 W, reducing                                                 CFL Desk Lamps
                                                                        efficacy                                                        Halogen Desk Lamps
                                                                                                                                                                   95




                                                                     Round 4 Direct Comparisons

                                           Same Recessed Wall Fixture, Different Sources
                                                                           Halogen (20W)               CFL (13W)                              LED (12W)
                                      Luminaire Output (lm)                    174                       199                                    154
                                      Luminaire Efficacy (lm/W)                 8                         16                                     10
                                      CCT                                        3085                    3956                                     5166
                                      CRI                                         98                       77                                      73
                                      Power Factor                               0.99                     0.97                                    0.97


                                                           Manufacturer Published Values
                                        Recessed Wall                Manufacturer          Efficacy Calculated                       CALiPER Measured
                                                                    Brochure Output        from Manufacturer                         Luminaire Efficacy
                                        Fixture                        “Lumens”                  IES files                              (lumens/W)
                                                                                               (lumens/W)

                                        Halogen (20W)                   350                        8                                          8
                                        CFL (13W)                       900                       19                                         16
                                        LED (12W)                       195                        5                                         10
                                                                                                                                                                   96




                                                                                      48
Kelly Gordon                                                                                      January 17, 2006
PNNL




               Rounds 1-4 Key Conclusions
                  • Results include a wide range of products with a
                    wide range of performance.
                      – Be careful not to generalize.
                  • Product literature not always consistent, not always
                    reliable
                      – Be informed. Request luminaire testing results.


                 Round 1-4 products designed from 2005-2007, showing some
                 now clearly rival traditional sources

                                                         Great promise for upcoming
                                                        generation of SSL luminaires


                                                                                             97




                More Info on CALiPER
                • Via website
                   – Summary reports
                   – Detailed reports
                      • Must be requested via web
                        form
                      • Requestor’s contact information
                        must be provided
                      • Must agree to adhere to ‘No
                        Commercial Use Policy’


                      http://www.netl.doe.gov/ssl/comm_testing.htm

                                                                             PNNL-SA-58822   98




                                                49
Kelly Gordon                                                 January 17, 2006
PNNL




                 Questions YOU Should Ask if you are
                      considering LED Lighting
               • Show me the lumens!
               • Ask for test reports (LM-79,
                 LM-80, etc.)
               • Is blue is the new white?
               • Ask how they manage heat
               • Is your product ENERGY
                 STAR® labeled?
               • You want how much for that
                 thing?                                 99




                   DOE Solid-State Lighting Website

               • Current information
                 on SSL program,
                 progress, and events
               • SSL publications:
                 roadmaps, reports,
                 technical fact sheets
               • Solicitations
               • Register for ongoing
                 SSL UPDATES at:
                 www.netl.doe.gov/ssl


                                                       100




                                         50
Kelly Gordon                                   January 17, 2006
PNNL




                                  DOE
                                  Fact
                                 Sheets




                                         101




                       Fact Sheets
                    • Application series:
                      – Recessed
                      – Undercabinet
                      – Portable desk/task
                    • Luminaire efficacy
                    • SSL Standards
                    • What other topics
                      would you like to
                      see?

                                         102




               51
Kelly Gordon                                                  January 17, 2006
PNNL




                         Questions?

                           Jeff McCullough
               Pacific Northwest National Laboratory
                            (509) 375-6317
                      jeff.mccullough@pnl.gov


               DOE SSL Website: www.netl.doe.gov/ssl/

                                                        103




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