Nanotechnology and its Applications - Nanotechnology for Development by fionan

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									                NANOTECHNOLOGY AND ITS APPLICATIONS


                                           Written By


Mr. Chouhan Vishal S.
S.E. (Electronics)
MIT MAERR's Maharashtra Academy of
Engineering, Alandi,Pune
Email- vishal.kind226@gmail.com
Phone No: +919372487492




ABSTRACT
Nanotechnology is regarded world-wide as one of the key technologies of the 21st Century.
Nanotechnology is the process by which objects smaller than 100 nanometers are built one atom
or molecule at a time. Its ultimate goal is to create a Universal Assembler that takes in raw atoms
in one side and delivers finished products out the other. Nanotechnology was mostly a dream
until the invention of the Scanning Tunneling Microscope and the Atomic Force Microscope.
Nanotechnology, which involves the manipulation of matter at the level of individual atoms and
molecules Nanotechnology (NT), is a rapidly progressing field.
Now it was possible not just to see individual atoms, but to move them as well. Organic
molecules have been shown to have the necessary properties to be used in electronics. Sensors
based upon nanoscale materials can be designed to detect hundreds or even thousands of diseases
at the same time. Advanced nanotechnology offers unprecedented opportunities for
progress—defeating poverty, starvation, and disease, opening up outer space, and expanding
human capacities.
Applications projected for this new evolution in technology span a broad range from the design
and fabrication of new membranes, to improved fuel cells, to sophisticated medical prosthesis
techniques, to tiny intelligent machines whose impact on humankind is unknowable. The
technology is dual-use and also may be highly beneficial. Nanobots are used to treat the
malignant cancer cells. Future developments from nanotechnology also include multifunctional
nanoscale.
Nanoparticles are currently used in a number of different and harmless consumer products.




                                            INDEX

   1. DEFINING NT

   2. WHY IT IS DIFFERENT FROM OTHER TECHNOLOGIES?

   3. HISTORY OF NANOTECHNOLOGY

   4. BACKGROUND

   5. SCOPE OF NANOTECHNOLOGY

   6. RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT IN NANOTECHNOLOGY

   7. NOVEL MATERIALS

   8. ARE NANOPARTICLES HARMFUL?

   9. APPLICATION
     1    Medicine
     2    New Cancer Treatment
     3    Detection and Diagnosis
     4    Technology transfer and commercialization
     5    Molecular nanoelectronics
     6    Micro/nanofabrication and nanotechnology applications
     7    Security
     8    Sensors
     9    Communication
     10   Energy
     11   Environment
     12   Nanaotechnology In Space

     10. SOCIETAL IMPACT OF NANOTECHNOLOGY

     11. BIBLIOGRAPHY




                       NANOTECHNOLOGY AND ITS APPLICATION


1.    DEFINING NT
1    The most common definition of nanotechnology is that of manipulation, observation and
measurement at a scale of less than 100 nanometers (one nanometer is one millionth of a
millimeter.
2    Nanotechnology is the understanding and control of matters at dimensions of roughly 1 to
100 nanometers, where unique phenomenon.
3    Nanotechnology is the, study and making of small microscopic things.
4    Nanotechnology is an "advance to the future"! According to the Webster Dictionary and
Webster.com, nanotechnology is: "The art of manipulating materials on an atomic or molecular
state especially to build microscopic devices such as robots”.


2.     WHY IT IS DIFFERENT FROM OTHER TECHNOLOGIES?
The basic reason that it makes sense to regulate NT as a separate category is that NT materials
behave differently from conventional materials. The properties of NT materials often not
predictable from the laws of classical physics and chemistry. The laws of electricity that applies
to bigger things may not hold for NT materials. A material that conducts electricity at normal
size may be an electrical insulator at NT size, and vice versa.


3.     HISTORY OF NANOTECHNOLOGY
Richard Feynman was the first scientist to suggest that devices and materials could someday be
fabricated to atomic specifications.
1974
-Norio Taniguchi invents the word "Nanotechnology" to signify the
construction of machines with tolerances less than one micron.
 1979
-The Semiconductor Industry reaches the $10 Billion mark.
-3-year cycle established
1981
-Scanning tunneling microscope
-IBM, Intel, Microsoft enter the personal PC.
1985
- Buckyballs discovered.
- Richard Smalley, Robert Curl, Jr., Harold Kroto.
1985
-Yoshida Nano-Mechanics is launched in Japan.
1986
-1 Micron CMOS Technology goes into high volume manufacturing.
-Atomic Force Microscope (AFM)
-Publication of "Engines of Creation".
1987
-First Single-Electron Transistor
-Theodore A. Fulton and Gerald J. Dolan
1990
-Semiconductor Industry reaches $50B
1991
-Carbon Nanotube discovered as part of ERATO program in Japan
- Sumio Ijima
1994
-Semiconductor Industry reaches
$100B
1995
-The Semiconductor Industry accelerates
to 2-year cycle
1997
-DNA-based nanomechanical devices created
-Nadrian Seeman
1999
-Electronic Molecular Switch created
-Mark Reed and James M. Tour
2000
-30nm CMOS demonstrated
deadly to small firms with little start-up capital.


4.     BACKGROUND

The prefix nano- signifies smallness. Nanotechnology refers to the nanometer-scale science and
technology in which one nanometer (nm) is one billionth of a metre - around 80 000 times
smaller than the width of a human hair. It is also the study and manipulation of tiny objects.
Nanotechnology involves the control of materials at the nanoscale, encompassing both ultra
miniaturization and molecular manufacturing techniques. Its potential contribution to
commercial technologies - from microelectronics to healthcare - is both revolutionary and
massive.


5.    SCOPE OF NANOTECHNOLOGY
The scope of nanotechnology is by nature multi-disciplinary, signifying continuous development
within the well-known science and technology disciplines. This convergence was made possible
by two events. The first was the invention and development of a family of scanning probe
microscopes, which enable researchers to see down to individual atoms. The second was a
gradual introduction of techniques from the electronics sector to the biological sector.


6.    RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT IN NANOTECHNOLOGY
The first major characteristic of activity grouped under this section is that contemporary R&D
cuts across a wide range of industrial sectors. In this case, important applications are identified
but the eventual market impacts are more difficult to predict. For example, nanotechnology is
anticipated to yield significant advances in catalyst technology. If these potential applications are
realized then the impact on society will be dramatic as catalysts, arguably the most important
technology in our modern society, enable the production of a wide range of materials and fuels.
A second characteristic of current work in this area is that the kinds of materials and processes
being developed are necessarily „technology pushed‟.


7.    NOVEL MATERIALS
The third major characteristic of activity grouped under this section concerns that fact that
nanotechnology is primarily about making things. For this reason, most of the existing focus of
R&D centre on „nanomaterials‟: novel materials whose molecular structure has been engineered
at the nanometer scale.
Some of the major nanomaterials are:
1    Clusters of atoms
2    Quantum wells
3    Quantum dots
4    Polymers
5    Grains that are less than 100nm in size
Nanocapsules
Catalytic nanoparticles
6    Fibers that are less than 100nm in diameter
7    Carbon nanotubes
8    Films that are less than 100nm in thickness
9    Self-assembling monolayers(SAM)
10 Nanoparticulate coatings
11 Nanostructured materials
12 Nanocomposites


8.    ARE NANOPARTICLES HARMFUL?
The answer is that it depends upon the chemical composition. Just like all other chemicals, some
will have beneficial and some will have toxic properties. Nanoparticles are part of nature; many
types are in the air we breathe.
Nanoparticles are currently used in a number of different and harmless consumer products.
Recently clay nanoparticles have made their way into composite materials for cars and
packaging materials, where they offer transparency and increased strength. Sunscreens utilize
nanoparticulate zinc oxide, and new anti-aging skin creams are being developed with
nanoparticles. Nanoparticles are also being used in antiseptics, as abrasives, in paints, in new
coatings for spectacles (making them scratchproof and unbreakable), for tiles, and in
electrochromic or self-cleaning coatings for windows. In the laboratory, researchers working
with unknown or new nanoparticles employ the laboratory safety measures and systems to
minimize risk that they would employ when working with any unknown chemical substance.


9.    APPLICATION
Nanotechnology provides the huge potential to the world because it is the multidisciplinary area.
6    Medicine:
a. The health care industry is predicted to receive the first significant benefits of
nanotechnology. The driving force behind this prediction is that biological structures are within
the size scale that researchers are now able to manipulate and control.
b. Investigators are looking to nanotechnology to develop highly sensitive disease detectors,
drug delivery systems that only target the disease and not the surrounding healthy tissue, and
nanoscale building blocks that help repair skin, cartilage, and/or bone.


c. For applications to medicine and physiology, these materials and devices can be designed to
interact with cells and tissues at a molecular level with a high degree of functional specificity.
Biomineralization type applications such as the growth of artificial bone biomimetics.


d. Novel drug delivery systems using nanoparticles or highly porous self-assembling bilayer
tubule systems.
 New Cancer Treatment
One Promising approach is the targeted destruction of malignant cells using localized heating.
The nanoshells are also specially designed to absorb infrared light that passes harmlessly through
the body tissue. The nanoshells heat up when they absorb the light infrared light, thereby killing
the nearby cancer cells.
1   Technology Transfer And Commercialization
Forming strong and conductive bonds between different materials and components is a tricky
process, but one of the great commercial importance.
Now nanotechnology researchers have developed nanostructured foils that heat only the
immediate surface of the components to be bonded, thereby avoiding thermal damage. The foil
consists of thousands of alternating 10 to 20 nanometers thick layers of nickel and aluminium.
The foil won‟t self-ignite, but when activated by an electric pulse or laser, the nickel and
aluminium react to form an alloy. This releases considerably heat in the carefully confined
region.
2         Molecular nanoelectronics
Devices made of molecular components would be much smaller than those made by existing
silicon technologies. Molecular electronic devices could operate as logic switches through
chemical means, using synthesized organic compounds. These devices can be assembled
chemically in large numbers and organized to form a computer. The main advantage of this
approach is significantly lower power consumption by individual devices. DNA computing‟, the
similarities between mathematical operations and biological reactions are used to perform
calculations.
1   Micro/nanofabrication and nanotechnology applications
Microelectronic array devices can be used to carry out combinatorial selection processes. Such
processes could be used for creating higher order mechanisms and for the directed self-assembly
of molecular, nanoscale and microscale components into more complex structures. Electric
field-assisted self assembly using active microelectronic arrays is being investigated as a “Pick
and Place Heterogeneous Integration” process for fabrication of two- and three-dimensional
devices and structures within defined perimeters of larger silicon or semiconductor structures.
 Fig: Heterogeneous integration process for micro/nanofabrication applications.
2       Security
Emerging nanotechnologies are expected to play a critical role in helping to maintain national
security. They include new and powerful biodetection schemes that can analyze a potential
bioterrorism threat at the point-of-care, materials that can detoxify an area or human exposed to a
set of toxins, and novel ways of encoding structures that can be used to secure computer systems.
3       Sensors
Protection from military and weapons threats depends on the ability to detect, respond, and
control biological and chemical threats before they can harm the body. Nanosensors ability to
detect at the molecular or even atomic level is critical. While in the realm of medicine,
biosensors can detect the onset of disease; in the area of national security, they could be used to
detect radioactive materials or toxins like anthrax.
4       Communication
Computers and networks are the foundation of major sectors of our economy like our financial
institutions and electric power sectors.
Researchers working in the areas of nanoelectronics and nanocomputing hope to integrate
transistor-like nanoscale devices into system architecture, to provide substantial advantages over
current technologies. They are also working on the creation of powerful “grid protocols” that
could make the world wide web obsolete, and something called quantum cryptography that could
provide the type of electronic security systems that are impossible to crack.
5   Renewable Energy:
Nanotechnology is offering a range of new opportunities. For example, nanotech researchers are
working on the development of a solar panel/fuel cell combination. The idea behind the
technology is that when the solar panel is producing energy, the fuel cell is running in reverse to
collect excess energy, convert it to hydrogen, and store it. When the sun goes down and the solar
panel is no longer producing energy, the fuel cell will run forward and produce energy from the
hydrogen it has stored.


6     Nanaotechnology In Space
Regarding the miniaturization of complete space systems at present, so called Nano-satellites
 (m< 10 kg) and even Pico-satellite (m< 1 kg) were examined.
a. Improved communication             performance
b. Instruments and sensors breakthroughs
c. Innovative components and materials
d. a significant reduction of mass, energy consumption and costs of the instruments
e. improved detection methods in particular from geostationary orbit in the optical and
      microwave frequency range.
f.    improved data communication and on-board data handling,
g. increased system-intelligence(on-board autonomy, intelligent fault recognition and
      correction, etc.)
h. remote controlled/ tele-present operations. The telecommunication sector will take the largest
      portion of the commercial sector with satellite-based broadband multimedia services and
      mobile communication applications, followed by satellite navigation and positioning and
      earth observation.


10.     SOCIETAL IMPACT OF NANOTECHNOLOGY
Nanotechnology is not a product like a microchip or an automobile. It is a process that harnesses
the unique properties of materials at the 1-100 nanometer scale to develop new products.
Nanotechnology has the potential to profoundly impact our lives in a similar fashion as the
implementation of the moving assembly line by Henry Ford in 1908. It was Ford‟s streamlined
manufacturing process that dramatically lowered the price of production and made automobiles
affordable for most Americans. These manufacturing processes were implemented across the
country and helped to fuel the industrial revolution. Many feel that nanotechnology will have an
impact of this magnitude.


11.     BIBLIOGRAPHY
Books:
Nanotechnology challenges-by Joachim Schummer, Davis Barid
Nanotalk - by Rosalyn W. Berne
Nanotech- Jack Dann
Introduction to the next bog idea by- Mark A. Ratner, Daniel Ratner
Chinmay Damley (Ph.d Nanotechnology) NCL Ltd.

Links:

1     www.aleph.se/Trans/Tech/Nanotech/

2     www.silva.ucsd.edu/Introduction%20to%20nanotechnology%20and%20its%
20applications%20to%20medicine.pdf

3     www.ics.trieste.it/Documents/Downloads/df1340.pdf

4        www.nanotech-now.com/

5     science.howstuffworks.com/nanotechnology

								
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