Microsoft PowerPoint - Regenerative Fuel Cell by fionan

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									Hydrogen Regenerative Fuel Cell
                   Fall 2006

              Caroline Christy
                Michael Brod
               Steven Althoff
              Laura Christian




        Current
  Legislation/Policies
   U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and
  U.S. Department of Transportation have the
  most control over vehicle regulations
   Are in the process of passing new regulations
   February 28, 2006, new standards on
  hazardous air pollutants
   New calculation of MPG
     –Last revised in 1984
                    real- world”
     –Takes more “real-world” factors into
     consideration
     –Will appear on window stickers of 2008 model
     vehicles




                                                     1
Harm of Current Fuel Emissions
 • Carbon Monoxide
    • Conc. as little as .04% in the air is
       lethal
    • Affects physical health, learning
       capacity, and visual ability
 • Hydrocarbons and nitrogen oxide
    • Precursor to lower level ozone
 • Particulate Matter
    • asthma, lung cancer, premature
       death
    • small particulates, less than 10
       micrometer esp. harmful because
       they can not be filtered through
       the nose

 • Hydrogen fuel cell will ultimately solve
   these problems, zero emissions




 Current Emission Standards
                             Last revised in the early
                             1970s
                             As of 2000, acceptable
                             emission standards for a
                             5 year (50,000 mile) car
                             .65 grams/mile for
                             nitrogen oxide and 3.0
                             g/mile for carbon
                             monoxide




                                                         2
                  Hydrogen
 Currently hydrogen is used mainly for the
 production of ammonia in fertilizer and for
 converting petroleum into usable fuel.
 Changes within society, the government and the
 individual must take place.
 – Society must accept hydrogen as a fuel source and
   provide hydrogen fueling stations within the community
 – Government can subsidize the cost of hydrogen
 – Government must provide incentives such as tax cuts to
   produce hydrogen fueling stations as well as for
   individual owners of hydrogen vehicles
 – Government must fund research for the development of
   zero-
   zero-emission hydrogen product methods.
 Hydrogen fueling stations + individual hydrogen
 stations must evolve together for true success.




Efficiency, Performance, Versatility
                               Regenerative Fuel cell is
                               quieter, has lower
                               maintenance, and provides
                               the same functionality as
                               battery-
                               battery-powered vehicles,
                               but without the long
                               recharging time and short
                               range.
                               The upkeep is low
                               compared to current
                               automobiles, because
                                                       don’
                               regenerative fuel cells don’t
                               need replacement.
                               The regenerative quality of
                               the fuel cell makes
                               refueling much less
                               frequent.
                               VERSATILITY!




                                                               3
 Implications of Hydrogen Vehicle
 Consumer saves money in the long-run
 Mandatory yearly checkups would enforce
 regulations that hydrogen vehicles must
 be compliant with in order to protect our
 environment.
 More environmentally friendly
We need to anticipate the problem of
 increased difficulty retrieving gasoline
 from refineries so we are not confined to a
 fuel with little future availability.




Current Air Emission Standards
 With the regenerative fuel cell,
 water is the sole tailpipe
 emission, so the individual
 vehicle does not contribute to
 air pollution
 With vehicles today, stricter
 standards need to be
 implemented
 Volvo Ambient Air Cleaners
  – Detect high levels of pollution in
    surrounding air
  – Filter hydrocarbons and nitrogen
    oxides from surrounding air
  – Equalize pollutants in the air from
    surrounding cars as well




                                               4
     Reasons Why Hydrogen Fuel Cells Will Work

                     Fuel Cells are a superior
                     product desired by the
                     Automotive Industry
                      – Has been called “a logical
                        extension of the
                        technological pathway
                        automakers are already
                        following”
                        following”
                     The cost of producing
                     hydrogen should
                     eventually equal the cost
                     of producing gasoline.




    The
Regenerative
 Fuel Cell




                                                     5
Proton Exchange Membrane
         Fuel Cells

                     • About 50% efficient
                     • Operates at an 80° C
                     temperature
                     • Produces up to 250 kW
                     • Uses Platinum Catalysts on
                     both sides of the membrane




        Platinum Catalyst
Currently costs about $900 an ounce
Current P.E.M. Fuel Cells use about 2
ounces of Platinum
Projected to lower to 0.2-0.3 ounces
Platinum mining requires 9.1 and 12.7
tons of ore to be extracted for 1 ounce of
Platinum
Highly polluting refining and mining
practices
Platinum able to be extracted from old fuel
cells




                                                    6
Determine Vehicle Range from Hydrogen in Tank
  Assume equal amounts of time will be spent in city driving and highway driving

   City Driving (20 mph average)         Highway Driving (60 mph average)
   40% Acceleration - 35 kW              10% Acceleration - 35 kW
   40% Hill Climbing - 14 kW             30% Hill Climbing - 14 kW
   20% Cruising - 3.5 kW                 60% Cruising - 3.5 kW

    4 kg H2 x 38 kWhr/kg H2 = 152 kWhr
    152 kWhr x 50% efficiency = 76 kWhr
    Rc = City Driving Range
    Rh = Highway Driving Range
    R = Rc + Rh
    Rc / 20 mi/hr = Rh / 60 mi/hr => 3Rc = Rh

    76 kWhr = (Rc/ 20mi/hr) x (0.4 x 35kW + 0.4 x 14kW + 0.2 x 3.5kW)
                + (Rh / 60mi/hr) x (0.1 x 35kW + 0.3 x 14kW + 0.6 x 3.5kW)
    76 kWhr = (1.015 kWhr/mi)Rc + (0.163 kWhr/mi)Rh
    76 kWhr = (0.338 kWhr/mi)Rh + (0.163 kWhr/mi)Rh
    Rh = 151.7 mi
    Rc = 151.7 mi / 3 = 50.6 mi
    R = 151.7 mi + 50.6 = 202.3    mi




                    200 Mile Range
        Without using the regenerative
           properties of the fuel cell.

  Average American car sits idle 95% of
                the time.

     Average American will not have to
              refuel for weeks




                                                                                   7
             Hydrogen Tank
                               4 kg of H2 pressurized at
                               10,000 psi occupies
                               about 108 liters (28.5
                               gallons)
                               This is about twice the
                               size as an average
                               gasoline tank
                               However, the fuel cell
                               stack is able to fit
                               between the front seats
                               of the car, as compared
                               to an internal
                               combustion engine.




           HEAVYWEIGHTS
Average current midsized sedan weighs approx 1500 kg
Only about 1% of the total energy expended in a vehicle is
used to propel the person operating it.
 – Friction from air and contact with road
 – Most of the energy converted is used to move the
   vehicle, not the person




                                                             8
                                       CARBON
                                        FIBER
     Nanotubes,     Graphite-
 NOT Nanotubes, but Graphite-based
 Density is ~ 1.75 g/cm3 --- compare to steel: ~7.8 g/cm3
 Thermosetting
    2500-
   –2500-3000 degrees Celsius
     cures”
   –“cures” to stronger form
                remelted”
   –Cannot be “remelted”
 Can be combined with epoxy, a plastic, to make the
           Carbon-                 Plastic”
composite “Carbon-Fiber Reinforced Plastic”
   –Most commonly discussed for automobile applications
 Most common feedstock is coal
   –Though oil and cellulose are also possible




                LIGHTWEIGHTS
     Mass Decompounding:
      – Design approach to intending to reduce excess and
        inefficient bulk
     Only the most necessary parts
      – Simplicity gained with replacement of ICE with fuel
        cell
     Snowball effect
      – Reduce frame weight by up to 60%, allowing
        significant changes elsewhere

                                                   Which reduces…
               Reduces   …


                             Engine Requirements

      Frame Weight
                             Potentially Reduces         Fuel Requirements
                                    again




                                                                             9
                DESIGN
Unibody:
Unibody: outer layers of sheet metal, etc.
bolted onto the inner steel frame
– Common in vehicles now
Monocoque:
Monocoque: incorporates the inner frame and
outer layers into one structure
 – Advantages in strength and weight
 – Colored carbon fiber now possible




                SAFETY
safe as or safer than most steel-body
vehicles today in crashes
Carbon auto bodies absorb more
energy
Successful in crashes with vehicles
twice their size
Indycars are mandated to use carbon
fiber




                                              10
                  PRICE
Not as expensive as you think
– Current carbon fiber prices ~ 8$/lb
– Current steel prices ~ 1$/lb
However, disparity is made up due to
carbon’s superior properties.
– Mass decompounding
Costs would still need to drop to 3-
5$ per pound
– DOE has been working on this problem




             RECYCLING
 Currently, 80% of auto materials recycled
 somehow
 No possibility of Type I production of a carbon
 fiber body at present
 Research done:
  – recycled carbon over 90% original strength
  – for Low cost carbon fiber from recycled bio
    feedstock (paper, agricultural waste)
  – Neither of these processes economical, cost
    effective - YETI
 Some good News: Carbon fiber and mass
 decompounding allow both reduced complexity
 and reduced materials diversity




                                                   11
       RECYCLING Cont’d
Recycling Solar Panels:
 – Again, no effective process exists
 – However, photovoltaic material has a lifespan
   of up to 30 years




                                                   12

								
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