8 Brindabella Circuit
ENERGY dim the lights to optimise use of the “The beauty of 8 Brindabella
Cooling, heating and supplementary daylight, while motion sensors turn is its understated greenness
air conditioning water is reticulated lights off when nobody is around. at a reasonable cost to the
from a Central Services Building, client, no gimmicks, no fuss,
which in turn serves all the new Lighting zone flexibility ensures that just application of sound green
buildings in the Brindabella Business only occupied areas are lit. This
Park. This means the building is more flexibility is achieved by separate
energy efficient than a building of switches for individual and enclosed
similar size. These economies of scale spaces with the size of individually
allow considerable redundant capacity switched zones not exceeding 100 m2,
to be provided, ensuring a consistent and clearly labelled.
supply of conditioned air and heated
water to the building. Roof top solar hot water panels
preheat 100% of the hot water supply
The building uses active chilled to the building, cutting energy use for
beams to circulate and control the air hot water by two-thirds.
temperature. This significantly reduces
the quantity of air moved from the WATER
plantroom, reducing fanpower and This building saves 687 000 litres
James Andrews, Associate Architect, Daryl
energy consumption. The building of water a year compared with a Jackson Alastair Swayn
also features passive in-slab heating standard building of similar size. The
and cooling around its perimeter, water efficient devices employed
ensuring efficient and more constant lead to a 43% reduction in water water uses in the building, including
temperatures across the tenancy to consumption. An additional 10% is cooling towers.
improve occupant comfort. saved by rainwater collection. In non-monitored buildings, water
To achieve this saving, the building leakages typically account for 25% of
Every substantive energy use within uses a number of systems: water consumption.
the building and in the plantroom
is individually monitored and is • Water-free urinals: Water-free All water used for irrigation at
connected to a Building Management urinals utilise a biodegradable Brindabella Business Park and the
System, centrally monitored and blocking fluid rather than the entire airport precinct is recycled,
controlled across the park. This allows conventional flush of water to rainwater or is non-potable
detailed analysis of the energy use contain odours. groundwater. Since switching to this
of each of the key users of electricity • Hands free taps: Infra-red taps system, Canberra International Airport
and, hence, provides for future energy reduce both water and energy has not had to draw on the ACT’s
savings through proper management. consumption. Water is only potable water supply for irrigation.
Similarly, sub metering is provided for released when hands are under the In addition, a low water use/high
lighting and small power uses in each infra-red beam below the tap spout. efficiency system has been designed.
of the tenancies, and individual tenant • 3/6L dual-flush toilets: on average This consists of local drippers and
meters can be connected to the use 4 litres per flush. in-soil wetting blankets.
Building Management System. • 5A rated shower heads: Shower
heads also achieve a 60% IEQ
Artificial light is supplied by high- reduction in water usage. Extensive research was undertaken
efficiency single tube 54 W T5 fittings to ensure that all materials used have
for all tenant lighting, reducing the In addition to the water consumption either no or extremely low VOC levels.
lighting load to approximately 9 W/m2 savings, the water efficient devices In addition, a general exhaust riser is
(ordinarily 15 W/m2 in a conventionally employed lead to a 36% reduction in available for tenants to connect to so
lit commercial building). The building’s emissions to the sewer. that emissions from photocopying and
perimeter lighting features a system Water sub meters featuring leak printing equipment can be collected at
that automatically senses when it can detection systems are installed on all the source and exhausted.
ESD DESIGN GUIDE - OFFICE AND PUBLIC BUILDINGS 037
8 Brindabella Circuit
The office space is continually MATERIALS Canberra Airport provides and
supplied with 100% outside air, Over 30% of the cement used in most subsidises a regular bus service.
and exceeds the requirements of the concrete has been replaced Buses travel regularly to and from
of AS1668.2 (1991) by 185%. with an industrial waste product. This the airport connecting to the city and
This ensures continuous fresh air increases the strength of the concrete Russell within 15 minutes at just $3.10
and no accumulation of airborne while also using a significant quantity for airport tenants.
contaminants or objectionable odours of what would otherwise go to landfill.
in the building. Optimum levels of car parking are
Ninety percent of the steel used in provided to encourage the use of
The T5 high frequency ballasts used the building is either recycled or alternative transport. In addition, a
for artificial lighting minimise the reused. It reuses a significant amount number of small car and motorbike
‘flicker’ typical of fluorescent lights. of steel from demolished buildings, parking spaces have been provided
Flicker, whether it is consciously or reducing waste to landfill and meaning near the entrance to the building
unconsciously detected, can have that less energy is required during to encourage the use of more fuel
severe effects on workers leading to manufacture, because the steel does efficient small cars and mopeds/
eyestrain and headaches. not have to be re-melted. For all the motorbikes.
major steel uses such as steel beams,
The building has been certified by an used beams were obtained and Secure enclosed bicycle storage
acoustics consultant to ensure it has re-worked. The result has been less is provided for staff, with showers,
a low noise level, with the building energy usage in the rejuvenation than change rooms and lockers available
services contributing less than 5dB in the recycling process. adjacent to the bike store.
to the noise within the space. This is
achieved through the use of double The timber used is almost entirely REFERENCES
glazing and thick insulation, ensuring sourced from recycled timber Canberra International Airport
that noise from external sources is (Blackbutt-Eucalyptus Pilularis) www.canberraairport.com.au/5greenstar.htm
virtually eliminated. obtained from demolished buildings.
‘We used waterless urinals and
The active chilled beam system allows WASTE all the A grade fittings and they’re
conditions in the local area to be Over 80% of the waste created by the all hands free activation on all
maintained by adjusting the supply construction of 8 Brindabella Circuit the taps in the bathrooms etc.
temperature from each unit. These is collected and sorted for re-use/ so it’s a sort of measured dose,
units service a much smaller area recycling. and also auto flush cycles on all
than is typical for office buildings with the toilets so it takes the chance
zone sizes reduced from 100m2 in a Office waste is sorted for recycling. of someone leaving a tap on or
standard building to 35m2. This leads There is a central recycling storage something running out of the
to improved occupant satisfaction area in the Park to collect all
within the space. recyclables. All workstations in the
Park have separate recyclable and
Shading on the outside of the building non-recyclable bins. Organic waste
has been designed to minimise glare from landscaping is either recycled or
and heat. The shading devices have used as fertiliser for local farmers.
been modelled to ensure maximum
passive design savings. Internal blinds EMISSIONS/TRANSPORT
are also included so that occupants All of the refrigerants used have
can manually adjust the level of light an Ozone Depletion Potential of
entering the building. zero. Insulation products have also
been carefully selected to ensure all
substances used in its manufacture
have an ODP of zero. Brindabella’s central plant
Martin Osolnik, Associate, Daryl Jackson
038 ESD DESIGN GUIDE - OFFICE AND PUBLIC BUILDINGS
30 The Bond
BUILDING TYPE New
LOCATION Millers Point, Sydney, New South Wales
CLIENT Deutsche Office Trust
ARCHITECTS Lend Lease Design, PTW Architects
ENGINEERS Bovis Lend Lease, Arup, Lincolne Scott
SIZE 19 700m2 net lettable area
Figure 47. 30 The Bond, Bovis Lend Lease.
Thirty The Bond is an A Grade office • High amount of recycled timber They have also conducted half-yearly
building located in Millers Point, used in the fitout. presentations to staff regarding
Sydney and is currently the the results of their pre and post-
headquarters for Lend Lease. The PROJECT BACKGROUND occupancy evaluations of the building.
building is part of a complex on The site of the building is within the
Hickson Road which also includes former Australian Gas Light (AGL) An internal web site is updated
heritage buildings, a residential gasworks plant established in 1871 each month with waste, water and
building and a public plaza. ‘The to provide lighting to the surrounding energy results so staff can track their
Bond’ committed to a 5 star energy area. A four-storey sandstone wall, progress. Another web site available
rating (AGBR), resulting in 30% lower originally hewn by convicts, remains is an A-Z users’ guide, so staff have
greenhouse emissions than a typical as a main feature of the atrium. at their fingertips detailed information
office building. on a variety of topics from the chilled
Lend Lease staff gave a large amount beams to wintergardens.
BUILDING OUTPUTS of input into the design and fitout of
the building. Staff identified three key ENERGY
Energy 1243mWh per year A chilled beam air conditioning
(63kWh/m2) issues to address in the design of the
building: greenhouse gas emissions, system is the major contributor to the
Water Figure not yet reduction in energy consumption.
available indoor environment quality and social
aspects. Chilled beams operate by pumping
Greenhouse 1 162 300kg CO2 per chilled water through cooling elements
Gas year (59kg CO2/m2) in the ceiling. Hot air created by
Emissions ESD CONSIDERATIONS
MANAGEMENT occupants and equipment (such as
Capital cost $112 million computers and lights) is cooled by
Management has taken thorough
Savings $157 000 per year steps to ensure the ESD initiatives the chilled beams and falls, creating a
(compared to 3 star natural convection process of hot air
AGBR building) incorporated into the design have
been maintained during the crucial rising and cold air falling. Additional
Payback No additional costs radiant cooling from the chilled beams
operation stage of the building’s life
cycle. supports the convection process.
KEY AREAS OF ACHIEVEMENT
• The building is the first in Australia Before moving into the premises, In addition to the chilled beams,
to achieve a 5 Green Star As Built the staff were given presentations fresh air is continually provided to the
rating. about the sustainability initiatives workplace and exhausted out of the
• The building has now delivered a incorporated in the building, how the building without being recirculated.
5 star AGBR rating for two years of building works and ways to maintain This significantly increases the air
operation. the sustainability of the building. The quality within the office space and
• Features the first use of chilled post occupancy study has shown considerably reduces the risk of sick
beams. that 84% of occupants feel more building syndrome.
• Plants used as a natural air filtration comfortable, with 51% saying they are
system. more productive.
ESD DESIGN GUIDE - OFFICE AND PUBLIC BUILDINGS 039
30 The Bond
Naturally ventilated sunrooms on each Ninety-six percent of the components Lend Lease. 2003, Lend Lease Unveils
floor can operate comfortably for up to of office chairs can be reused, and Australia’s First Five Star Greenhouse
60% of the year. contain 42% recycled material. Office Building, Lend Lease,
The long front elevation of the building WASTE all/9CFAD027B2C9D605CA256D170082744D?
faces desirable views to the west, The site’s former life as home to OpenDocument
overlooking wharves. Overheating AGL’s first gas manufacturing plant in
through the expansive glazing is Sydney meant residual contamination,
avoided through use of individually including tarry waste, remained
operated external shades. As workers beneath the ground. Remediation
tilt the shades to block glare and heat, works were carried out which included
they also affect the appearance of a installing permanent groundwater
continuously changing, lively facade barrier walls (secant piles), excavation
as seen from the street. of tar and applying odour suppressing
techniques to the removed tarry
WATER waste. The project team also applied
The roof top garden has been new on-site mixing techniques which
planted with native fauna and a proved successful in turning the
drip soil system with moisture semi-liquid tar into a more stable,
detection installed to reduce water manageable material for removal,
consumption. Low flow water fittings transportation and treatment offsite.
and fixtures have been installed
Bike racks, lockers and showers have
IEQ been provided for the staff. A tenant
Narrow floor plates, access to view, has purchased a car parking space to
high daylight levels, single pass add a further 14 bike spaces and has
double code outdoor air quantity, T5 installed showers and lockers on their
lighting and low VOC materials such floor.
as carpets and paints, all combine ‘In terms of artificial components
to give a world leading indoor Public transport is readily available, on energy efficiency, we have T5
environment. with the building located 500m from lighting…We’re achieving 6.7 W
two railway stations, two ferry stations per square metre....’
A roof garden, featuring mainly native and a bus.
flora, acts as a social hub for the
Eco friendly building 2004, radio
MATERIALS broadcast, Earthbeat - ABC Radio
Bamboo flooring and products are National, Sydney, 24/02/05. Transcript
used extensively throughout the available: www.abc.net.au/rn/science/earth/
building. Other timbers used have stories/s1124840.htm
either been recycled or harvested from
sustainable plantations. Architecture Week. 2003, Sustaining
Sydney Spaces, Architecture Week,
Low VOC products, including cork (a www.architectureweek.com/2004/0714/design_
renewable resource), were used for 1-1.html
interior walls. Sourcing also included Energy efficiency
goat’s hair carpets. Edwards, P. 2003, Developers 30 the Bond
Paul Edwards, General Manager,
viewpoint on a sustainable approach, Environment Sustainability Initiatives, Lend
Bovis Lend Lease. Lease Australia Pacific
040 ESD DESIGN GUIDE - OFFICE AND PUBLIC BUILDINGS
CH2, Council House 2
BUILDING TYPE New
LOCATION Melbourne, Victoria
CLIENT The City of Melbourne
PROJECT MANAGER The City of Melbourne
ARCHITECTS The City of Melbourne in collaboration with
ENGINEERS Lincolne Scott, AEC, Bonacci Group
SIZE 9373m2 net lettable area
The City of Melbourne’s Council • Water mining plant that recycles
House 2 (CH2) has achieved a 6 Star black water from city’s sewers for
Green Star - Office Design v1 certified non-potable reuse.
rating. Set in the heart of Melbourne • Vertical garden on the north façade
CBD, CH2 houses 540 council to minimise glare and increase
employees as well as retail outlets on ambience.
the lower floors. Sustainable principles • Displacement air-conditioning
have been incorporated in every detail provides 100% fresh air
of the design. Significant reductions in requirements.
greenhouse gas emissions have been
achieved – in this case, 87% less than PROJECT BACKGROUND
the existing council house next door. The Melbourne City Council is Figure 48. CH2 Swanston Street view, City of
Melbourne. 6 Star, Green Star - Office Design
known for its role as a leading green v1, image by Dianna Snape.
BUILDING OUTPUTS organisation and wanted the design
Energy 515.5mWh per year of its new council building to reflect promote effective and efficient use of
(55 kWh/m2) its position. The council desired the building.
Water 100kL mined per
a lighthouse project that would
day, 72% reduction in demonstrate what a green building, ENERGY
potable water use integrated into an urban environment, Chilled panels on the ceilings aid air
Greenhouse 562 tonnes CO2 per could achieve. In addition to the circulation and radiant cooling. This
Gas year (60kgCO2/m2) projected energy and water savings, process allows significant energy
Emissions the key driver of the project was to savings. The heat from occupants
Capital cost $51 million for the create an environment that promoted and equipment is absorbed into the
building excluding staff well-being, retention and thermal mass, circulating fluid passing
fitout effectiveness. through chilled panels.
Savings $1.2 million per year
Payback Around 10 years ESD CONSIDERATIONS The building is naturally cooled at
MANAGEMENT night. This process is called night
Note: This building is still in monitoring An Environmental Management Plan purging. Windows on the north and
phase. Figures given are estimates of final
performance. was required at tender stage. The south facades open to allow the air
contractor was also required to be to flow through the space. The heat
KEY AREAS OF ACHIEVEMENT certified to ISO 14001 Standard. absorbed by the high thermal mass
• 6 Star Green Star rating. building structure, during the day time
• Features shower towers, phase A Building User’s Guide will be operation, is released to the cool night
change materials and chilled ceiling developed and available to all building air as it flows through the building.
panels as the radiant cooling users, occupiers and tenants to
ESD DESIGN GUIDE - OFFICE AND PUBLIC BUILDINGS 041
CH2, Council House 2
There are five shower towers on the IEQ WASTE
outside of the building that condition One hundred percent fresh air is During the construction period, CH2’s
the air on the ground floor and retail funnelled down vertical supply ducts contractors recycled 80% of the
space. The water is evaporatively that supply air to the office space via construction waste.
cooled and used to remove heat from vents in the floor. These vents can
the phase change material which, in be adjusted by the users for comfort. Recycling facilities to recycle all types
turn, is used to cool the water that Turbines exhaust air during night of office waste are provided to staff.
runs through the chilled beams and purging. C02 levels in the air are
panels.Photovoltaic cells on the roof constantly monitored and fresh air EMISSIONS/TRANSPORT
generate 3.5kW of energy, enough supplied accordingly. CH2 is located in the heart of
to power the wooden louvres on the Melbourne’s CBD, with convenient
western façade. Electrical heat and Natural light is provided where access to public transport. Keeping
energy is also supplied by a possible. The lower floors, which this in mind, there are 80 bicycle
micro-turbine co-generation system. are exposed to less light than upper storage spaces (10% of staff) with
floors, have larger windows. To shower facilities. There are visitor
General light levels are kept low. minimise glare and heat, louvres bike parking facilities near the front
Office lighting is zoned into areas are positioned on the east and west entrance. Twenty two car parking
no larger than 100m2. They use high façades, made up respectively of spaces have been provided in the
frequency T5 ballasts that achieve perforated steel and recycled timber. basement area.
lighting power density of less than The northern façade also features
2.5 W/m2 per 100 lux. Task lighting is a vertical garden, which provides REFERENCES
provided to employee work areas. shading as well as a micro climate for City of Melbourne
the balcony areas. www.ch2.com.au
Highly energy efficient equipment
such as LCD monitors are used. Light shelves inside and outside
reflect light onto the ceiling, providing
WATER diffused lighting. General light levels
A water mining plant in the basement are kept to 150 lux. Task lighting of
‘We use natural ventilation for
draws 100 000 litres per day of black 320 lux is provided for individuals.
water from the city’s sewer system for night flushing. This cools the
recycling. This purified water is used Plants specifically selected for their concrete ceiling down, and we
for purposes such as plant watering ability to filter toxins from the air are expose as much thermal mass to
and toilet flushing. Surplus amounts placed around the office space. the space, which works on the
are used in fountains, street cleaning principle that we feel more radiant
and plant irrigation around the city of The council expects between a one cooling.’
Melbourne. and five percent increase in staff
effectiveness due to the increased
Rainwater is collected and used with ambience and air quality.
the recycled water to irrigate the
Low VOC products are used, where
All fittings are AAAA rated including possible, to replace high VOC
low-flow shower heads, dual-flush products in paint finishes, and
toilets and sensor-triggered flushing laminates.
for the urinals.
Ninety percent of the timber used is
Solar hot water panels on the roof recycled or sustainably harvested.
provide 60% of the hot water normally PVC use in hydraulics and electrical
Mi k P D i M
Mick Pearce, Design Manager,
supplied by the co-generation plant. components has been eliminated. City of Melbourne
042 ESD DESIGN GUIDE - OFFICE AND PUBLIC BUILDINGS
743 Ann Street
BUILDING TYPE Existing - Refurbished
CLIMATE Warm - Humid
LOCATION Fortitude Valley, Brisbane, Queensland
ARCHITECTS TVS Partnership Architects
ENGINEERS Lincolne Scott
SIZE 1821.07m2 net lettable area
Figure 49. 743 Ann Street, TVS Partnership.
This building is a complete appeal, housing an attractive, ENERGY
transformation of an outdated 1980s healthy and functional workplace Passive thermal and solar design
office building into a commercially for staff, showcasing a multitude of principles used in the building reduce
viable and sustainable development. sustainable, leading edge design the amount of energy it consumes.
It houses the headquarters of PMM, measures.
a town planning, urban design and The general air conditioning system
surveying firm, and retail shops at ESD CONSIDERATIONS is turned off after hours to prevent
street level. MANAGEMENT unnecessary cooling. Localised units
The ESD elements of the building were installed for tenants to use as
have been promoted by management. required. All switches and timers are
By January 2005, over 1000 visitors clearly identified to avoid unnecessary
Energy Figure not yet available (including international groups) have use
Water 1138kL per year toured the building, hosted and
Greenhouse Figure not available guided by trained PMM management Skylights on the second (top) level
Gas and staff. of the office provide natural light to
Emissions the occupants, reducing the need for
Capital cost $4.4 million (including A Building User Guide was developed artificial lighting.
acquisition) so that building users understand
Savings Figure not yet available and know how to maintain the ESD Artificial lighting is provided by high
Payback Figure not yet available
features in the building. There are frequency T5 ballasts.
also monitoring programmes and
educational displays in the foyer of Solar hot water panels provide the hot
KEY AREAS OF ACHIEVEMENT the building that provide ongoing water demands and photovoltaic cells
• Solar hot water panels provide hot information on the building’s on the roof provide additional energy,
water to the tenants. performance in water and energy supplementing the mains power. The
• A thermosiphon wall reduces heat consumption. cells produce between 4-4.5 MW a
load in the building. year, which is enough to power a
• Bio filter plants filter pollutants from Staff actively and enthusiastically residential house.
the air. participate in a committee known as
• Where possible, materials were ‘Team Green’, ensuring the monitoring The building was fitted out with energy
recycled from the original building. and ongoing improvements of the efficient appliances such as fridges,
building’s environmental performance, microwaves and dishwashers.
PROJECT BACKGROUND including energy and water saving
The aim of the building’s urban measures, transport initiatives and Heating and cooling is controlled
renewal was to develop an external recycling programmes. through a digital system that is part of
built form with striking street the security and timing switch system.
ESD DESIGN GUIDE - OFFICE AND PUBLIC BUILDINGS 043
743 Ann Street
WATER to maximise recycling of demolished Bicycle facilities including lockers and
Stormwater is stored in a 11 000L waste materials. Ceiling tiles, ceiling showers have been provided and
storage tank and used to flush toilets grid, glass and metal elements were electric bikes, smart and hybrid cars
and irrigate xeriscaped gardens. reused. have been investigated to replace
A heat trace system on the hot water Plantation pine rather than steel was
pipes makes hot water immediately used for stud frames to partition walls REFERENCES
available to users, saving on running rather than steel. CD Rom: 743 Ann St Brisbane
Redevelopment for the future, EPA Qld
cold water out of taps prior to use. and PMM 2003.
The walls are painted in Rockcote
Water efficient fixtures such as AAA EcoStyle paints which are odourless,
rated shower roses, sink aerators and without toxic fumes and low in
dual flush toilets were installed, as well hazardous chemicals and solvents.
as waterless urinals. The Interface modular carpet is also
The north-west wall of the building The timber used for the patio is
features a thermosiphon wall that constructed using Modwood, which
regulates the heat load inside the is made from sawdust and recycled
building by absorbing the sun’s heat domestic plastics. ‘In Ann St, the major energy
on the wall, which causes hot air in the efficiency initiative we introduced
vent behind the wall to rise and exit Modular workstations can easily be was a thermosiphon naturally
from the top of the wall on hotter days. refigured, and are made from E1 ventilated system into the atrium
emission rated particleboard, recycled of the building… other important
The building’s atrium is naturally plastic edge strip, and recycled
features included energy efficient
ventilated through the use of rubber/foam materials.
thermostatic controlled vents. T5 lighting, carefully considered
WASTE zoning related to occupant
Natural lighting has been maximised A waste management system was layouts and maximum daylight
through the use of skylights and implemented by builder Multiplex, usage. We established a system
sunshade structures over the front achieving the recycling of 80% of where it is hard for people to turn
patio area that restrict heat from demolished materials. on excess lights… and… simple
penetrating the building. Double- things like clear identification on
glazed windows help restrict heat and Ongoing waste management the switches…’
noise entering the building from Ann strategies include organic waste
Street. recycling, which is fed to a
vermiculture station (worm farm)
A biofilter planter system in the foyer adjacent to the staff cafeteria. The
uses potted plants and charcoal to resulting compost is used in the
filter internal air and remove pollutants. gardens. The building also has an
extensive paper recycling scheme.
Low VOC finishes and products were
used throughout. EMISSIONS/TRANSPORT
PMM was conscious of site selection.
MATERIALS The building is located close to a
One of the aims of the design was train station and has bus access at its
to reuse as much of the existing door. Staff are actively encouraged to
building materials as possible and car pool and utilise public transport in Energy efficiency initiatives
E ffi i i ii i
travelling to work. 743 Ann Street
Mark Thomson, Director, TVS Partnership
044 ESD DESIGN GUIDE - OFFICE AND PUBLIC BUILDINGS
BUILDING TYPE New
LOCATION Melbourne, Victoria
CLIENT Victorian State Emergency Services
ARCHITECTS H2o Architects
SIZE 1700m2 net lettable area
Figure 50. SES Headquarters, H2o architects.
The new Victorian State Emergency PROJECT BACKGROUND Artificial lighting is supplied by
Services headquarters is located in The brief from the Department of low-energy, high frequency T5 tubes.
the Melbourne CBD. The building has Justice was to design and construct These uplights focus the light towards
won several awards for its approach a benchmark environmentally the curved ceilings, which are painted
to sustainable design and architecture responsive building as a model white, to evenly distribute the light
and was a finalist in the ‘Leadership in to the construction industry and over the workspace. They are also
Sustainable Buildings’ category in the other government departments. dimmable and are programmed via
2004 Banksia Awards. This outcome was achieved by a central system that measures the
incorporating: amount of natural light present. A
BUILDING OUTPUTS • a design with a shape and conscious effort made by the design
Energy 510mWh per year (300 form responding to sustainable team was to provide only 200 lux
kWh/m2) requirements to the working area when operating
Water Figure not yet available • passive and active venting and at 100%. This level is below the
Greenhouse Figure not yet available lighting solutions recommended 320 lux. This was to
Gas • sustainable material selection and encourage the use of task lighting
Emissions • promotion of sustainable when required. The task lights are also
construction approaches. wired so that they are turned off by the
Capital cost $3.5 million
construction costs, $6.5 central control system when out
million total end costs ESD CONSIDERATIONS of hours.
Savings Figure not yet available ENERGY
Natural lighting is an important Passive cooling/heating is provided
Payback Figure not yet available
energy saving feature in the design by a large concrete slab located
of the building. The main façade underneath the raised floor. Night
is orientated towards a southerly purging using outdoor air cools
KEY AREAS OF ACHIEVEMENT
direction with minimal exposure to the slab which stores coolth and
the west and south. North facing then releases it over a period,
• Maximising use of natural lighting
clerestory windows provide most of thereby reducing the instantaneous
to reduce need for artificial lighting.
the natural light needed for most of cooling load and reducing energy
• Solar hot water panels provide
the year. Internal light shelves direct consumption.
most water heating requirements.
and diffuse the light into the office
• Central ducted vacuum system
spaces through the clerestory louvre WATER
takes dust and other pollutants
windows. External shading has been Eight solar hot water panels
outside into a collector located in
designed so that it limits the amount provide most of the water heating
the car park, rather than allowing
of sunlight and solar radiation in the requirements. However, the water
portions to escape into the air from
summer, whilst allowing both to enter supply is linked to a central gas
in the winter period. service which boosts the supply
ESD DESIGN GUIDE - OFFICE AND PUBLIC BUILDINGS 045
on cloudy days and when demand EVALUATION
exceeds hot water supplied by the Following occupation, the SES
solar panels. management decided to operate
on full air conditioning mode rather
IEQ than natural ventilation. The building
The building uses a mixed mode functioned well in natural ventilation
ventilation system combining natural mode; however they found that odours
ventilation from louvres located on arising from the building’s proximity
the south side (sea breezes) with to a highway tunnel were flowing
an underfloor displacement air towards the building during certain
conditioning system. The intent of climatic conditions. Investigations
this design was to allow occupants are underway to link the Building
in each bay to choose the mode of Automation System to Citylink’s (the
ventilation desired. Floor vents are tunnel’s authority) monitoring stations ‘Developing a building profile ...
also adjustable to suit individual users to control the ventilation. has allowed us to heat and cool
naturally for part of the year, to
light the building naturally for as
Air quality has been increased by Articles
the installation of a central vacuum • Architect (Melbourne/Australia), much of the year as possible and
system which prevents the recycling of October 2002, pages 20–21. ventilate the building naturally.
dust from cleaning. The main storage • Steel Profile (Melbourne/Australia), We did this by establishing a
unit and pump is located in the car December 2002, cover and pages long narrow floor plate, by having
park area. Piping from the wall outlets openable vents in the south
• The Architectural Review (London/
to the main unit is located in the raised United Kingdom), issue 1274, April façade, extracting the air through
floor plenum. 2003, pages 52–55. a series of louvres on the north
• Indesign (Sydney/Australia), issue 13, façade and minimising glazing
Low VOC materials were used where May 2003, pages 112-119 from east to west. This set-up an
possible, including paint selection, • Herald Sun (Melbourne/Australia), 9
opportunity to minimise running
plywood for flooring and low-allergenic October 2003, page 38.
polyester insulation. costs by not having to use
Waste reduction methods were
employed throughout construction. To
reduce wastage, as much as possible
of the ground-floor slab from the
previous building was used as the car
park base. Sorting for recycling was
Recycled materials were also chosen
in preference to new. This included
using recycled bricks and formwork
Natural ventilation and lighting
Plantation harvested timbers were Tim Hurburgh, Director + Principal, H2o
used in structural flooring. architects
046 ESD DESIGN GUIDE - OFFICE AND PUBLIC BUILDINGS
Waalitj Building: Murdoch University
BUILDING TYPE New
CLIMATE Hot dry, cold winter
LOCATION Perth, Western Australia
CLIENT Murdoch University, Environmental Technology
ARCHITECTS Earth House, Marco Vittino
ENGINEERS Consortium Builders and Healey Engineering
SIZE 100m2 of office space plus lecture, gallery and
Figure 51. Waalitj building, Murdoch
The Waalitj Environmental Technology ESD CONSIDERATIONS the hot water needs. During cloudy
Centre is a complex situated within MANAGEMENT periods an electric booster is used to
the grounds of the Murdoch University The site of the technology centre meet the shortfall.
Campus in Perth. The site features an was chosen due to the fact that the
office area, research laboratories and land had been cleared some years A roof plenum solar heating and
an exhibition space. previous and it minimised the need for cooling system has been installed.
roadwork. In winter, warm air from the office
BUILDING OUTPUTS interior is drawn into the plenum where
Energy Figure not yet available
The Building Management System it is warmed by heat generated from
was built with an internet server sunlight hitting the roof panels. The
Water 150 L/day to provide information about the warmed air is then blown into the
Greenhouse Figure not yet available performance of the building on simple office space by fans. In summer,
Gas internet pages. warm air from the office rises and is
expelled from the plenum by fan to the
Capital cost $320 000 ENERGY outside. A ceiling dampener is closed
Savings Figure not yet available The south wall of the office to prevent the roof’s warm air from
Payback Figure not yet available building provides most of the light entering back into the office. At night,
requirements. The designers wanted cool air from outside is drawn into
KEY AREAS OF ACHIEVEMENT to use the diffuse uniform light the room and the warm air is purged.
• Use of thermal mass walls made provided from the south to prevent The building management system
of rammed earth and recycled excess glare for those using computer monitors the temperature within the
materials to control heat. monitors. plenum and the office area so that
• Solar heating and cooling system, during the winter, for example, it will
and collection of solar energy. The building has 30cm thick thermal purge the warmer air from the plenum
• Sewage treated then used to mass outer walls which helps keep the into the office space.
irrigate landscaping. air temperature inside the buildings
• High use of recycled materials in cool in summer and warm in winter. An in-slab floor heating system uses
construction, preventing waste a phase change material (PCM)
going to landfill. A photovoltaic system on the roof embedded within the concrete to
generates 13 682kWh and is used control the amount of heat released,
PROJECT BACKGROUND to power lighting, fans and office which is done slowly, gently warming
The clients desired a “functional equipment. Excess energy is pumped the air near the floor area.
sustainable building” that incorporated into the main grid.
sustainability principles into the
building development process. Their Solar hot water panels are mounted
target was a zero emission building. on the roof and provide most of
ESD DESIGN GUIDE - OFFICE AND PUBLIC BUILDINGS 047
Waalitj Building: Murdoch University
WATER Small north facing windows are used The courtyard pavers are cement
The Waalitj building utilises storm to prevent excessive heat in summer mixed with 10-15% coal fly ash. This
water and black water to minimise and prevent glare on computer reduced the embodied energy and
use of potable water. There are two equipment. The architects decided cost of the pavers.
3000 L interconnected steel rainwater on large south facing windows to
tanks that preferentially provide the naturally light the space. The operable walls form part of the
building’s water supply and only wall along the western edge of the
use scheme water if rainwater tank Evaporative cooling ponds were courtyard. These are made from
levels are insufficient. Rain water designed into the office space. These recycled plastic panels.
from the roof of the building is used ponds cool the hot easterly breeze
to water the native garden and the that enters the building in the summer. EMISSIONS/TRANSPORT
remainder flows into an ephemeral, The pond sources its water from the The site is located within the Murdoch
infiltration basin next to the car park, excess rainwater from the roof. University Campus, approximately 15
encouraging biodiversity through minutes walk from the main areas off
wetland biomimicry. The waste water Many of the walls are left untreated, the campus. The centre has provided
from the kitchen and toilets is treated however, where plasterboard is used, approximately 100 bikes for free
by an aerobic treatment unit (ATU) it is painted with organic finishes. use as a means of commuting from
before irrigating the courtyard lawn the main campus to the technology
and gardens through drip irrigation. Planting has been used extensively centre.
This provides a pleasant outdoor area around buildings to provide shade
for staff and visitors. for the buildings and for landscaping There are also public transport
around the complex. A mixture of facilities approximately 150m from the
A south facing cooling pond, low-water use plants, fruit trees and site. The university also encourages
landscaped and fed by storm water herbal gardens have been used. car pooling amongst staff.
(topped up by bore water) in front of
a low gable window takes advantage MATERIALS REFERENCES
of prevailing summer winds to deliver A great amount of thought and effort Murdoch University Environmental
cool air to the building for summer went into the choice of materials. wwwies.murdoch.edu.au/etc/pages/waalitj/
heat relief. Where possible, materials that were wpages/backg.htm
recycled, or which incorporated
Elsewhere on site there are rainwater waste products, or had low embodied
tanks, waterless toilets, greywater energy were used. The industrial
diverters, a reverse osmosis by-products used were sourced
desalination unit, a flow form, drip locally.
irrigation and several ponds serving
various purposes. Concrete for the floor slab is made of
crushed concrete waste,
The average water use from the two window-glass waste and coal fly
toilets and kitchen is 150 L/day. ash. This reduces the cost of cement
as well as reduces the amount of
IEQ raw materials used. It also diverts
Operable walls form part of the materials from going to landfill.
wall along the western edge of the
courtyard. These walls reflect and The thermal mass walls are made of
channel winds into areas to aid cross 10% cement with stabilised building
ventilation of the buildings. In the rubble composed mostly of recycled
winter, the walls are kept closed to red brick. They are also are made of
protect the buildings from cold wind. stabilised, rammed recycled earth.
048 ESD DESIGN GUIDE - OFFICE AND PUBLIC BUILDINGS
National Museum of Australia
BUILDING TYPE New Museum
LOCATION Canberra, ACT
CLIENT Commonwealth and ACT Governments
ARCHITECTS An association of Ashton Raggatt McDougall
and Robert Peck von Hartel Trethowan
BUILDING CONTRACTORS Lend Lease Projects
SERVICES CONTRACTORS Tyco International and Honeywell
EXHIBITION DESIGN Anway and Company Inc, Boston USA
SIZE 6600m2 of exhibition space
Figure 52. National Museum of Australia,
Australia’s new National Museum ENERGY EFFICIENT LIGHTING the change has reduced condensed
was opened in 2001. It is a stunning The lighting control system installed heat off the lamps and extended lamp
building and architecturally bold. It by the National Museum of life.
is very much a modern building with Australia is a Dynalite Direct Digital
obvious post modern influences. Lighting System. It controls all In addition to the re-lamping of the
lighting throughout the gallery and exhibition cases the National Museum
As with any museum, there are certain administration areas. has undertaken to retrofit the single
limitations inherent in protecting and channel systems to multi-channel
displaying archival material. In terms Over the past three years the National dimming controllers. This gives the
of the elements of environmentally Museum has worked with its specialist capacity to programme individual
preferable building construction lighting contractors, Sound Advice, to lights or sets of lights to specific lux
and maintenance, there are always systematically reduce the lux levels in levels or set lights to highlight objects
actions and choices that can be exhibition cases to the levels required or signage more clearly. A further
made. Within these constraints, the by conservation standards. This had benefit is more flexibility with design
National Museum is continuing to find to be balanced with ensuring that options within the exhibition cases
ways of improving its environmental signage is legible and object details when not constrained to having one
performance. are still captured for the public to see. lighting level.
ESD CONSIDERATIONS Also in the past three years the In open exhibition and public areas
NATURAL LIGHT National Museum has been where 500 W lamps were utilised, the
The National Museum uses filtered progressively changing museum re-lamped with 300 W lamps,
natural lighting in the exhibition the lamping configurations of the gaining a reduction in energy usage
galleries in order to meet specific lux exhibition spaces. To date, the while maintaining lighting levels in the
and UV levels set by conservation National Museum has replaced concourse areas.
standards. Generally lighting in around 95% of the 50 W, 10 degree
exhibition cases is limited to 50 lux angle dichroic lamps with 35 W The Dynalite system allows the
and around 200 lux for walkways and 24-38-60 degree lamps. This museum to utilise ‘soft starting’
external case lighting. has dropped the light levels to an procedures and specific dimming
average of 50 lux but has increased settings of lights for cleaning, security
In other public areas, particularly the the readability of exhibition text and patrols and general operations and
spectacular main hall, large feature signage within the gallery spaces. exhibition timeframes. This has
windows and skylights maximise the Aside from the immediate 15 W prolonged lamp life significantly and
use of natural light. reduction in energy usage per lamp reduced maintenance requirements
ESD DESIGN GUIDE - OFFICE AND PUBLIC BUILDINGS 049
National Museum of Australia
to the areas. The newly constructed MATERIALS
extension to the annexe includes The architects have used modern
occupancy sensors to active lighting materials to meet the modern layout
only in areas that are occupied. and aesthetics required for the design. ‘The National Museum has an
ongoing responsibility to protect
THERMAL MASS AND PASSIVE The structure is a combination of culturally significant sites on the
DESIGN poured concrete, steel frame or Acton Peninsula on which the
The actual National Museum building prestressed prefabricated concrete National Museum buildings are
has a modern design encompassing panels. Anodised feature aluminium located.’
the whole site so it has a large panels are a predominate aspect
building ‘footprint.’ The building’s of the external building structure.
thermal shell or envelope consists Some areas have poured concrete
of an anodised aluminium aesthetic panelling in some areas (fast erection
covering, with an external rain shield times, with reasonably good thermal cooperatively in an integrated team to
of galvanised iron sheeting. There efficiency). The internal fixings are achieve agreed cost, time and quality
are R4 rated insulation batts and mainly of plasterboard or similar targets. The agreement provided
also concrete panels which increase materials. financial incentives to encourage and
the thermal mass in one gallery area reward outstanding performance, as
and associated ‘back of house’ work WATER EFFICIENCY well as financial penalties if cost, time
areas. The National Museum uses dual flush or quality targets were not achieved.
toilets and auto flush urinal systems to The Alliance agreement promoted
There have been some issues in reduce water consumption. a ‘no dispute’ culture, prohibited
maintaining positive air pressure litigation except for wilful default, and
within the gallery spaces particularly in SAVINGS avoided the adversarial approach
scenarios with a failed air-conditioning The National Museum has added associated with many traditional
plant. power factor correction to better contracts The result was the project
manage load sharing across came in on budget and on time and
Even with the use of double glazed major plant. The museum has with the private sector partners’ profits
windows, the high and wide expanse been supplemented by an energy intact.
of the glazed areas requires monitoring system in the last six
significant energy usage to maintain months. It is envisaged that energy PEOPLE
environmental conditions. The saving trends will begin to emerge Both responsibility and opportunities
majority of the National Museum plant as a full annual operating cycle is rest in the fact that these are
operates 24 hours a day, 365 days per completed. public buildings. The responsibility
year. is to involve key stakeholders
PROJECT MANAGEMENT like Indigenous landholders and
Within the design of the heating A special project management style the community in the process of
and ventilation and air conditioning was developed for the design and creating the building. There are great
(HVAC) system, use of enthalpy or construction of the museum. In a opportunities to educate the public
heat recovery wheels provides some world first for a major public building about art, history and the environment
pre-heating or pre-cooling of the air construction project of this size, it as well as sustainable design.
brought into the building. This helps was decided to join members of the
to maintain environmental conditions, design and construction team in an For the National Museum of Australia,
fresh air requirements and to maintain innovative ‘Project Alliance’ which the traditional owners of the Acton
pressurisation within zoned areas. would deliver the new facilities. The Peninsula were consulted about
Additionally the HVAC system utilises Alliance partners agreed at the the development of the site. Before
carbon dioxide (CO2) sensors to allow commencement of the project to be building began a smoking ceremony
for greater fresh air flow when CO2 jointly responsible for the total project was performed by the Ngunnawal
levels increase within specific zones. results, pledging themselves to work people to purify the site.
050 ESD DESIGN GUIDE - OFFICE AND PUBLIC BUILDINGS
National Museum of Australia
The National Museum has an REFERENCES
ongoing responsibility to protect National Museum of Australia,
culturally significant sites on the Acton www.nma.gov.au
Peninsula on which its buildings are
located. National Museum of Australia, 2004,
National Museum of Australia Annual
During the development of the design Report 2003-2004, National Museum
and building, collaboration and of Australia Press, Canberra.
cooperation was encouraged through
membership on committees and National Museum of Australia, 2003,
memoranda of understanding with Land Nation People: The Annual
neighbours, such as the Australian Report of National Museum of Australia
Institute of Aboriginal and Torres Strait 2002-2003, National Museum of
Islander Studies and the Australian Australia Press, Canberra.
Weber, Therese (ed) 2003, Land
The museum also integrates Nation People: Stories from the
environmentally sustainable National Museum of Australia, National
development information into Museum of Australia Press, Canberra.
exhibitions when appropriate, such as
in the Tangled Destinies gallery.
Figure 53. National Museum of Australia, Interior of Main Hall, John Gollings.
ESD DESIGN GUIDE - OFFICE AND PUBLIC BUILDINGS 051
60L: 60 Leicester Street
BUILDING TYPE Part new and part existing – Refurbished
LOCATION Carlton, Victoria
CLIENT The Green Building Partnership
ENGINEERS AEC, John Mullen and Partners. Lincolne Scott
SIZE 3375m² lettable floor space
Figure 54. 60 Leicester Street, Carlton.
60 Leicester Street is located in to reduce energy consumption to The lease and EMP provide advice
Carlton, an inner suburb of Melbourne. 1/3 of a standard building of similar in sourcing office equipment and
Built in the late 1800s the former size. materials for fit out; practices for
factory building has had a new • Solar panels used to supplement tenancy operation, tenancy fit out
third floor built and has been fully mains energy supply. Green power and the relocation of the tenant. The
refurbished. The old section has is sourced as mains supply. building manager provides additional
been integrated with a new building. • Three-step water recycling system information and advice to tenants on
Currently the building has 15 tenants supplies potable and non-potable sourcing the most environmentally
including the Australian Conservation water to tenants. appropriate materials and advises
Foundation. on issues such as office waste
PROJECT BACKGROUND management.
BUILDING OUTPUTS 60L was designed to be a model of
Energy 71 kWh/m2 (3 year superior environmental performance ENERGY
average data up to that demonstrated the Green Building By optimising natural ventilation and
June 2006) Partnership and ACF’s commitment to natural lighting in the design of the
Water 15.7l/p/day for ecologically sustainable development. building, 60L is able to use only about
assumed occupancy of They wanted to create a building one-third of the energy of a similar
200 people, 250 days/ that was commercially viable and sized conventional office building. This
year (2 year average incorporated, as far as was practical equates to approximately 238 mWh
data up to June 2006)
in the commercial context, sustainable per year. The building has achieved
Greenhouse Zero - purchases 100% design principles into every facet of an 80% reduction in energy used for
Gas new green power and
Emissions is therefore considered
the building. lighting a typical commercial building
‘greenhouse neutral’ of similar size.
Capital cost $8 million
MANAGEMENT A large central atrium and six light
Savings Figure not available Green Leasing - the performance of wells allow daylight to penetrate the
Payback Figure not available the building as a ‘green building’ is building with natural light. These
dependent on the behaviour and the features have been placed so they
participation of the tenants. Tenants perform dual lighting and ventilation
KEY AREAS OF ACHIEVEMENT are required to sign a ‘green lease’ roles. The light wells allow air to flow
• Green Leasing ensures tenants which informs tenants of green across all the tenancies and into the
are supplied with information building principles and rules, includes central atrium which vents the air
and guidance on the building’s an Environmental Management using four thermal chimneys. Tenants
operations, helping maximise the Plan (EMP) and places additional can also adjust the windows and
building’s sustainability. obligations on tenants over and above some of the louvres in their spaces
• Natural ventilation and lighting help normal commercial requirements. to control the flow of air, and have
052 ESD DESIGN GUIDE - OFFICE AND PUBLIC BUILDINGS
60L: 60 Leicester Street
access to domestic reverse cycle WATER
air conditioners should the natural The water use at 60L is dealt with in
conditions be outside comfort levels. three ways as follows:
The open plan design and the use of Water efficient fixtures such as low-
light shelves help the light penetrate flow shower heads which discharge
further into the office spaces. Light 5L per minute and dual flush toilet
coloured paint on ceilings help systems that can cope with grey
maximise the reflection of light. water systems are installed as well
as waterless urinals which contain an
High efficiency light fixtures were oil seal that prevents odours. These
designed to reduce the installed fixtures reduce water usage by half
lighting load to 7W/m² compared to compared with conventional items.
20W/m² for office buildings. The light
fittings used are 36W single tube with Rainwater is the principal source of
(in most tenancies) non-dimmable water for use throughout the building.
electronic ballast on nominal 2.4m This is collected from the roof and
spacing. The tubes are triphosphor, stored in two 10 000 litre storage
low mercury type in fixtures with tanks on the ground floor. The water is
semi-specular reflectors and 10 cell filtered and then sterilised to provide
low glare, louvres. a potable water supply for use by
tenants in taps, showers and for
Figure 55. Low VOC materials selection.
The common area lighting control drinking.
system is AUTO ‘OFF’ and MANUAL
‘ON’. Building occupants turn the The wastewater generated (greywater)
lights on when required. The system and sewage is treated in the building’s
incorporates a timer so that common own sewage treatment system. This
area lights are turned off after 10 purifies the water using biological
minutes. treatment that is free from chemicals.
The building also uses solar The treated water is designed to
panels located on the roof to help be used for the reclaimed water
supplement the power required for treatment plant which further purifies
operation of building systems. Green the water for use in flushing toilet pans
power, energy which is derived from and for irrigation of the landscape
non-fossil fuel and renewable sources features such as the rooftop garden.
is purchased as the building’s main Surplus reclaimed water from this
energy supply. stage is designed to flow out through
a water feature in the atrium. This
Energy efficient appliances are used features a succession of cascading
in the public area of the building tanks containing aquatic plants
and tenants are also encouraged and organisms feeding on residual
to purchase energy efficient office nutrients in the treated water.
equipment. Building management can
advise in the selection of equipment,
particularly in the fit-out stage of
ESD DESIGN GUIDE - OFFICE AND PUBLIC BUILDINGS 053
60L: 60 Leicester Street
IEQ Recycled materials were used in other
The indoor environment quality in fixtures and structural components
60L is focussed on the individual whenever possible. Recycled
comfort levels of the tenants rather hardwood timber was used for the
than the building as a whole. Tenants ground floor, and all window and door
are able to adjust (within limits) the frames. The carpet contained approx.
levels of light and air flow to meet 30% recycled content. Purchased
their individual needs by opening recycled products such as bricks,
a window or adjusting louvres. The timber steel and copper were given
building operates within a 19-26ºC preference over virgin materials.
comfort band in passive mode. When
the external ambient temperature is The use of PVC products was
outside this range, tenants are able to eliminated from all water and
use the reverse cycle air conditioners wastewater pipes as well as electrical
available in their space. conduits and most light fittings.
Low-emissive products were chosen EMISSIONS/TRANSPORT
where possible for paint and carpets, Parking facilities are not available on
and to minimise the use of glues, site. Tenants are encouraged to utilise
sealants, adhesives and paints public transport services, which are
with high VOC (volatile organic conveniently located to the building,
Figure 56. compounds) levels. Smoking is not or ride a bike. Facilities such as a
Source: Thermal chimneys, 60L Green allowed in any area of the building. secure bike parking and showers are
available on site.
The original building was partially REFERENCES
dismantled and existing materials 60L Green Building Website,
re-used whenever practical including The Green Building Partnership
timber floor joists and planking, bricks www.60lgreenbuilding.com/index.htm
and glazed partitions.
Hes, D. Greening the Building Life
New concrete used in construction Cycle: Life Cycle Assessment Tools
contained, on average, 60% recycled in Building and Construction 60L
content, including crushed concrete Green Building, Environment Australia
reclaimed from other buildings, and fly buildlca.rmit.edu.au/casestud/60l/60L.html
ash extenders. All bricks used were
either reused from the old building or 60 Leicester Street Carlton: Australia’s
recycled bricks from dismantling of Leading Example of Commercial
other buildings. All reinforcing steel Building for a Sustainable Future,
was made from recycled steel. The Green Building Partnership
054 ESD DESIGN GUIDE - OFFICE AND PUBLIC BUILDINGS
40 Albert Road
BUILDING TYPE Retrofit of existing office block
LOCATION South Melbourne, Victoria
PROJECT MANAGER Lascorp
ARCHITECTS SJB Architects
ENGINEERS Connell Wagner, Energy Conservation Systems
SIZE 1215m² net lettable area
During 2004 and 2005, Szencorp occupancy lighting, HVAC and
transformed an average 20-year-old security control.
office block in South Melbourne into • The first building in Australia to Figure 57. The Szencorp Building at 40 Albert
an environmentally cutting- edge produce zero net emissions. Road, Szencorp.
space that sets a new benchmark • Australian first use of ceramic fuel
on the eastern and western façades to
for sustainable buildings in Australia. cells to reduce electricity used from
provide views, fresh air and abundant
This 1 215m2 office building is the the grid.
natural light. From street level, the
new headquarters of the Szencorp • Australian first use of the DryKor
building presents a visually stunning
group of companies, which provides dry conditioning unit, which
mix of full length glass, stone,
expertise in sustainable business. dries and cools the office space
polished metal pillars and full height
The vision for 40 Albert Road was simultaneously, using a desiccant
ultra-modern metal net screens.
one of ‘walking the walk’, with several to absorb the water vapour from
cutting edge sustainable technologies the air.
and ‘firsts’ incorporated into the • Australian first commercial use of
refurbishment. natural gas engine air conditioning
In order to maintain its 5 star ABGR
rating, auditing and building tuning will
be performed over 10 years. Extensive
Energy (Gas 214 MWh per year PROJECT BACKGROUND
commissioning of the building has
and electricity) (176kWh/m2 electricity) The initial approach to the
been undertaken, with a range of
Water 121 kL per year refurbishment project was driven
alterations and adjustments made to
by Peter Szental, who owns the
Greenhouse 183 tonnes CO2 per the building management system after
Szencorp group of companies. The
opening to fine-tune performance and
Emissions design combines original building
improve operating characteristics.
features and fabric with an innovative
Capital cost No applicable business
decision programme of alterations and
The Building Management System
additions to improve environmental
Savings No applicable business provides a single interface for the
decision performance and occupant amenity.
passive and active thermal control
Payback No applicable business system, lighting control system,
The original building had a long
decision security and other automated
concrete tube with a stairwell at the
systems. Via a high level interface the
front, which restricted natural light
KEY AREAS OF ACHIEVEMENT BMS also integrates the information
and ventilation. To address this, a
• First occupied Australian building from a weather station to ensure
new glazed stairwell was created in
and retrofit to have a 6 Star Green passive opportunities are utilised to
the centre of the building with a glass
Star - Office Design certified rating. the maximum, and prevent cross
atrium to provide a natural light core.
• Thought to have a world winds from unbalancing internal
40 Albert Road has new floor-to-
first integrated sensor and air flows (drawing internal air to the
ceiling windows with opening sections
management system for outside, wasting energy).
ESD DESIGN GUIDE - OFFICE AND PUBLIC BUILDINGS 055
40 Albert Road
daylight, lighting levels, air quality ‘The aim of 40 Albert Rd is to
and occupancy are monitored. The demonstrate how to recycle
Managed Lighting System (MLS) a typical existing suburban
control system is a network of motion office building into a leading
sensors that control lighting in offices
edge building offering best
in response to occupancy and dims
lighting to compensate for natural
practice performance in energy,
lighting levels or lamp degradation. greenhouse and sustainability.’
This sensor system is also linked to
Figure 58. 40 Albert Road, temperature the air-conditioning. Energy efficiency • The building’s ceramic fuel cell is
distribution by Connell Wagner, Szencorp. the first in commercial operation in
is achieved by maintaining services
only in zones that are occupied. Australia. Fuel cells use chemical
A Building Users’ Guide will provide Services will switch on automatically reactions rather than combustion
tenants with all necessary instructions upon entering a zone and switch reactions to provide electrical
on how to properly use the building’s off when the zone is vacated after a power, while the waste heat
facilities. Monitoring, verification and delay. This functionality is designed generated is used to provide the
public reporting is a strong emphasis to be adjustable to support flexibility; building with hot water. However,
with 40 Albert Road having one of similarly, the zoning can be adjusted as a result of timing changes in
the most advanced and transparent to suit the office environment. the commissioning of the ceramic
building performance monitoring fuel cell, which did not produce
systems in Australia, which is The building consumed 214MWh of electricity in the first twelve months
publicly available at www.ourgreenoffice. energy in its first year, made up of 92 against a predicted 9 MWh.
com and enables any interested MWh of electric energy and 122MWh
party to monitor real-time building gas. These results, especially for • A 1 MWh per annum amorphous
performance. Performance over gas usage, are expected to improve PV array plus a 4.8 MWh per
its first year of operation has been significantly with further fine-tuning annum crystalline Origin PV array,
compiled into a comprehensive report and adjustments to building systems. both grid connected, supply
also available to the public. additional electricity for the
• Electricity use is lower than building. Allowing for seasonal
The innovations at 40 Albert predicted at 91.7 MWh compared factors, generation from these
Road are being demonstrated to predictions of 95 MWh. A large arrays is in line with expectations.
to the building development and portion of this extra energy saving
management community, and the is due to the lower than designed • The roof-mounted gas engine
wider public. Controlled free access occupancy. This is a 61% reduction driven air conditioning units are
to the building and its systems on the 238 MWh previously used in a first for an Australian office
are provided for educational and the building, on a per square metre building. Using internal combustion
commercial purposes. As well, basis, from 196 kWh/m2/annum to engine technology, rather than
there is a comprehensive weather 76 kWh/m2/annum. electric motor conditioning units,
station and 59 individual meters avoids grid electricity use, thereby
monitoring the various building • There has been unexpected avoiding peak demand, emissions
systems. energy Conservation consumption, particularly in the and network infrastructure
Systems have provided many of the form of electricity consumption of upgrades. These units account
energy conservation measures under the fuel cell and the heat pump for 83% of total gas use, so gas
an energy performance contract which controls for the gas air-conditioning consumption varies considerably
guarantees outcomes and eliminates units. Both of these technologies with weather conditions and is
technical and financial risks. were the first installations of their dependent on the performance of
type in Australia and were forecast other systems within the building
ENERGY to consume little electricity, but such as natural ventilation and
Each floor is split into several zones, together accounted for 12.1 MWh Building Management Systems
where temperature, humidity, or 13% of total consumption. controls. Overall gas consumption
056 ESD DESIGN GUIDE - OFFICE AND PUBLIC BUILDINGS
40 Albert Road
of 440GJ is higher than initially level of 1210 litres/m2/annum). Total ‘The project will achieve leading
expected at 245GJ. Further sub normalised water use over its first sustainable performance
metering of gas-consuming year was 121 000 litres or 116 litres/ without compromising any
components during the different m2/annum, which is 90% below the conventional features - from
seasons is required in order to industry average.
the users perspective it will
fully determine individual system
provide standard high end office
Thermal comfort is achieved by accommodation.’
WATER combining natural ventilation with
The building features a mechanical cooling and heating.
comprehensive water management Mechanically operated opening Natural light is maximised by floor-
system designed and built by the windows and dampers allow fresh to-ceiling high-performance double-
water conservation group from within air in and expel used air. Natural glazing and is supplemented by
Energy Conservation Systems. Water ventilation is automated and is the atrium and glass in the central
consumption is minimised at each optimised according to inside and stairwell and skylights above the
end use point by using the latest in outside environmental conditions. boardroom. Daylight modelling shows
controlled flow showerheads and taps, Mechanical cooling or heating is that there will be significant natural
some of them sensor activated only. supplied by ceiling-mounted fan coil light at desk level across one third of
Toilets are an award winning dual units. the office space. This will also reduce
flush design using only 4.5/3 litres per energy use on artificial lighting, since
flush. Urinals are waterless. The DryKor dry conditioning unit the automated lighting system will dim
dries and cools the office space whenever and wherever daylight levels
Lightly polluted water gathered from simultaneously, using a process of permit, to optimise overall light levels.
hand basins and showers (greywater) natural desiccant absorption of water
is collected, treated and reused for vapour from the air. This technology A central vacuum cleaning system
toilet flushing. This is complemented is non-toxic and non-hazardous, and is less noisy and more effective in
with a rainwater harvesting system the humidity is ducted outdoors, reducing allergenic mould, dust and
providing 4400 litres of rainwater eliminating the need for condensate moisture problems than portable
storage, estimated to be enough for pumps, pipes and drainage system. vacuums. These reductions increase
3 weeks of normal flushing. This aims to address ‘Sick Building occupant health and wellbeing, and
Syndrome’ problems associated with prolong the life of carpets.
The Szencorp Building was designed poor indoor air quality as the process
to achieve an 82% reduction in removes up to 94% of All new materials introduced into the
water use over the industry average micro-organisms, as well 77% of building have been chosen with office
(measured as a 2.5-star NABERS particles greater than 5 microns. air quality in mind.
Figure 59. 40 Albert Road, interior, Figure 60. Szencorp offices, Szencorp.
ESD DESIGN GUIDE - OFFICE AND PUBLIC BUILDINGS 057
40 Albert Road
Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) waste used in the construction of the ‘40 Albert Rd will demonstrate
emission levels are minimised in the building is collected and sorted for innovative strategies and
carpets, adhesives and sealants used, recycling. outcomes for the built
and 95% of painted surfaces use low environment that are anticipated
VOC paints. All composite wood used During operation, onsite recycling
to become standard practice
in the furniture is low in formaldehyde facilities are provided to recycle
emissions, and a dedicated exhaust paper, co-mingled plastic and glass.
over the next decade. It has been
riser is provided to remove emissions According to waste audits undertaken designed as a live case study
from printers and photocopiers. at the Szencorp Building by Great with ongoing real time monitoring
Forest Australia Pty Ltd, a daily total and verification and an ongoing
Air handling systems in the building of 7.9 kg of waste (114 litres) is being test bed for new products and
have reduced air pollutants and dust produced, comprising: services.’
by over 90% compared to the outside • 5.3 kg (93 litres) collected for
air. Independent studies performed recycling (82% by volume of all standard recognised greenhouse
by the Mobile Architecture Built waste) calculation and offset products
Environment Laboratory (MABEL) • 2.6 kg (21 litres) sent to landfill currently available.
showed no detectable formaldehyde (18% by volume of all waste)
levels and very low VOCs, concluding Car parking is provided at ground
that air quality within the Szencorp Research carried out by Resource and basement levels. Analysis of
Building is equivalent to rural air NSW (2002) found that the average projected building user numbers
quality despite its inner city location. office worker generates 173 kg of allowed the overall number of car
waste and recycling per year. The parking spaces to be reduced, and
MATERIALS Szencorp Building is generating 94 small spaces to be introduced into
Most of the reinforced concrete kg of waste and recycling per staff the mix. Bicycle storage, lockers
structure and 88% of the original member each year, placing it 54% and shower facilities are provided to
façade was retained. The additional below the established benchmark. enable tenants and visitors to cycle
concrete required uses recycled to the building with convenience and
aggregate as well as incorporating EMISSIONS/TRANSPORT security. However, the majority of
industrial waste. The material The Drykor and air conditioning units occupants still use private vehicles,
specification for the refurbishment use no ozone depleting refrigerants, an example of where building design
timber (using the good wood guide) and the building, ductwork and cannot guarantee behaviour changes
and structural concrete incorporates pipe work insulation is similarly free and environmental outcomes sought
strict sustainability criteria. of all ozone depleting substances. by developers.
Verified greenhouse credits have
WASTE been purchased to offset the residual REFERENCES
An environmental mangagement impact the building and its occupants The Greening of 40 Albert Road
plan ensured that at least 80% of the have on climate change using www.ourgreenoffice.com/
Figure 61. 40 Albert Road, interior, Szencorp. Figure 62. 40 Albert Road, interior, Szencorp.
058 ESD DESIGN GUIDE - OFFICE AND PUBLIC BUILDINGS
Galleries, Museums and Libraries
Galleries, libraries and museums and requires greater innovation to
are special spaces with particular incorporate sustainable measures.
requirements, such as high levels of This case study looks at both the
lighting and strict temperature and simple and innovative measures
humidity control. This constrains that venues around Australia and
the possibilities for use of some overseas have taken to be more
sustainable building practices ecologically sustainable.
Figure 63. National Gallery of Victoria, John
ESD CONSIDERATIONS conditions were found to be international awards for its design.
NATURAL LIGHT unpredictable, so a study of the light In the refurbishment, two towers
The use of natural light or daylighting in the space was commissioned. were added to the gallery’s basic
can have an aesthetic benefit as well The aim was to make best use of the rectangular structure and three square
as achieve energy use reductions. spaces without compromising the courtyards.
The changes in natural light material.
conditions and intensity can create At the top of the courtyard, glass
a less clinical ambience but it also Two of the four levels were converted panels arch to the skylights and
creates challenges for conservators. to exhibition spaces. There are eight bring light into the bottom of the
For conservators the ideal situation sides to these galleries in the round, courtyards. There are also skylights in
involves no ultra violet light. four of which have arches which allow the upper level galleries and glazing
daylight into the whole area and the on the high side of the skylights.
As the main purpose of galleries, other four sides are sealed with no The skylights all have UV diffusers.
museums and libraries is the arches. Conservators and exhibition This lighting condition in the upper
protection and public access to curators arrange material so that only galleries creates a difficult situation for
documents, the conservation graphic reproductions are displayed conservators and required a change in
department needs to be consulted in the areas with daylight and the exhibition strategy. The modern pieces
from the earliest stages of other areas display the material that tend to be displayed on these floors51.
development or refurbishment needs fully controlled lighting. In Often the skylights are closed off for
planning. Consideration of order to meet the lux level standards an exhibition, so the predominant area
international standards for the for different material (i.e. max 50 lux of daylighting impact is in the lighting
protection of archive material has to for natural fibres and max 200 lux of the courtyards.
be incorporated. for paintings), the lighting strategy
has not changed but the exhibition Peckham Library (UK)
State Library of Victoria strategy is designed around the The architects used daylight analysis
Glass panels were reinstated in the limitations of the space. to design the building in such a way
dome over the La Trobe Reading as to operate the building without use
Room. They had previously been Future developments of the site will of artificial lighting for large amounts
covered in 1959 to prevent water include the creation of courtyards that of the year. This saves energy and
seeping in. The glass panelling view the dome and which will have provides visual comfort for users.
reduces the need for artificial lighting glazed coverings. Bright glass on the north side of the
and includes UV filters. The natural building lets in a large amount of
light reaches to the areas for the National Gallery of Victoria daylight.
public to read from the library’s works. International
The National Gallery of Victoria 51 Paul Walker, 2004, ‘New Interiors by Mario Bellini
The reading room is 35m high (International) was refurbished in and Metier 3’, Architecture Australia, March/April
and circled by four levels. Daylight 2004. It has since won national and
ESD DESIGN GUIDE - OFFICE AND PUBLIC BUILDINGS 059
Galleries, Museums and Libraries
Frederick R Weisman Art Museum, as artificial light levels being regulated massive core to deliver the level of
University of Minnesota by sensor readings. thermal stability required to ensure
Designed by Frank Gehry, the international gallery conditions are
Weisman Art Museum is a teaching The National Museum of Australia met. Polished concrete slabs also
museum for the University of Various actions were taken on the site contribute to the thermal stability of
Minnesota and the community. Large to reduce energy use. Some of these the space.
picture windows at the front of the included:
building enable views from the outside Peckham Library (Battle McCarthy
of the Museum’s lobby and the • changing the wattage of lighting
Passive design elements used in the
galleries beyond. The main daylighting in the Hall from 500 W to 300 W
Peckham Library in London include
feature is the group of four sculptural – this policy will be extended into all
natural ventilation using openings
skylights which light the east, west, galleries and operational areas
high in the roof and natural cross
north and south walls. • exhibition lighting from 50 W to
ventilation. The building is cooled at
35 W dichroic lighting to create
night. The windows are double glazed
John Allen, the Director of Visitor a higher light output but reduced
and lots of thermal insulation has
Services explains the current and colour fade53 and
reduced the need for heating in winter.
future policy about the skylights: • installing an energy monitoring
The building itself is built in a concrete
system which will track usage and
L-shaped frame with a façade shaded
‘It also creates some challenges effects of any policy changes
by a cantilevered overhang. No air
with regard to protecting the
conditioning has been installed.
artwork - especially photographs, Mark Twain House Museum (USA)
prints, and other works on paper The overall energy efficiency of the East Melbourne Library
- from damage caused by light. HVAC system is nearly 30% greater East Melbourne Library is being
We try to design our exhibitions than a system designed to building demolished and will be replaced with
with daylight in mind and, with code. This is mainly from the use of a library that will incorporate passive
the assistance of Frank O. Gehry geothermal wells which will meet the heating and cooling mechanisms
Architects, we are exploring predominant heating and cooling using natural ventilation and thermal
methods to diffuse the natural needs of the building. The building mass.
light from the skylights through is underground, which contributes
the use of scrim, UV filters, and to significant reductions in the heat Art Gallery of South Australia
other materials. gain and heat loss from the building Humidity control is a critical factor
envelope. The monumental stair case while designing the HVAC system
‘Regardless of the level of between the first to second floors of any museum. In the Art Gallery
daylight in the galleries, most allows the elimination of a passenger of South Australia an innovative
of the art on display is lit with elevator. The building is designed to displacement ventilation air
artificial light sources so the allow future additions such as conditioning system was installed
savings on lighting costs there is photo–voltaic solar panels on the for the new extension. The Shaw
negligible. There is likely some south wall and, potentially, fuel cells. method of air conditioning (SMAC)
savings on the lighting costs improved the internal conditions for
in the administrative offices, THERMAL MASS AND PASSIVE temperature as well humidity. The
meeting spaces, museum store DESIGN SMAC employs twin coil technology
and other non-gallery areas due Queensland Gallery of Modern Art where dehumidification of the outside
to the presence of natural light The key passive design elements of air occurs in one coil while the
from windows and skylights.’52 the Queensland Gallery of Modern dry bulb temperature is controlled
Art include the incorporation of an
ENERGY EFFICIENCY extensive overhanging roof, as well 52 Allen, J., [Frederick R. Weisman Art Museum]
2005, pers.comm., 23 March.
East Melbourne Library as other fixed shading elements to all 53 National Museum of Australia, 2003, Land Nation
Energy will be saved through the use elevations. The building has adopted People: The Annual Report of National Museum of
Australia 2002-2003, National Museum of Australia
of passive heating and cooling as well a lightweight shell with a thermally Press, Canberra.
060 ESD DESIGN GUIDE - OFFICE AND PUBLIC BUILDINGS
Galleries, Museums and Libraries
by the other coil. As a result the certification. Some examples of the
dehumidified outdoor air is only a principles used to select materials
small component of the total air and for the new Museum at Mark Twain
when it is mixed with the returned air, House are:
this means that the need to reheat • Local materials were sourced from
air is diminished substantially. The within a 500–mile radius.
result of this is a significant reduction • Recycled material content
in both electrical and gas energy exceeds 25 % throughout the
consumption. Comparing current and project. Building materials have
past consumption showed savings of been selected to minimise,
up to 47%. if not eliminate, the negative
consequences of VOCs. Figure 64. Reading room, use of natural light,
State Library of Victoria.
Further features of the project are that • Wood products used in this project
they employ the nearby Brisbane River were from Forest Stewardship
to reject heat from the air conditioning Council (FSC) certified sources • Cleaning materials used should
system rather than into the that confirm renewable and meet AS/NZ ISO 14001:1996
atmosphere. This system eliminates responsible forestry practices. ‘Environmental Management
cooling towers from the design and Systems – specifications with
provides a significant reduction in Conservation guidance for use’ and AS/NZ
water demands. Issues for storage of material includes 14004:1996 ‘Environmental
sealing of spaces to stop vermin Management Systems - general
Lastly optimum levels of natural day and infestation, air conditioning that guidelines of principles, systems
lighting are introduced to the interiors can deal with extreme temperatures and supporting techniques.’54
to reduce lighting requirements and as needed and maintain a stable These systems specify good
energy demands. Energy efficient environment for fragile artefacts, practice processes and systems
T5 lighting, electronic dimming and access to objects for monitoring rather than specific product
automatic switch-off further reduce and maintenance, appropriate selection.
demands environmental controls and
monitoring. WATER EFFICIENCY
For more information see the case East Melbourne Library
study at: Some useful ideas include: The East Melbourne Library will collect
www.brite.crcci.info/case_studies/pdfs/ • Cabinets made from wood with rainwater from the roof and recycle it
and AIRAH (2006) ‘BMS shows flexibility in formaldehyde content cannot be for use in the facility and in the garden
Adelaide’. EcoLibrium v5 no 11, p. 16-18. used. The formaldehyde can affect will also use recycled water.
paintings and objects stored in
MATERIALS them. Formaldehyde can also be Mark Twain House (USA)
There are two ways in which materials an irritant to employees so it is best A closed-loop system eliminates water
are important considerations in specify low or ‘zero’ formaldehyde lost to evaporation through the cooling
designing and running a library, content board or use a wood which tower in a conventional system.
museum or gallery. One is the has not been glued. Parking has been minimised, thereby
selection of materials to reduce the reducing storm water runoff and
environmental impact of the building • Minimise dust by having shelving pollution impact. Native vegetation
generally and the other is the way going to the ceiling rather than has been selected to eliminate the
in which materials can impact the having surfaces that collect dust. need for an irrigation system and
conservation of archived objects. increased water use.
• Good use of thermal mass can
Mark Twain House (USA) assist in maintaining a stable
This was the first American museum environment and reduce the need 54 National Museum of Australia, 2004, National
to receive LEED (Leadership in Energy for air conditioning.
Museum of Australia Annual Report 2003-2004,
National Museum of Australia Press, Canberra.
and Environmental Design)
ESD DESIGN GUIDE - OFFICE AND PUBLIC BUILDINGS 061
Galleries, Museums and Libraries
PEOPLE was a first for a building development East Melbourne Library
There is both responsibility and in Australia. There was one overall For information see the City of Melbourne’s
opportunities in the fact that these are contract and the result was that the web site:
public buildings. The responsibility project came in on budget and on cfm?top=146andpg=1139
is to involve key stakeholders time.
like indigenous landholders and Peckham Library
the community in the process of REFERENCES Architects
creating the building. There are great Battle McCarthy, 1999, Cultural: Project: www.alsoparchitects.com
opportunities to educate the public Peckham Library, London, Battle McCarthy
about art, history and the environment Consulting Engineers and Landscape
as well as sustainable design. Architects,
peckham.html Mark Twain House Museum
National Museum of Australia www.marktwainhouse.org/themuseum/index.
The Traditional Owners of the Acton shtml
Energy Research Group, 1994, Daylighting
Peninsula were consulted about in Buildings, School of Architecture,
Frederick R Weisman Art Museum,
the development of the site. Before University College Dublin for the European
University of Minnesota
building began a smoking ceremony Commission Directorate-General for
For information on the architecture of the
was performed by the Ngunnawal Energy, Dublin.
people to purify the site. www.weisman.umn.edu/architecture/arch.html
National Museum of Australia, 2003,
Land Nation People: The Annual Report of
The museum has an ongoing National Museum of Australia 2002-2003, LEED (Leadership in Energy and
responsibility to protect culturally National Museum of Australia Press, Environmental Design – programme and
significant sites on the Acton Canberra. rating system administered by the US
Peninsula on which the museum Green Building Council)
buildings are located. National Museum of Australia, 2004, www.usgbc.org/
National Museum of Australia Annual
During the development of the design Report 2003-2004, National Museum of
and building, collaboration and Australia Press, Canberra.
cooperation was emphasised through
membership on committees and Paul Walker, 2004, New Interiors by Mario
Bellini and Metier 3, Architecture Australia,
memoranda of understanding with
neighbours, such as the Australian
Institute of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Therese Weber (ed), 2004, Land Nation
Islander Studies and the Australian People: Stories from the National Museum
National University. of Australia, National Museum of Australia
The museum also integrates
ecologically sustainable development The National Museum of Australia
information into exhibitions if www.nma.gov.au
appropriate, such as in the Tangled
Destinies gallery. National Gallery of Victoria, International
PROJECT MANAGEMENT State Library of Victoria
National Museum of Australia www.slv.vic.gov.au
A special project management style For information on the redevelopment
was developed for this building. It see Department of Infrastructure, Major
became known as the Alliance Project, Projects section, www.doi.vic.gov.au/web3/
in which all parties shared the profits majorproj.nsf
Figure 65. National Gallery of Victoria, John
and the risks of construction. This Gollings.
062 ESD DESIGN GUIDE - OFFICE AND PUBLIC BUILDINGS
BUILDING TYPE New
LOCATION Richmond, New South Wales
CLIENT Department of Defence
PROJECT MANAGER Carson Group
ARCHITECTS Bligh Voller Nield
ENGINEERS Rudds Consulting Engineers (Electrical and
Mechanical); Hughes Trueman (Hydraulic); Arup
(Environmentally Sustainable Design)
SIZE 2582m² net lettable area
Richmond 36 and 37 Squadron PROJECT BACKGROUND
Headquarters, a part of the RAAF The new RAAF headquarters building
Richmond Reinvestment Project, is the was designed to accommodate
first project to achieve the Green Star Australian Defence Force personnel.
- Office Design (September 2005), The challenge was to ensure that the
Figure 66. RAAF Richmond.
Green Star - Office as Built (November operating costs, energy and water
2005) and Green Star - Ofﬁce consumption, and ongoing support
Interiors (June 2006) Certified ratings. costs were kept low. the use of solar water heating
It is the first Green Star development systems.
by the Department of Defence and ESD CONSIDERATIONS
will inform Defence’s approach to MANAGEMENT WATER
Environmentally Sustainable Design The concept of ‘hot desking’ was Fixtures and AAAA fittings used
(ESD) on new and refurbishment introduced in the design of this throughout the RAAF building were as
projects. building. This means that the desks for efficient as practicable. For example,
people like pilots, who were not in the waterless urinals were used and rain
DESIGN BUILDING office for long periods of time, could water collected in a 52 000 litre
PERFORMANCE be occupied by others. Additional storage tank and used for toilet
Energy 20% better than 5 star storage space was provided, so that flushing. The landscaping has
(Gas and ABGR benchmark people ‘hot desking’ have dedicated also been designed to be drought
electricity) (base building) storage space for their work. To resistant.
1.5 ML per annum facilitate this change from normal
Water lower than a standard Defence practice, a change manager All sewage is treated by the RAAF
building was engaged. Richmond’s wastewater treatment
Greenhouse plant and then reused for irrigation on
Gas Figure not available ENERGY the RAAF Base.
Emissions Energy used for the heating,
ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) IEQ
Capital cost $14 million
system has dropped significantly, The design team provided innovative
Savings Figure not available through the integration of a mixed solutions to increase the quality of the
mode (both natural and mechanical indoor environment with high levels
Payback Figure not available ventilation) function. of fresh air and natural light. Some
74% of the net lettable area (NLA) has
KEY AREAS OF ACHIEVEMENT Lighting energy reduction strategies been designed as mixed mode space,
Under both the Office Design and included the use of highly efficient able to be naturally or mechanically
Office as Built Green Star tools, a T5 lighting, occupant sensors and ventilated. The remaining 26% is
100% score was achieved for both the dedicated switches. Further energy mechanically ventilated for operational
management and water categories. savings have been achieved through purposes.
ESD DESIGN GUIDE - OFFICE AND PUBLIC BUILDINGS 063
External air is provided at a rate Of the refrigerants used, all had REFERENCES
150% above the Australian Standard zero ozone depletion potential, with BCI Australia (2006) Green Building Market
requirement and is 100% outside air refrigerant leak detection and recovery Report 2006.p. 82-83.
economy cycle with no recirculation. systems integrated to ensure minimal
Furthermore, natural ventilation is impact on ozone depletion and Randall K. (2006) Defence Goes Green,
improved by under slab natural climate change. Finally, as mentioned editions/20051101/groups/csig.htm
ventilation culverts, hollow core slabs above, to minimise emissions from accessed 15/12/2006.
and automated louvres allowing the fitout, low VOC emission materials
effective use of thermal mass and were used, (specifically minimising GBCAus (2006) Case Study: RAAF
passive cooling. formaldehyde). Richmond Squadron 36 and 37 HQ
Building available at:
Indoor air quality has been improved WASTE http://www.gbcaus.org/
through the use of low off-gassing Extensive waste storage areas
paint, carpet and composite wood have been provided in the building
products. External views and natural to facilitate waste separation and
light are provided for a significant recycling of office waste. In excess
proportion of work areas. Electric of 80% of construction waste diverted
lighting levels at 320 lux and high from landfill.
frequency ballasts further improve
occupant’s comfort by minimising the EMISSIONS/TRANSPORT
chances of flickering. Extensive facilities such as showers,
lockers and changing areas have
External views and natural light are been provided for cyclists including 20
provided for a significant proportion of secure bike spaces. In addition, visitor
work areas. Average lighting intensity bike spaces have also been provided.
for the NLA is approximately 2.44 In accordance to the Green Star
W/m² per 100 lux. High frequency requirements, 25% of parking spaces
ballasts further improve occupant’s were designed for small cars, in order
comfort by minimising the chances of to encourage the use of more efficient
flickering. Lighting was controlled by smaller cars.
combinations of daylight sensors and
occupant sensors. The aforementioned innovative
solutions and processes developed
MATERIALS for the project will inform Defence’s
Materials were selected to green building procedures for future
decrease any adverse impact on projects.
the environment, for example the
structural concrete was specified to
incorporate a minimum of 30% fly-ash.
More than 65% of timber used was
sourced from recycled stock including
timber used for external cladding and
internal flooring. Of the remaining
timber all but 5% of the total timber
used had certification for sustainable
timber, ensuring third party impartial
verification of the sustainability of the
Figure 67. RAAF Richmond.
064 ESD DESIGN GUIDE - OFFICE AND PUBLIC BUILDINGS
A B • emissions reduction units are
ABGR Base Building Brief generated via joint implementation
ABGR the Australian Building Greenhouse Working document which specifies at under Article 6 of the Kyoto Protocol,
Rating Scheme is the universally any point in time the relevant needs and • certified emission reduction units are
accepted benchmarking tool for energy aims, resources of the client and user, the generated and certified under the
consumption of commercial buildings in context of the project and any appropriate provisions of Article 12 of the Kyoto
Australia. It has been incorporated in other design requirements within which all Protocol, the Clean Development
rating systems to ensure a consistent subsequent briefing (when needed) and Mechanism, and
approach from industry to this important designing can take place. (Adapted from • verified emission reductions are
issue. (DEUS, 2005). definition of brief in ISO 9699). verified reductions in greenhouse gas
emissions below a pre-determined
Adaptive comfort BDP baseline.
Adds human behaviour to the comfort Australian Council of Building Design (Property Council of Australia, Sustainable
analysis. It assumes that, if changes Professionals – BPD has published Development Guide, 2001).
occur in the thermal environment to a multi-volume Environment Design
produce discomfort, then people will Guide containing literature on how to Carbon dioxide equivalent gases
generally change their behaviour and act reduce environmental impact of the built Greenhouse gases that contribute to
in a way that will restore their comfort. environment. (Melbourne Docklands ESD the greenhouse effect are referred to as
Such actions could include taking off Guide, Oct 2002). carbon dioxide equivalent gases since this
clothing, reducing activity levels or even is the most abundant greenhouse gas.
opening a window. The main effect of BCA (Property Council of Australia, Sustainable
such models is to increase the range of Building Code of Australia. Development Guide, 2001).
conditions that designers can consider
as comfortable, especially in naturally Biodegradable Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs)
ventilated buildings where the occupants A material capable of being decomposed Synthetic products which do not occur
have a greater degree of control over by bacteria or other living organisms as naturally and contain chlorine and fluorine;
their thermal environment. (Andrew Marsh a result of the action of micro-organisms. commonly used in various industrial
Square one - http://www.squ1.com). (Property Council of Australia, Sustainable processes and as refrigerants and, prior
Development Guide, 2001). to 1990, as a propellant gas for sprays.
Adhesives CFCs are a powerful greenhouse gas.
A substance capable of holding materials Biodiversity (Property Council of Australia, Sustainable
together by surface attachment. The variety of all life forms; the different Development Guide, 2001).
Adhesives are one source of off-gassing in plants, animals and micro-organisms, the
indoor environments. (Property Council of genes they contain and the ecosystems CFCs are used as a refrigerant. They are
Australia, Sustainable Development Guide, they form. (Property Council of Australia, the worst ozone depleting product and
2001). Sustainable Development Guide, 2001). the most significant cause of ozone layer
depletion. CFCs are being phased out as
AGO part of the Montreal Protocol. (Melbourne
Brownfield Site Docklands ESD Guide, Oct 2002).
Australian Greenhouse Office, now part of Land within an urban area on which
the Australian Government’s Department development has previously taken place.
of the Environment and Water Resources. (Corus Construction Centre glossary, Client brief
http://www.corusconstruction.com/page_ A project vision statement and sustainable
Air quality 9041.htm). development criteria provided to the
To do with the level of particulate, gases, design team. (Property Council of
vapours, pollens and micro-organisms Australia, Sustainable Development Guide,
Building monitoring systems or 2001).
in the air. (Property Council of Australia, Building Management System (BMS)
Sustainable Development Guide, 2001). A Building Management System includes Climate Change Levy
more of the systems and plans for review A tax on corporate energy use introduced
Alliance partnerships and improvement while the building
A long-term commercial partnering by the government in 1999 aimed at
monitoring system is a computerised reducing energy consumption. (Corus
arrangement that enhances project system that monitors the engineering
team innovation and avoids the cost of Construction Centre glossary, http://www.
services, security and other building corusconstruction.com/page_9041.htm).
tendering for team formation on every systems for the purpose of recording,
new project. This can assist integrated reporting and operational control of the
delivery of sustainable design objectives. systems to maximise safety, security, Cogeneration
(Property Council of Australia, Sustainable operational performance and for overall Generation of electricity combined with
Development Guide, 2001). cost minimisation and efficiency. the production of heat for commercial or
(Property Council of Australia, Sustainable industrial use. Excess electricity produced
Aquifer Development Guide, 2001). can be fed back into the power grid.
A geological formation that will yield water Cogeneration is an energy efficient way of
to a well in sufficient quantities to make using fossil fuels. (National Greenhouse
the production of water from this formation
C Strategy http://ngs.greenhouse.gov.
feasible for beneficial use; permeable Carbon credit au/glossary/).
layers of underground rock or sand that A term that refers to three types of units of
hold or transmit groundwater below the greenhouse gas reductions defined under
water table. (Property Council of Australia, the Kyoto Protocol:
Sustainable Development Guide, 2001).
ESD DESIGN GUIDE - OFFICE AND PUBLIC BUILDINGS 065
Commercial buildings Demountable
Typically refers to any non-residential Components or whole buildings which can Environmentally preferable products/
building such as a shopping centre, be dismantled and re-erected elsewhere. materials
office tower, business park, industrial (Corus Construction Centre glossary, Products that embody one or several
property or tourism and leisure asset. http://www.corusconstruction.com/page_ positive environmental attributes as
(Property Council of Australia, Sustainable 9041.htm). a result of deliberately eliminating or
Development Guide, 2001). reducing potential environmental impacts
across its life cycle. These products
Commingles Downcycling don’t have negative impacts on human
Materials all mixed together, such as The mechanical recycling of end-of-life health and the environment when
plastic bottles with glass and metal products which produces materials of compared with competing products. This
containers. Commingled recyclable inferior quality. The secondary material comparison may consider raw materials
materials require sorting after collection cannot substitute the virgin state, an acquisition, production, manufacturing,
before they can be recycled. Current example being crushed concrete used as packaging, distribution, reuse, operation,
collections in the CBD are usually plastics fill. (Corus Construction Centre glossary, maintenance, or disposal of the product.
marked 1, 2 and 3; glass beverage http://www.corusconstruction.com/page_ (EcoRecycle, 2003).
containers and aluminium and steel 9041.htm).
cans. Fully commingled collections also EPBC Act
include paper. (Department of Treasury Environment Protection and Biodiversity
and Finance, Reporting of Office-Based Dual pipe system Conservation Act 1999 (EPBC Act) is the
Environmental Impacts by Government A system where one pipe feeds potable Australian Government’s major piece
Departments: Guidance to Financial or drinking water, the second feeds of environmental legislation. It protects
Reporting Direction FRD24, July 2003). treated water, typically for toilet flushing the environment, particularly matters of
or irrigation – also called the purple or National Environmental Significance.
Commissioning lilac pipe. (Property Council of Australia,
The start-up phase of a new or renovated Sustainable Development Guide, 2001). ESD
building which includes testing and fine- Ecologically Sustainable Development
tuning of the HVAC, electrical, plumbing E – development that does not compromise
and other systems to assure proper Embodied energy the ability of future generations to enjoy
functioning and adherence to design The non-renewable energy consumed similar levels of development. This is done
criteria. Commissioning also includes in the acquisition of raw materials, their by minimising the effect of development
preparation of the systems operations processing, manufacture, transportation on the environment. (Melbourne
manual and instruction of the building to site and the construction process. Also Docklands ESD Guide, Oct 2002) Also
maintenance personnel. (Property Council the non-renewable energy consumed defined by the Australian Government
of Australia, Sustainable Development to maintain, repair, restore, refurbish or as ‘using, conserving and enhancing the
Guide, 2001). replace materials, components or systems community’s resources so that ecological
during the lifetime of a building. (Corus processes, on which life depends, are
Copper chrome arsenate (CCA) Construction Centre glossary, http://www. maintained, and the total quality of life,
A powerful preservative most commonly corusconstruction.com/page_9041.htm). now and in the future, can be increased’.
used to treat softwoods for external use to (NSESD, DEH 1992).
provide protection against fungi, termites EMP
and wood boring insects. Spills of CCA Environmental Management Plan – this F
can leave short-term residues of arsenic document outlines the environmental
and long-term residues of chromium Formaldehydes
requirements and responsibilities for A resin used as an adhesive, surface
in affected soils, which have serious an individual development as per the
health and environmental implications. coating, foam or in the manufacture
Docklands Authority requirements for the of laminates and sandwich panels.
(Property Council of Australia, Sustainable development of Melbourne Docklands).
Development Guide, 2001). Formaldehyde adhesives can present
(Melbourne Docklands ESD Guide, Oct a health hazard due to their off-gassing
2002). tendencies. (Property Council of Australia,
Cost benefit analysis Sustainable Development Guide, 2001).
A method of evaluating projects or EMS
investments by comparing the present Environmental Management System
value or annual value of expected benefits Forest Stewardship Council (FSC)
– this document outlines specific An international organisation promoting
to costs. (Property Council of Australia, requirements for planning implementation,
Sustainable Development Guide, 2001). responsible forest management. FSC
operation, checking and correct actions has developed principles for forest
regarding environmental issues. management which may be used for
D verifying the management of forest
Deconstruction Environmental Management System holdings and a system of tracing, verifying
A technique which is based on the A management system to identify, manage and labelling timber and wood products
old practice of dismantling buildings and reduce an organisation’s impact on that originate from FSC certified forests.
to enable redundant materials to be the environment. (Department of Treasury (Australian Paper www.australianpaper.
salvaged for reuse and recycling. (Corus and Finance, Reporting of Office-Based com.au/environs/glossary.asp).
Construction Centre glossary, http://www. Environmental Impacts by Government
corusconstruction.com/page_9041.htm). Departments: Guidance to Financial
Reporting Direction FRD24, July 2003).
066 ESD DESIGN GUIDE - OFFICE AND PUBLIC BUILDINGS
Fuel Cell by energy suppliers on behalf of their Its reports are widely cited and have been
Used to convert chemicals into electrical customers. (Property Council of Australia, highly influential in forming national and
energy. This is an apparatus used for Sustainable Development Guide, 2001). international responses to climate change.
combining fuel and oxides to generate
electricity. (Energy Australia www.energy. Green Star Indoor air quality (IAQ)
com.au). Green Star was developed and funded Includes the introduction and distribution
by industry and government. Green of adequate ventilation air, control of
G Star’s framework brings existing tools airborne contaminants and maintenance
Global warming potential (GWP) and standards together under one of acceptable temperature and relative
GWP is a measure of how much a given unified system. Green Star rating tools humidity. (Property Council of Australia,
mass of greenhouse gas is estimated to are relevant to building type, phase of Sustainable Development Guide, 2001).
contribute to global warming. It is a relative development cycle and geographical
scale which compares the gas in question location. Green Star awards points for Indoor environment quality (IEQ)
to that of the same mass of carbon dioxide best practice initiatives and, as such, This factor describes the cumulative
whose GWP is one. An exact definition projects that receive a Green Star Certified effects of indoor air quality, lighting
can be found at the IPCC web site. Rating have demonstrated leadership and and thermal conditions. Poor IEQ is
Examples of the GWP of gases are as are considered to be in the top quartile of responsible for health problems in the
follows: the market. Green Star rating tools are work place. (Melbourne Docklands ESD
• carbon dioxide has a GWP of exactly being released for all building types (office, Guide, Oct 2002).
1 (since it is the baseline unit to retail, education, health, residential etc.).
which all other greenhouse gases are Integrated design
compared.) Groundwater A design process that mobilises
• methane has a GWP of 21 Water within the earth that supplies multidisciplinary design input and
• nitrogen dioxide has a GWP of 310 wells and springs; water in the zone of cooperation, ideally to maximise and
• some hydrofluorocarbon (HFC) saturation where all openings in rocks and integrate environmental and economic
compounds have GWPs of several soil are filled, the upper surface of which life cycle benefits. (Property Council of
thousands (HFC-23 is 11,700). forms the water table. (Property Council of Australia, Sustainable Development Guide,
Australia, Sustainable Development Guide, 2001).
Greenfield site 2001).
Land on which no development has ISO 14000
previously taken place. Usually on the H International standards for EMS’ -
periphery of an existing built-up area. Hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs) ISO14001 and ISO14004 are international
(Corus Construction Centre glossary, HCFCs were used as the original standards concerning Environmental
http://www.corusconstruction.com/page_ replacement for CFCs and are still Management Systems, and include
9041.htm). commonly used. HCFCs, like CFCs, specifications and guidelines. (Melbourne
cause ozone depletion, but to a lesser Docklands ESD Guide, Oct 2002).
Greenhouse gases extent. HCFCs are being phased out
Gases which contribute to global warming under the Montreal Protocol. (Melbourne ISO 7730
by preventing the outward radiation of Docklands ESD Guide, Oct 2002). International standard for thermal
heat from the Earth which increases the comfort – this standard is based on a
atmosphere’s absorption of sunlight Hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) determination of the PMV (Predicted Mean
(the greenhouse effect). Greenhouse Transitional replacements for CFCs, they Vote) and PPD (Predicted Percentage
gases are measured in carbon dioxide are also greenhouse gases. (Property Dissatisfied) indices, and specification
equivalent units. Some greenhouse Council of Australia, Sustainable of the conditions for thermal comfort.
gases are naturally occurring (water Development Guide, 2001). (Melbourne Docklands ESD Guide, Oct
vapour, carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous 2002).
oxide and ozone). Others result from HVAC systems
human activities, the most powerful The equipment, distribution network and J
of which are: chloroflurocarbons terminals that provide either collectively
(CFCs), hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs), or individually the processes of heating,
perfluorocarbons (PFCs) and sulphur K
ventilation or air-conditioning to a building. Kyoto Protocol
hexafluoride (SF6). (Property Council of (Property Council of Australia, Sustainable
Australia, Sustainable Development Guide, An international agreement reached in
Development Guide, 2001). 1997 in Kyoto, Japan, which extends
the commitment of the United Nations
Green lease schedule I Framework Convention on Climate
A lease schedule that sets out the mutual Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. In particular, it sets targets for
obligation for building owners, managers Change (IPCC) future emissions by each developed
and tenants regarding environmental The IPCC was established in 1988 by two country over the first commitment period
performance. United Nations organisations, the World and foreshadows further action over future
Meteorological Organisation (WMO) commitment periods. (Property Council of
and the United Nations Environment Australia, Sustainable Development Guide,
Green power 2001).
Electricity generated from clean renewable Programme (UNEP) to assess the ‘risk
sources, such as the sun, wind, water and of human-induced climate change’. The
panel is open to all members of the WMO An international agreement to limit
organic matter. The electricity is bought greenhouse gas emissions. The protocol
ESD DESIGN GUIDE - OFFICE AND PUBLIC BUILDINGS 067
was adopted in 1997 and has been ratified NatHERS Phase Change Materials (PCM)
by 54 countries, including most developed National House Energy Rating Scheme These are materials which turn from one
countries. (Melbourne Docklands ESD – this is a national scheme used to rate phase to another (for example liquid
Guide, Oct 2002). the energy consumption of residential to gas, or solid to liquid) at a certain
buildings. (Melbourne Docklands ESD temperature – such as water at zero
L Guide, Oct 2002). degrees Celsius.
This scale measures the average energy of NSESD Photovoltaic
the noise level. It is the equivalent steady The National Strategy for Ecologically Generating electricity from the energy
state level of a fluctuating noise level. Sustainable Development sets out the of sunlight using photocells. (Property
When considered over a period of time T, broad strategic and policy framework Council of Australia, Sustainable
this is represented by the scale dB LAeqT. under which governments will Development Guide, 2001).
ASINZS 1269.1:1998 sets out the method cooperatively make decisions and take
for calculating this level. (Green Star- actions to pursue ESD in Australia. It will PMV
Office Design v2). be used by governments to guide policy Predicted Mean Vote is an international
and decision making, particularly in those measure, used for determining thermal
key industry sectors which rely on the comfort. It is based on surveys of the most
Life cycle assessment (LCA) utilisation of natural resources.
A technique for assessing the acceptable levels of indoor temperature,
environmental aspects and potential humidity and radiant heat for different
impacts associated with a product or O clothing and activity levels. (Melbourne
process, by compiling an inventory of Off-gassing Docklands ESD Guide, Oct 2002).
relevant inputs and outputs, evaluating The release of gases or vapours from solid
the potential environmental impacts materials in a form of evaporation of a slow Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs)
associated with those inputs and outputs, chemical change which produces indoor A group of synthetic chlorinated organic
and interpreting the results of the inventory air pollution for prolonged periods after compounds, toxic to humans and
analysis and impact assessment phases installation of a material. (Property Council identified as carcinogenic. They were
in relation to the objectives. (Property of Australia, Sustainable Development used mainly in older electrical capacitors
Council of Australia, Sustainable Guide, 2001). or transformers. (Property Council of
Development Guide, 2001). Australia, Sustainable Development Guide,
Operational energy 2001).
Life cycle costing (LCC) The energy consumed in heating,
A technique that enables a comparative cooling, lighting and powering equipment Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC)
cost assessment to be made for various and appliances in buildings. (Corus This common building material is
investment alternatives, over a specified Construction Centre glossary, http://www. mostly used for pipes and electrical
period of time, taking into account all corusconstruction.com/page_9041.htm). cables. Production of PVC requires toxic
relevant factors, both in terms of initial chemicals and heavy metals. These
capital costs and future estimated cost. Ozone Depletion Potential (ODP) additives risk polluting soil and waterways
The objective is to identify the most A number that refers to the amount of during PVC disposal. (Melbourne
economic overall choice. (Property ozone depletion caused by a substance. Docklands ESD Guide, Oct 2002).
Council of Australia, Sustainable The ODP is the ratio of the impact on
Development Guide, 2001). ozone of a chemical compared to the Potable water
impact of a similar mass of CFC-11. Thus, Water that is fit for human consumption.
Lux the ODP of CFC-11 is defined to be 1.0. (Property Council of Australia, Sustainable
Measure of the amount of light at a certain Other CFCs and HCFCs have ODPs Development Guide, 2001).
point. that range from 0.01 to 1.0. The halons
have ODPs ranging up to 10. Carbon PPD
tetrachloride has an ODP of 1.2, and Predicted Percentage Dissatisfied. This
M methyl chloroform’s ODP is 0.11. HFCs measure is linked with PMV. A PMV of 0
Montreal Protocol have zero ODP because they do not indicates a PPD of 5% and a PMV of +/-1
This international treaty was first signed contain chlorine. (US EPA web site www. indicates a PPD of 25%. This means that
in 1987 (now signed by 181 countries). It epa.gov/ozone/defns.html ). 25% of occupants perceive the space
sets a time schedule for the reduction and to be either warm or cool. (Melbourne
eventual elimination of ozone depleting Ozone layer depletion Docklands ESD Guide, Oct 2002).
substances. (Melbourne Docklands ESD The ozone layer protects earth from ultra
Guide, Oct 2002). violet rays, which are known to cause Project brief
cancer. Refrigerants such as CFCs and Typically a response to a client brief and is
N HCFCs contribute greatly to ozone layer prepared by the integrated design team.
NABERS depletion. (Melbourne Docklands ESD (Property Council of Australia, Sustainable
National Australian Built Environment Guide, Oct 2002). Development Guide, 2001).
Rating System – an environmental rating
tool for non-residential buildings that is P Q
now being developed by the Australian Photoelectric cell (PEcell)
Government. (Property Council of These are used to monitor the amount of
Australia, Sustainable Development Guide, light in a room.
068 ESD DESIGN GUIDE - OFFICE AND PUBLIC BUILDINGS
R S Impacts by Government Departments:
Recycled material SEMP Guidance to Financial Reporting Direction
Material that would otherwise be destined Site Environmental Management Plan – FRD24, July 2003).
for disposal but is diverted or separated this document guides and sets standards
from the waste stream, reintroduced as for construction and operation of new WMP
material feedstock and processed into developments. It includes strategies A waste management plan sets out the
marketed end products. (Property Council and processes to manage and minimise waste requirements and responsibilities of
of Australia, Sustainable Development environmental impacts. (Melbourne project. It is usually site specific and looks
Guide, 2001). Docklands ESD Guide, Oct 2002) at the minimisation, recycling and reuse
of waste through all onsite processes. It
Materials that have been reprocessed Sustainable development usually forms part of an EMP.
from recovered material by means of a Development that meets the needs of the
manufacturing process and made into present without compromising the ability X
a final product or into a component for of future generations to meet their own Xeriscape
incorporation into a product. (EcoRecycle, needs. (Property Council of Australia, Xeriscaping is derived from the Greek
2003). Sustainable Development Guide, 2001). word ‘xeros’, meaning ‘dry’ and
combined with ‘landscape’, xeriscape
Recycled products T means gardening with less than average
Materials that have been recovered, Toxic water. A trademarked term referring
processed and used as a raw material Any substance which causes harm to to water-efficient choices in planting
for the manufacture of a useful new living organisms, from very low to extreme and irrigation design. It refers to seven
product through a commercial process. toxicity. (Property Council of Australia, basic principles for conserving water
These products will contain a specified Sustainable Development Guide, 2001) and protecting the environment. These
percentage of material that would Toxic substances are identified in the include: (1) planning and design (2) use
otherwise have been disposed of as Australian National Pollutant Inventory. of well-adapted plants (3) soil analysis (4)
wastes. (EcoRecycle, 2003). practical turf areas (5) use of mulches (6)
Triple Bottom Line appropriate maintenance and (7) efficient
Recycling Measures the economic, social and irrigation. (Ecolodgical http://ecolodgical.
Includes paper, commingles and environmental sustainability of a project. A yourhomeplanet.com/glossary.php).
compostables accepted and recycled sustainable development aims for synergy
by contractors or internally (i.e. through rather than compromise between these Y
on-site worm farms). These figures can factors.
be extrapolated from waste assessments.
(Department of Treasury and Finance, Z
Reporting of Office-Based Environmental U
Impacts by Government Departments:
Guidance to Financial Reporting Direction V
FRD24, July 2003). VDU
Visual Display Units – computer monitors
Re-manufactured and other office equipment which include
Means to renew or restore a used product artificially illuminated surfaces.
into its original form or into a useful new
product through a commercial process. Volatile organic compounds (VOCs)
(EcoRecycle, 2003). Chemical compounds based on carbon
and hydrogen structure that are vaporised
Renewable at room temperatures. VOCs are one
A renewable product can be grown or type of indoor air contaminant. Although
naturally replenished or cleansed at a thousands have been identified in indoor
rate that exceeds human depletion of the air, only a few are well understood and
resource. (Property Council of Australia, regulated. (Property Council of Australia,
Sustainable Development Guide, 2001). Sustainable Development Guide, 2001)
These chemicals are found in paints and
Renewable Energy other building products. They are known
Renewable energy is obtained from to cause health problems, including
sources that can be sustained indefinitely. asthma and other respiratory ailments.
Examples of renewable energy systems (Melbourne Docklands ESD Guide, Oct
include photovoltaic solar collection, 2002).
solar thermal turbine generation and wind
power. (Melbourne Docklands ESD Guide, W
Oct 2002). Waste
All waste placed in landfill waste and
Reuse recycling streams (paper, green waste,
The recovery of a material to be used composts, commingles), including ‘one
again for a similar application without off’ clean outs, office relocations etc.
reprocessing. (Property Council of (Department of Treasury and Finance,
Australia, Sustainable Development Guide, Reporting of Office-Based Environmental
ESD DESIGN GUIDE - OFFICE AND PUBLIC BUILDINGS 069
ABGR and NABERS
PERFORMANCE BENCHMARKING be obtained to confirm that the
Incorporating sustainability in a design intent was met. Over time
building is no easy task. It takes this feedback loop will improve the
dedication and coordination standard of building design and
throughout the design, construction, encourage innovative solutions for
commissioning, operation and high efficiency buildings.
maintenance of the building to achieve
sustainable goals. ABGR is the universally accepted
benchmarking tool for energy
Throughout this process it is important consumption of commercial
to keep the end goal in mind. buildings in Australia, and it has been
Performance benchmarks provide a incorporated in other rating systems (DEW) in consultation with industry
measurement of this end goal. They to ensure a consistent approach from and stakeholders. It is a national
transform the technical measurement industry to this important issue. initiative managed by the NSW
of a sustainability impact into an Government Department of Energy,
intuitive and easily understood metric National Australian Built Environment Utilities and Sustainability (DEUS).
that shows the performance of the Rating System (NABERS) NABERS is able to provide ratings for
building on this issue relative to the All buildings have an impact on the office buildings, office tenancies and
rest of the market. environment. Energy is used to homes.
provide light, heating, cooling and NABERS OFFICE is a performance
The NSW Department of Energy, ventilation. Water is used for washing, based tool to assess the measured
Utilities and Sustainability manages drinking and air conditioning. Water operational impacts of existing
the two key performance benchmarks from storms needs to be managed. buildings. Environmental performance
for commercial property: Waste is generated. Occupants are is assessed against a comprehensive
affected by the quality of the air in set of key impact categories. ABGR
Australian Building Greenhouse Rating
scheme (ABGR) the building. Local biodiversity is is used to assess energy efficiency
www.abgr.com.au affected. Toxic materials are present. while a new tool to assess water use
Greenhouse gas emissions from efficiency, NABERS OFFICE WATER,
Australia’s commercial building sector NABERS is a performance-based was released in June 2006. This tool
are growing by 3 to 4% each year. sustainability rating system for measures water consumption on a
Commercial buildings produce 8.8% existing buildings, based upon the scale of 1 to 5 stars, reflecting the
of the national greenhouse emissions. ABGR methodology. NABERS will performance of the building relative
rate a residential or commercial to the market, from least efficient (one
The ABGR scheme is a ‘world first office building on the basis of its star) to best practice (five stars). The
initiative’ to help building owners measured operational impacts on the current market average is two and a
and tenants across Australia rate environment. half stars.
their greenhouse performance.
ABGR benchmarks a building’s As householders, building owners, Further tools are being developed
greenhouse impact on a scale of one managers or occupants we can to measure comprehensively the
to five, representing the building’s reduce these impacts. NABERS is full range of environmental impacts
performance relative to the market. designed to help you by giving a including: refrigerants (greenhouse
simple indication of how well you and ozone depletion potential),
ABGR can also be used to improve are managing these environmental stormwater runoff and pollution,
the greenhouse efficiency of buildings impacts compared with your peers in sewage, landscape diversity,
from the outset. New buildings can other homes or office buildings. transport, indoor environment,
target a high star rating, and bear occupant satisfaction, waste and
that target in mind while designing NABERS was developed by the presence of toxic materials.
the building. Once the building Australian Government Department of
55 Text for this page supplied by the Department of
is operational an ABGR rating will the Environment and Water Resources Energy, Utilities and Sustainability (DEUS).
070 ESD DESIGN GUIDE - OFFICE AND PUBLIC BUILDINGS
GBCA and Green Star accredited buildings
The Green Building Council of industry-owned, national, voluntary GREEN STAR CERTIFICATION
Australia is a national, not-for-profit environmental rating system for All Green Star rating tools recognise
organisation that is supported by both buildings. and reward initiatives that reduce the
industry and governments across environmental impact of development.
the country. Launched in 2002, the Green Star is the only rating system Points are awarded under eight
Green Building Council’s mission is to in Australia that evaluates the environmental categories where a
promote sustainable development and environmental impact of Australian project demonstrates that initiatives
drive the adoption of green building buildings at all phases of development have been met. A total score for each
practices through market-based and across all environmental environmental category is calculated
solutions. categories, including: and a weighting is applied to this
• management score that reflects the geographical
The council aims to drive the transition • indoor environmental quality location of the project and the
of the Australian property industry • energy environmental impact.
towards sustainability by promoting • transport
green building programmes, • water Green Star rating tools use stars to
technologies, design practices and • materials measure performance:
operations. Central to achieving these • land use and ecology • 4 Star Green Star Certified Rating
aims the council launched the Green • emissions. recognises and rewards ‘best
Star environmental rating system for practice’
buildings in 2003. INTERACTION WITH OTHER • 5 Star Green Star Certified Rating
TOOLS recongises and rewards ‘Australian
GREEN STAR Green Star was developed and excellence’ and
The Green Star environmental rating funded by industry and government. • 6 Star Green Star Certified Rating
system recognises and rewards Green Star’s framework brings recognises and rewards ‘world
environmental leadership in the existing tools and standards together leadership’.
building industry. Green Star rating under one unified system. Green Star
tools are being released for different rating tools are relevant to building GREEN STAR CERTIFIED
phases of development (i.e. design, type, phase of development cycle BUILDINGS
construction, procurement and and geographical location. Green 5 Star Green Star - Office As Built v1:
operation) and various building types Star awards points for best practice • 30 The Bond in Sydney NSW
(office, retail, education, health, initiatives and, as such, projects • RAAF Richmond Squadron 36
residential etc.). Green Star builds that receive a Green Star Certified and 37 Headquarters in Richmond,
on exisitng environmental rating Rating have demonstrated leadership NSW.
systems for buildings, including the and are considered to be in the top
UK’s ‘BREAAM’ (Building Research quartile of the market. 4 Star Green Star – Office As Built v1
Establishment Environmental • The Advertiser, Adelaide.
Assessment Methodology) and North Recognising the existence of other
America’s ‘LEED’(Leadership in regulatory tools and to ensure 6 Star Green Star - Office Design v1
Energy and Environmental Design) by project teams are not doubling up on • CH2, Melbourne, Victoria
establishing individual environmental their efforts, Green Star rating tools • 40 Albert Road, Melbourne,
measurement criteria relevant to the incorporate the Australian Building Victoria.
Australian marketplace and unique Greenhouse Rating (ABGR) scheme
environmental context. under the energy category. Green
Star also addresses other energy
Green Star rating tools use stars to efficiency initiatives such as
measure performance. Green Star on-site demand management, energy
is Australia’s only comprehensive, metering for base building and
tenancies and more.
56 Text for these pages supplied by the Green
ESD DESIGN GUIDE - OFFICE AND PUBLIC BUILDINGS 071
GBCA and Green Star accredited buildings
5 Star Green Star - Office Design v1 4 Star Green – Office Interiors v1
• 8 Brindabella Circuit, Canberra, • Australian Research Council
ACT tenancy at 8 Brindabella Park,
• RAAF Richmond Squadron 36 and Canberra
37 Headquarters in Richmond, • International Airport, Canberra,
• Flinders LinkStage 5 Office
Development, Adelaide, SA 100 other projects are registered
• Bendigo Bank Headquarters, • 48 applying for Green Star - Office
Bendigo VIC Design ratings
• 500 Collins Street, Melbourne VIC. • 18 applying for Green Star
- Office As Built ratings (some
5 Star Green Star - Office Design v1 also targeting Green Star - Office
• Bordo International Pty Ltd • 33 applying for Green Star - Office
Headquarters in Scoresby, VIC Interiors ratings
• Kangan Batman TAFE Automotive • 1 for Green Star - Office Existing
Centre of Excellence in VIC. Building rating.
For updated information see:
4 Star Green Star – Office Design v1 www.gbcaus.org
• 151 Pirie, Adelaide, SA
• 60 Light Square in Adelaide, SA.
5 Star Green Star – Office Design v2
• City Central Tower 1, Adelaide, SA
• Hume City Council Office Building
in Broadmeadows, VIC
• Green Square South Tower,
• Metropolitan Fire Brigade, 450
• Bendigo Bank Headquarters,
• Digital Harbour - Port 1010,
• Forestry SA, Mount Gambier, SA
• Quad 4, Sydney Olympic Park,
5 Star Green Star - Office Interiors v1
• Morgan Stanley Tenancy at 30 The
Bond, Sydney, NSW
• RAAF Richmond Squadron 36 and
37 Headquarters in Richmond,
• Investa Office, Lv 6 and 7/126
Phillip St, Sydney NSW.
072 ESD DESIGN GUIDE - OFFICE AND PUBLIC BUILDINGS
40 Albert Road ..................... 55, 56, 57, 58 Materials ............................................27, 28
30 the Bond ....................................... 39, 40 Mechanical plant .....................................21
8 Brindabella Circuit ................... 36, 37, 38 Mixed mode ventilation ...........................21
60L: 60 Leicester Street ............. 52, 53, 54 Museums...............................59, 60, 61, 62
Ann Street ......................................... 43, 44
ABGR...................................................... 70 NABERS ......................................6, 8, 9, 70
Appropriate sizing of lighting, heating and National Museum of Australia .....49, 50, 51
cooling systems ..................................... 21 Natural light .............................................19
Aquifer Storage ...................................... 34 Natural ventilation..............................19, 21
Australian government water use........... 31
Occupant satisfaction .......................15, 38
BCA .......................................................... 4 Orientation ...............................................19
Biodiversity ............................................. 35 Ozone depletion ................................26, 38
Building management systems (BMS) .. 23
Passive design ..................................19, 20
Case studies ..................................... 36-64 Photovoltaic systems ..............................24
Climatic design....................................... 20 Potable water reduction ..........................32
Cooling towers ....................................... 33
Council House 2 ............................... 41, 42 RAAF Richmond ................................63, 64
Radiant cooling .......................................21
Design ............................ 10, 11, 12, 13, 14 Rating tools .......................................7, 8, 9
Renewable energy ..................................24
Ecologically Sustainable Development
(ESD) ........................................................ 4 Sensors ...................................................22
Ecology .................................................. 35 SES headquarters .............................45, 46
Embodied energy............................. 24, 27 Shading ...................................................19
Embodied water ..................................... 28 Social sustainability ...........................12, 15
Energy ............... 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, Solar electricity ........................................24
Environmental Management System Solar hot water ........................................24
(EMS)...................................................... 14 Stormwater ..............................................34
Environmentally sustainable building
design............................................... 11, 12 Thermal cooling.......................................19
Equipment purchasing ........................... 23 Thermal heating ......................................19
Floor plate design .................................. 20 Thermal stack ..........................................20
Galleries ............................... 59, 60, 61, 62 Toxicity in manufacture and use .............27
Government ESD commitments .......... 5, 6 Transport .................................................25
Green building tools ..................... 6, 7, 8, 9
Green power........................................... 24 Waalitj building: Murdoch University .47, 48
Green Star.................................................... Waste ................................................29, 30
4, 6, 7, 9, 13, 17, 26, 28, 35, 36, 41, 71, 72 Waste management plan ..................13, 29
Greenhouse effect.................................. 18 Water .....................................31, 32, 33, 34
Water conservation ...............31, 32, 33, 34
Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) .......................... 16 Water reuse .............................................33
Indoor Environment Quality (IEQ) .... 16, 17 Water use reduction ..........................32, 33
Integrated design ....................... 12, 13, 14
Xeriscape (water sensitive landscaping) 33
Land use ................................................ 35
Leaks (infiltration) ................................... 19 Zoning .....................................................22
Leaks (refrigerant) .................................. 26
Libraries ................................ 59, 60, 61, 62
Life Cycle Assessment (LCA)................. 11
Light............................................ 17, 19, 21
ESD DESIGN GUIDE - OFFICE AND PUBLIC BUILDINGS 073
074 ESD DESIGN GUIDE - OFFICE AND PUBLIC BUILDINGS