"Introduction to Logic and Critical Thinking"
Introduction to Logic and Critical Thinking Past Paper References and Evaluations By Zuhaib Gull BBA 3-D PDF Creator - PDF4Free v2.0 http://www.pdf4free.com Q 1: Justify that persuasive skill…………..competition? Answer 1: We are living in the world of information technology, where we are facing competition and information race every time. To meet the competition or stay in it, managers have to be more creative; must handle the information and problems logically. We are living in a world where markets have become open markets: businesses have moved from resource utilization to resource mobilization; this because the market does not want to lose its clients, as the managers are working to facilitate them more and more. This is where manager’s skills are required and the one, who is skillfully successful, becomes successful in the world of I.T. too. Persuasive skills are very important when dealing with the important essential skills of a manager. Persuasion is a process where one can change the mind set of other person. Michael Foucault worked on the same principles of persuasion by focusing on the minds of the people. He wanted to create a tilt by controlling the minds of the people without physical control. His theory was known as ‘Social Discourse Phenomenon’. Effective communication effective is when there is love, interest and passion being shared. Persuading someone can only be done if you can actually communicate effectively once you can convince that whatever you are saying is right then you are successful. Being a manager, one should have interpersonal skills to motivate others. These skills cannot be imitated from others. The business today wants people who are intellectually strong. This is because competition is on the rise. You have more than one option to go for. Once, you critically think about your product and create an idea which is innovative and unique and then you persuade the audience by effective communication. Eventually, you reach a stage where you start leading. Leading the market can only be done if you are very good at persuading skills. This can be shown from the following tables: Effective Communic Persuasion ation Leading PDF Creator - PDF4Free v2.0 http://www.pdf4free.com Hence, its be proved that managers lacking in persuasion skills may lag behind on today’s world of competition because, apart from other skills of a manager, persuasion helps a manager affectively compete in the cut throat competition. Answer 1: “Persuasive Skill Helps A Manager To Be A Leader To Affectively Compete In To The Cut-Throat Competition” Who is a Manager? A manager is an individual who stands within a four sided paradox: Top Manageme nt Suppliers Manager Clients Employees Standing within this paradox, his role is to achieve the following targets is the cut throat and contemporary business of today’s world: - • Product Creation • Product Management • Team Creation • Team Management • Handling the Suppliers • Handling the Workers • Handling the Top Management • Marketing of the product • Market Research • Conceiving the top management for now, creative and innovative products. PDF Creator - PDF4Free v2.0 http://www.pdf4free.com Objectives of Persuasion The main objective of persuasion is: Change of Mind Change in Beliefs Influence Lead In the above four objectives of persuasion the main point for a manager in persuasion is to lead. Persuasion Effectiveness Leadership Now, the role of the managers is stated before and his persuasion need, that is, leadership is also stated. In the world of contemporary businesses where a manager is working in a changing environment, the basic ability that he requires is leadership which is attained through effectiveness of his objectives, information, and communication. In addition to this, the persuasive skill which has two routes of being convinced: Central Route: Capturing the mind through effectiveness and influence. A manager revolves around the three skills to prove him to be a generalist who makes his customers, employees and top management satisfied at the same time without any conflicts. A manager uses his persuasive skills effectively and efficiently to become a leader. PDF Creator - PDF4Free v2.0 http://www.pdf4free.com He presents his views and ideas in such a convincing and influential manner that the four audiences he targets start believing in what he says and their beliefs and state of mind changes. They start following the manager and hence, make him his leader. Question 2: Write an argumentative essay on one of the following: Ø Value Of CQ In Professionalism Ø Learning Is Fun Answer 2: VALUE OF CQ IN PROFESSIONALISM Professionalism means completely qualified in a certain field. When a person is completely aware of and has a complete know-how of a particular field, then that person is called a professional of that field. This needs a lot of hard work, determination and commitment to reach this stage: CQ, however, is called cultural quotient. This means that the professional should be well aware of the cultural diversities of the world when he steps into the world of business. Back in few years, professionals mostly depended upon IQ, information quotient. They thought providing information is the basic thing in professionalism. Then, with the passage of time this IQ changed into EQ that is emotional quotient. Professionals started working on targeting the emotions of the customers. Now, due to the dawn of I.T, EQ has been replaced to CQ professionals before coming in to the business must be fully aware of cultural diversities. This gradual change has occurred because the audience of the market today, is well aware of the conditions surrounding the economy. The use of electronic media has made everything within reach. Every third of a population has much knowledge that it can understand what is needed. Adapting to culture is now even more important than before. For example, Telenor telecommunications is a foreign company, operating within the physical bounds of Pakistan and due to cultural adaptations, it is successful. They focused on the culture and persuaded many in doing so. Similarly Starbucks was initiated as a single coffee shop but now with success in cultural adaptation, it has its chains located all over the urban cities of the world. Hence, value of CQ in today’s business world has very important results because unless and until a company is not well aware of the diverse cultures it operates in, there is no guaranteed survival in a cut-throat competition. PDF Creator - PDF4Free v2.0 http://www.pdf4free.com Answer 2: LEARNING IS FUN In everyday life, one comes to know that simple tasks and activities that he/she does for more fun turn out into the wonder of learning where that individual becomes aware of different skills and realities. I will cite a few examples that will prove that acts of learning are fun. • A painter mixing colors to create a new set of diverse colors. • A newborn baby plays with his toys just for fun but in truth, he learns different ways of arranging, combining and differentiating objects and colors from their outlook. • In the case of Shell Co., new techniques of oil reservation are learned for use. It was in fact a child presented when he was drinking milkshake from a cup and a bending straw. When he finished it, he still wanted to have the little droplets of it that were on the inner side of the glass. He inserted the straw and started sucking the remainder through the bended part. This part of fun turned into a major skill of learning. These examples prove that the contemporary world with a learning environment evolves out of small actions of innocence and fun. This kind of learning is not a boorish or a boring word but a practical application of fun activities which we do in our everyday life. Question 4: Illustrate the use…………..life? Answer 4: Critical Thinking is a process of application of reason. To process information and to find facts is its purpose. It is actually an art of developing a conscious attitude towards everything. Information evaluation is the process of assessing the credibility of information and then from that gathering the material which is required. These two things are able to improve our own life style completely. With the help of critical thinking we will be able to evaluate information effectively and devise solutions to unsolved problems faced on several occasions. We can change the problems into opportunities. Information can be used to create different ideas but this can also be done with systematic handling of information which is (AR) (AR): Idea Generation: v Replication v Application v Retention v Attention PDF Creator - PDF4Free v2.0 http://www.pdf4free.com Once we start replicating information, we are able to create unique and innovative ideas. Being a critical thinker, one analyses the information from every point of view. Even the use of words and pun created in words can change the whole idea. Critical thinking helps to create new ideas which lead to creativity. In essence, it leads to leadership. Leaders hip Contribution Creativity Idea Generation Thus, you can become a trend setter or an idea generator following Critical thinking evaluation of information helps us to find similarities and differences. Between things, one can positively analyze information and negatively analyze it. Both carrying out in normal condition would help create a better solution to many problems, for example, khussa was a normal, traditional wear, where as an office wear was a formal shoe. Now with critical thinking and perfect information evaluation, they are both combined together in a ‘khussa style office wear’. This is how things can be changed when you are well aware of the two incidents. Hence proved, that Critical Thinking and information evaluation are key elements of change in one’s life style. PDF Creator - PDF4Free v2.0 http://www.pdf4free.com Question 3: Compare and Contrast ……………. Slanters? Answer 3: Innuendo: It is a way of presenting a negative message in a positive manner. The negativity of the message is not conveyed directly or openly. “Is he telling the truth?” “Yes, this time he is.” Loaded Question: It is a question where you insinuate the negative effect of a question by undermining it in the question but does not say it directly revealing the assumption. “Have you stopped beating your son?” Comparison: • Both are slanters • Both provide revealing information • Both minimize the bad effect and show a positive or a normal perspective. Contrasts: • Innuendo is a statement but a loaded question is a form of interrogation. • In innuendo, assumptions are not made, but in loaded questions, assumptions are taken as a basis. Weaslers: Weaslers are small words that are used for hiding in a message “Sugarless gum is for patients who chew gum”. Proof Surrogates: It is a message which is often accompanied by a proof of that message. “I swear this happened!” Comparison: • Both deal with no argumentative persuasions • Both deal with information • Both have less use of vocabulary Contrasts: • Proof Surrogates provide an proof, where as weaslers carry dubious interpretations. • Weaslers need evaluation, where as, proof surrogates are direct and simple. PDF Creator - PDF4Free v2.0 http://www.pdf4free.com Question 5: How do you Understand………..Justify? Answer 5 Behavior and Personality: The behavior of a person is actually his attitude towards the external environment and the way he responds to it. The behavior is an instrument to define an individual’s personality. Application of FRISCO in Behavior and Personality: FRISCO is defined as: • F: Focus • R: Reasoning • I: Inference • S: Situation • C: Clarity • O: Overview Critical Thinking which is achieved through FRISCO is actually the careful and deliberate determination of accepting rejecting or suspending a judgment or a claim. The level of confidence determines its fate. When a person interacts with his external environment, he responds to it likewise. But for a critical thinker who uses the knowledge of FRISCO to deal reason with any information that he gets is entirely different. Even a single bit of information if given critical thinking can result into a big change either in your self or your perspective of the world. This out of the box approach makes a person first focus on the main issue leaving behind all the other distracting information. We are subjected to make induction and deductions in our behavior pending on the analysis of the similarities and differences between our personality and others. One can eventually check the effects of this adaptation methodology to either look deeper into his/her situation or for other reasons. The individual in the long run makes an amendment and this thus, has to be evaluated depending on the information present. By doing so he now has his own power of knowledge to accept or reject whatever that he comes across in the world of changing environments. He has come out of the box where he used to be a hollowed and could not utilize his skill of critical thinking. This man now stands in a state of personal deposition where he can: • Learn • De-learn The Creativity Bench • Relearn I.T. Department www.creativitybench.com PDF Creator - PDF4Free v2.0 http://www.pdf4free.com