A Quick Lesson in Search Tips by theslasher

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									A Quick Lesson in Search Tips
      Yahya Pakih yahya@mel.psz.utm.my




Springboard to New Knowledge
Training Objectives
            Refresh knowledge of Boolean logic
            Learn to search using the LexisNexis style
             search syntax
            Become familiar with searchable bibliographic
             elements in ScienceDirect
            Understand how the ScienceDirect Full-text
             Collection differs from the ScienceDirect
             Abstract Databases
            Learn how to apply ScienceDirect
             personalisation features
            Gain online experience from hands-on
             ScienceDirect practice
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Full-text Collection
            All Journals – Subscribed Titles – Non-Subscribed Titles
       – Subject Collections – Back Files – Reference Works – Book Series


            Full-text articles with access to all bibliographic
             information plus abstracts
                   citations (author, title, journal), abstracts
            Search is free text
                   no indexes
            Search can be limited by subject
            Search recall often results in high retrieval
            Relevance of retrieval is context dependent
                   where search terms appear in text of article or
                    abstract
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Abstract Databases
             BEILSTEIN Abstracts – BIOTECHNOBASE – Ei Compendex
              – Elsevier BIOBASE – EMBASE – FLUIDEX – GEOBASE –
             OceanBase – World Textiles – MEDLINE – BIOSIS Previews
                   – INSPEC – EconLit – PsycINFO – SD Navigator


            Search form adapts to specific database
            Database records include all bibliographic
             information and abstracts plus indexing terms
                   common terms (author, title, journal)
                   specialised fields (indexing, classification, coding)
                   abstracts




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Abstract Databases (cont’d)
             BEILSTEIN Abstracts – BIOTECHNOBASE – Ei Compendex
              – Elsevier BIOBASE – EMBASE – FLUIDEX – GEOBASE –
             OceanBase – World Textiles – MEDLINE – BIOSIS Previews
                   – INSPEC – EconLit – PsycINFO – SD Navigator


            Subject searching through thesaurus
                   controlled vocabulary
                   search retrieval more precise
            Links to full-text articles
                   on ScienceDirect
                   through CrossRef
                   via local linking resolver (open URL)


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Abstract Databases (cont’d)




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Quick Search
         Appears on                                            Context dependent:
         every page                                            journals, reference
                                                               works, databases, etc.




          Limited field search:                                Search terms are ANDed;
          titles, abstracts,                                   use quotation marks to
          authors, keywords                                    search a phrase

                 Quick Search includes:
                 All journals             ~ Subscribed reference works and books

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Practice Searches (1)
       Use Quick Search mode to:
           Find articles on public attitudes to recycling
           Locate any research about road rage




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Getting Started




                                    All Sources search form defaults to
                                   Journals, Books and Reference Works

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Getting Started: Journals




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Getting Started: Abstract Databases




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Getting Started: Reference Works




              Consider using the table of contents, subject classification
              or subject index for the specific reference work

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Getting Started: Book Series




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Getting Started: WWW




          Stay in ScienceDirect but go beyond it
           to find more information on the Web

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SCIRUS


                                                        Free award
                                                        winning science
                                                        specific search
                                                        engine available
                                                        on the Web




                                http://www.scirus.com
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Basic Search Mode
           For simple, straightforward searches
           Guides through the basic search elements
           Drop-down menus list all searchable fields
            available
           No need for complex search language
                   Basic search form offers step-by-step process




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Basic Search Mode (cont’d)




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Boolean Operator: AND


                                     AND              AND connects
                                                      different aspects and
                                                      decreases retrieval


           Select AND when all terms must appear in each
           citation
               – kidney AND liver
               retrieves citations containing BOTH terms



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Boolean Operator: AND (cont’d)
           Narrows your search and decreases the number
            of citations to review
           Usually used for unrelated terms
           When searching for a phrase which contains the
            word “and”, omit the word (and) from your
            search
                   profit loss
                    retrieves citations containing the phrase “profit
                    and loss”




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Boolean Operator: AND (cont’d)



                   anterior cruciate ligament


                   football




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Boolean Operator: OR


           OR connects synonyms                       OR
            or related aspects and
                increases retrieval


            Select OR when either of the terms may
            appear in each citation
               – aspirin OR salicylic acid
               retrieves citations containing EITHER term



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Boolean Operator: OR (cont’d)
            Broadens your search and increases the number
             of citations to review
            Usually used for synonyms
                   Also current jargon or buzzwords
            Include alternative words, abbreviations and
             irregular plurals
                   women OR woman
            Avoid words that are too general
                   cell, behavior




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Boolean Operator: OR (cont’d)



                   discoid lupus erythematosus


                   DLE




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Boolean Operator: AND NOT

                                                      AND NOT excludes
                 AND                                  or negates unwanted
                 NOT                                  aspects and
                                                      decreases retrieval


          Select AND NOT so that the term does not
          appear in each citation
             – aspirin AND NOT motrin
             retrieves citations EXCLUDING citations
             containing motrin FROM citations containing
             aspirin

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Boolean Operator: AND NOT (cont’d)
            Narrows your search by removing terms and
             decreases the number of citations to review
            Usually used to eliminate terms which may be
             included in some of the citations but are not
             relevant to the topic
            Must be used at the end of a search string
            USE WITH CAUTION:
             May eliminate relevant material
                   tumor AND NOT malignant




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Boolean Operator: AND NOT (cont’d)



                   Burkitt’s lymphoma


                   African




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Practice Searches (2)
       Use the Journals Basic Search mode to:
           Find articles on Chlamydia infections in the
            koala
           Locate a paper by an author named Toko about a
            device called an “electronic tongue”




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Advanced Search Mode
           For more complex, complicated searches
           Provides flexibility of full Boolean searching
           Allows the use of:
                Truncation or wildcard characters
                Proximity connectors
                Qualification to any data field
               NOTE:
                 Can be used in the Basic Search Form as well
           Employs LexisNexis search syntax




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Advanced Search Mode (cont’d)




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LexisNexis Search Syntax
     FieldName (SearchTerm)
          e.g. keywords(neurotoxin)
     Wildcard Characters
          Exclamation mark (!) truncates the root word
          Asterisk (*) replaces a character in the word
     Proximity Connectors
          W/nn
               e.g. pain W/5 morphine
          NOT W/nn
          PRE/nn
               e.g. neonatal PRE/3 screening
          W/SEG
               e.g. lesion W/SEG pancreatic

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Wildcard Characters (Truncation)
             Used for variant spelling of search terms
             including suffixes:

       ! finds a root word plus all the words made by
         adding letters to the end of it
                   behav! finds behave, behavioral, behaviour, etc.

       * replaces a character anywhere in a word,
         except the first character
                   wom*n finds woman and women
                   cannot use *esophagus
               Use * to hold a space for variations in spelling
                sul**ur finds sulphur and sulfur




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Proximity Connectors
             Used to specify how close search terms can be
             to each other in a phrase, in the same sentence,
             or in the same paragraph:

       W/nn
         used to specify the number of words between
         search terms:
             w represents within
             nn represents a number from 1 – 255
                   pain W/5 morphine
               Does not specify word order
                finds pain being treated by morphine
                and morphine being used to treat pain

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Proximity Connectors (cont’d)
       W/nn (cont’d)

           To find search terms in the same phrase
            use W/3, W/4 or W/5
           To find terms in the same sentence
            use W/15 or W/S
           To find words in the same paragraph
            use W/50 or W/P




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Proximity Connectors (cont’d)
       PRE/nn
        finds two words where the first word must
        precede the second by a specified number of
        words
                   neonatal PRE/3 screening
               Does specify word order
                finds neonatal and paediatric screening
                but not screening in neonatal clinics




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Proximity Connectors (cont’d)
       W/SEG
        finds words that appear in the same field
        (title, keywords, references, etc.)
                   lesion W/SEG pancreatic
               Of limited use in ScienceDirect
                useful if searching full text and/or free text
                prefer searching specific fields




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Data Field Qualification
             Used to limit searches to specific fields:
            Type the field name with the search term in
             parentheses
                   keywords(neurotoxin)
            Searchable bibliographic elements include:
             authors, title, journal name, abstract, keywords,
             references, full text, etc.
            Omitting a field name, searches all fields of the
             database




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Searching Author Names
           Author names appear in various formats and as
            given in the source documents
                   order of the surname and first name(s)
                   presentation of multiple initials
                   name with or without middle initial(s)
                   first name given in full or abbreviated
           Full stops are interpreted as spaces
                   R.J. Smith = R J Smith




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Searching Author Names (cont’d)
            Use proximity connectors
                   smith W/1 r
                    retrieves articles by R Smith and Smith, R
                   raymond W/3 smith
                    retrieves articles by Raymond Smith, Raymond J.
                    Smith, Raymond J.A. Smith, etc.
            Use wildcard character
                   r! smith
                    retrieves articles by R. Smith, Ray Smith,
                    Raymond Smith, etc.
            Use a combination of techniques
                   smith W/3 r!
                    retrieves all possible name representations
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Searching Author Names (cont’d)



                   authors (r! w/3 smith)




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Using LexisNexis Search Syntax
            How do I search for someone’s name?
            What if I don’t know the author’s first name?
            What if I’m not sure how to spell an author’s last
             name?
            What if I want to find a word within a few words
             of another word?
            What if I want to find words or phrases in the
             same area or section of the document?
            What if I want to look for an author from a
             specific university department?

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Using LexisNexis Search Syntax (cont’d)



                   (malolactic w/3 ferment!) and (stabilis! or stabiliz!)
                   and (wine* or winemaking or winer!) and title (red
                   w/3 (grape* or wine*)) and not champagne




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Practice Searches (3)
       Use Journals Advanced Search mode to:
           Locate information on using St John’s Wort for
            depression
           Find review articles on zoonoses




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Search Within Results



           Use the query box on the search results page
                   Condensed version of advanced search query
           Enter terms to refine original search query
           Searches all fields of the database
           Use LexisNexis search syntax to specify search
            fields
                   FieldName(SearchTerm)
           Perform an unlimited number of search
            refinements

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Search Within Results



                             TITL-ABS-KEY(prevent!)




     All refinements performed appear in Search History

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Search History




                                                                      Only available with
                                                                       personal login




                                    Activate from search forms page



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Search History (cont’d)




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Query Building



  


  




          Only search queries from the same
           content source can be combined
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Practice Searches (4)
       Use Search History in Journals Search
       mode to:
           Search for studies on the role of green tea in
            cancer prevention
           Find articles on the role of the saccharomyces
            yeast in winemaking




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Document Limit Override
           ScienceDirect DOES NOT limit the number of
            documents that a search finds
           ScienceDirect DOES limit the number of
            documents displayed to 1,000 records
           Broad searches may produce hundreds of
            thousands of results
                   Words that are too general (heart, brain, blood)
           A search retrieving more than 10,000 documents,
            prompts a system message



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Document Limit Override: Search Form



                     continue and receive many results

                                     Overriding the
                                     document limit
                                     may take some
                                     time to produce
                                     search results


                         refine the search




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Document Limit Override: Quick Search



                                                                       refine the search




                                                      continue and receive many results




                              Overriding the document limit may take
                              some time to produce search results

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Searching ScienceDirect
           Conduct a basic search using Boolean logic
           Perform an advanced search using LexisNexis
            style search syntax
           Edit a search for more precise and limited results




                Too many citations?                   Too few citations?



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Too Many Citations
           Are your search terms too broad?
           Can you adjust your query so that it is narrower?
           Can you reduce the number of results by
            excluding resources containing a keyword or
            phrase?
           Can you rank your results so the most useful
            ones appear first?




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Too Few Citations
           Have you misspelled any words?
           Are you being too restrictive by requiring too
            many search terms to be present?
           Are your search terms too specific?
           Check your Boolean logic
           Are you using the right database?




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Searching ScienceDirect (cont’d)
           Save a search
           Recall (re-run) saved searches to retrieve
            updated information on your subject
           Schedule a saved search to run periodically for
            updated information and receive email alerts of
            the results
           Modify or delete a saved search




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Search Results
            A list of articles, many of which are available
                   in Summary Plus
                    (with bibliographic citation, abstract, article
                    outline hypertext linked to the corresponding
                    section in the full-text HTML format, thumbnail
                    images and cited references with links)
                   and/or full text
                    (in either HTML or PDF format)
            Select, retrieve, email and export items from a
             search hit list
            Arrange search hit list according to relevance
             ranking or document date

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Search Results (cont’d)




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Search Results Citation Display



           Use the link from a search results page to view
                   either Citations only (authors and title)
                   or Partial Abstracts + Citations
                   or Full Abstracts + Citations
           Search terms are highlighted




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Email Search Results




                                     Email includes links
                                     directly to articles


         Use the link from a search results page
                 or an individual article
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Exporting Citations
           Use the link from a search results page or an
            individual article
           To a citation manager
                   Reference Manager
                   Procite
                   EndNote
           In ASCII format




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Alert Service
       Only available with personal login:
           Search Alerts
           Citation Alerts
           Journal Issue Alerts




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Search Alerts




 Set up
 via
 Search
 results
 page




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Search Alerts (cont’d)




                         63
My Alerts




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Citation Alerts




                            Set up from individual article page,
                    or use the link from “My Profile” or via “My Alerts”




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New Journal Issue Alerts




                                 Set up from journal home page,
                       or use the link from “My Profile” or via “My Alerts”



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Support Services
           User aids
                   Quick reference guides, user manual
           ScienceDirect Info site
                   Product descriptions
                   More tips and tricks
                   Link from home page
           SD Connect e-newsletter
           Product Trainings via Webex
           ScienceDirect Online Tutorials
           Help desk to assist librarians and users
                   Connectivity and access
                   Functionality
                   Forgotten passwords
                   Missing content
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Contact Us
   Need assistance with searching, user aids or
   database content, or have comments?
   Please contact your ScienceDirect help desk:

       Asia and Australia (excluding Japan)

         Phone:       + 65 6 349 0222
         Fax:         + 65 6 733 1510
         Email:       asiainfo@elsevier.com
                      sginfo@sciencedirect.com
         Website:     http://asia.elsevier.com

       Japan

         Phone:       + 81 3 5561 5034
         Email:       jpinfo@sciencedirect.com

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  Elsevier
       Building Insights.
       Breaking Boundaries.




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