AP Biology 2007-2008 by xld14276

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									                                     AP Biology
                                     2007-2008
COURSE DESCRIPTION/OVERVIEW
The AP Biology course is designed to be the equivalent of a college introductory course
and includes topics regularly covered in a college biology course for majors. This course
is designed for students who successfully complete Biology I and Chemistry. There is a
lot of reading and studying required for this course. My main goals are for my students
to have a good understanding of the concepts in biology and a grasp of its relevance to
themselves and society. The class meets on alternating days on an AB Block schedule.
Each block centers around a 35-45 minute lecture with accompanying activities unless a
lab activity is scheduled. (C7)

PHILOSOPHY
I enjoy teaching Biology because I see it as an opportunity to expose students to biology
that is all around them and everything they do is connected to biology. Students are
encouraged to focus on understanding important relationships, processes, mechanisms,
and potential extensions and applications of concepts and possible implications to their
environment and their well being. Less important is the memorization of specialized
terminology and technical details. (C7)

TEXTBOOK
The textbook used is AP Biology, 7th edition by Neil Campbell and Jane Reece, Pearson-
Cummings, 2005. Students also use the AP Biology Lab Manual for Students and are
encouraged to purchase (NOT REQUIRED) Cliffs AP Biology Preparation Guide, Phillip
E. Pack.

The College Board outlines the following curricular requirements for a
course to be designated as “AP Biology”:
       The teacher has read the most recent AP Biology Course Description, available as
       a free download on the AP Biology Course Home Page.
       The course emphasizes the biological concepts as specified in the three
       overarching topics listed in the Topic Outline in the Course Description:
           o Molecules and Cells
           o Heredity and Evolution
           o Organisms and Populations
       The course provides students with an opportunity to develop a conceptual
       framework for modern biology emphasizing:
           o an understanding of science as a process rather than an accumulation of
               facts;
           o recognition of evolution as the foundation of modern biological models
               and thought;
           o the integration of the general topics of biology through the eight major
               themes as specified in the Course Description;
             o and applications of biological knowledge and critical thinking to
                 environmental and social concerns.
         The course includes a laboratory component that fulfills all of the objectives of
         the recommended AP Biology labs as listed in the Course Description. Students
         must spend a minimum of 25% of instructional time engaged in hands-on
         laboratory work.

Course Planner
The course is organized into 7 units, focused around the eight major themes of the AP
Biology course. The lecture for each unit incorporates these themes. (C6)
   o Theme 1-Science as a Process
   o Theme 2-Evolution
   o Theme 3-Energy transfer
   o Theme 4-Continuity and change
   o Theme 5-Relationship of Structure to Function
   o Theme 6-Regulation
   o Theme 7-Interpendence in Nature
   o Theme 8-Science, Technology, and Society

Topic Outline For Year
Below is an outline of topics covered in this course with percentage goals for each major category.

Topics                                               Percentage of AP             Approximate Days
                                                     Exam                         of Class Time
Chemistry of Life
Water                                                           7%                            10
Organic Molecules in organisms
Free energy changes
Enzymes
Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic cells
Membranes                                                      10 %                           16
Subcellular organization
Cell cycle and its regulation
Cellular Energetics
Coupled Reactions                                               8%                            18
Fermentation and Cellular Respiration
Photosynthesis
Meiosis and gametogenesis
Eukaryotic chromosomes                                          8%                            10
Inheritance patterns
RNA and DNA structure and function
Gene Regulation                                                 9%                            19
Mutation
Viral structure and replication
Nucleic acid technology and application
Early evoltion
Early Evolution                                     8%                      13
Evidence for evolution
Mechanisms of Evolution
Diversity of Organisms
Evolutionary Patterns                               8%                      17
Survey of the diversity of life
Phylogenetic classification
Evolutionary relationships
Structure and Function of Plants and
Animals                                             32 %                    46
Reproduction, growth, and development
Structural, physiological, and behavioral
adaptations
Response to the environment
Ecology
Population dynamics                                 10 %                    16
Communities and ecosystems
Global issues

COURSE CALENDAR
UNIT             Approximate                                       Textbook Chapters
                 Days of Class        Topics to be Covered         (Students are
                 Time (Excluding                                   expected to read
                 Labs)                                             ahead.)
                                      Atoms
                                      Molecules
      1               10 Days         Water Structure/Properties          2,3,4,5
Chemistry of                          Carbon and organic
Life (C1)                             compounds
                                      Structure/function of
                                      Macromolecules
                                      Cell Organelle
                                      structure/function
     2                20 Days         Membrane                       6,7,8,9,10,11,12
  The Cell                            structure/function
   (C1)                               Enzymes and energy
                                      Cell Respiration
                                      Photosynthesis
                                      Cell Cycle
                                      Fermentation
                                      Mitosis/Meiosis
     3                19 Days         Mendelian Genetics
  Genetics                            DNA Replication              13,14,15,16,17,18,19,
   (C2)                               Protein Synthesis                   20, 21
                                      Viral/bacterial genetics
                                      Biotechnology
      4                          Darwin
Mechanisms          20 Days      Evidence/Mechanisms of                  22,23,24,25
of Evolution                     evolution
    (C2)                         Population genetics
                                 Phylogeny
                                 Diversity of Organisms
                                 Evolutionary patterns
      5                          Prokaryotes
  Biological        14 Days      Plant Phylogeny                    26,27,28,29,30,31,32,
  Diversity                      Animal Phylogeny                   33,34,35,36,37,38,39
    (C5)                         Plant structures/Systems
      6                          Nutrition/Digestion
   Animal           10 Days      Circulation
   Systems                       Immune System                      40,41,42,43,44,45,46,
    (C3)                         Excretion                                47,48,49
                                 Endocrine system
                                 Reproduction/Development
                                 Nervous/Sensory system
      7                          Biomes
   Ecology          16 Days      Animal Behavior                      50,51,52,53,54,55
    (C3)                         Population Ecology
                                 Community Interactions
                                 Nutritional cycles
                                 Conservation
                                 Ecosystems

*The number of days may be altered depending on student understanding and
comprehension. Also, normal school day interruptions may cause the amount of
time to be altered.

LAB COMPONENT
Based on the size of the class, students typically work in pairs to complete each lab
during our block schedule. Each lab included in the syllabus has a specific amount of
time allotted for completion as indicated by each lab activity in the lab schedule. All
labs count and are graded individually. For the AP labs, students answer the questions in
the AP Biology Lab Manual and submit their lab manuals to me for grading. For the
other labs I have them prepare a lab report format that requires the students to use data
collected, graphs with interpretation when appropriate, and a list of questions to review
the objectives of the lab. (C4 & C8)
LAB SCHEDULE-(All of the labs are student led unless otherwise noted.)

Unit 1
   o Identification of Macromolecules: 1 Hour
                     Students will identify proteins, carbohydrates, and lipids using
                     chemical tests.
   o Molecular Model Building: 1 Hour
                     Students will create and build models of organic compounds,
                     proteins, carbohydrates, and lipids.
        o Water Properties: 1/2 Hour Day One and 1 Hour Day Two
                     Students will design a lab to demonstrate a property of water.
                     They then will share their lab with the rest of the class.



Unit 2
   o   - Microscope and Cell Staining: 1 hour
                    Students review proper microscope techniques and practice
                    staining and
                    drawing their own cells.

   o   - AP lab 1- Diffusion and Osmosis: 2 hours
                     Students study the effects of varying solutions on the rates of
                     diffusion and
                     osmosis in plant and animal cells.

   o   - AP lab 2- Enzyme Catalysis: 2 hours
                     Students observe the enzyme-substrate complex of
                     catalase/hydrogen
                     peroxide and investigate the effects of temperature and pH on their
                     reaction rate.

   o   AP lab 4- Plant Pigments and Photosynthesis: 2 hours
                     Students will separate plant pigments using chromatography then
                     measure the rate of photosynthesis is isolated chloroplasts using
                     spectrophotometer.

   o   AP lab 5- Cell Respiration: 2 hours
                      Students will investigate the rate of cell respiration in germinating
                      seeds in varying temperatures using respirometers.

   o   - Design an Experiment-Enzymes: 2 hours
                    Students will design and execute an experiment using an
                    enzyme/substrate
                    complex under varying conditions.

   o   - Membrane Simulations: 1 hour (virtual lab)
                     Students will use computer simulations to model and understand
                     the
                     workings of the cell membrane.

Unit 3
  o   AP lab 3- Mitosis and Meiosis: 1 hour
                    Students will investigate and identify the stages of mitosis and then
                    calculate the time spent in each stage. They will then calculate the
                    amount of crossing over in samples of the fungus Sordoria.

  o   - AP lab 6- Molecular Biology: Gel Electrophoresis: 2 hours
                    Students will use restriction enzymes to digest DNA then perform
                    gel
                    electrophoresis to measure the size of the resulting fragments.

  o   AP lab 6- Molecular Biology: Transformation: 1 hour 1 day, 1 hour next day
                    Students will perform bacterial transformation, inserting a plasmid
                    with a luminescent gene into a colony of E. coli.

  o   - AP lab 7- Genetics of Organisms and Statistical Analysis: 1.5 hours
                    Students will statistically analyze genetic crosses of D.
                    melanogaster
                    using the Chi square formula.

  o   - Plasmid and Restriction enzyme simulation: 1 hour
                    Students will simulate various restriction enzymes and insert the
                    “cut”
                    DNA into plasmids in a paper and scissors activity. The goal is to
                    make a
                    plasmid with specific inserted DNA as small as possible.


Unit 4
  o   - AP lab 8: Population Genetics and Evolution: 1.5 hours
                   Students will calculate Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium using several
                   scenarios.




Unit 5
      - AP lab 9: Transpiration: 1.5 hours
            Students will measure transpiration in plants under different
            environmental conditions.

     - Bacterial Growth: 1 hour 1 day, 1 hour next day
            Students will streak plates and grow bacterial cultures under differing
            environmental conditions.

     - Plant Dissection: 1 hour
             Students will dissect plants and study the circulatory and root systems.

     - Comparative animal dissections: 1.5 hours
           Students will dissect earthworms, crayfish, perch and frogs then present
           the similarities and differences to the class.

     -   Plant Hormone Experiments: 1 hour 1 day, 10 minutes successive days
            Students will compare the growth of Carolina Fast Plants with varying
            amounts of auxin.

     - Comparative Invertebrate Studies: 1 hour
           Students will study and compare live samples of Protists, Planaria and
           Hydra.

Unit 6
     - AP lab 10- Physiology of the Circulatory system: 1.5 hours
            Students will learn how to measure blood pressure.

     -   Student Generated Lab activities: 45 minutes each (some virtual)
            The project for this unit involves student taught lessons on each animal
            system. Students will generate a lab activity/simulation for each system
            presented.

Unit 7
     - AP lab 11- Animal Behavior: 1.5 hours
            Students will observe pillbug behavior in response to various
            environmental conditions. They will then do a computer simulation
            observing other animal behavior.

     -   AP lab 12- Dissolved Oxygen and Aquatic Primary Productivity: 1.5 hours
            Students will measure the amount of dissolved oxygen in several water
            samples. They will then determine primary productivity in the same
            samples.

     - Predator/Prey Simulation lab: 1 hour
           Students will simulate and measure the predator/prey populations in
               different ecosystems using different sizes and colors of beans as the prey
               and eating utensils (spoons, knives, forks) as predators.

        - Biodiversity of Pond Life: 1 hour
               Students will observe and count the number of species in a sample of pond
               water.



AP Biology Grading Scale: Nine-week Term
                 10% - Comprehension Checks and Concept Tests
                 50% - Tests/Projects
                 30% - Lab Reports and Lab Activities
                 10% - Daily Class Assignments (Varies by Unit)

 Letter         Numeric                                   Description
 Grade           Scale
   A             100-95        Consistently demonstrates an exceptional level of quality and effort.
                               Having all work in on time and completed to exceed expectations.
                               Mastery in evaluating, analyzing, and correlating concepts of AP
                               Biology.
    B             94-85        Consistently demonstrates proficient knowledge with a good effort and
                               quality of work. All assignments are complete and on time.
                               Demonstrates the ability to evaluate, analyze, synthesize, and apply the
                               principles of AP Biology.
    C             84-75        Demonstrates proficient knowledge and the ability to apply and analyze
                               AP Biology concepts. A few assignments may be missed and/or late.
    D             74-70        Demonstrates minimal effort and some assignments may be late and/or
                               missing. Demonstrates a basic understanding of recalling or
                               comprehending the principles AP Biology.
    F           Below 70       Understanding is below basic in relation to the principles of AP
                               Biology. Work is of poor quality and does not meet standards or
                               expectations. Assignments are missing and/or late.

Student’s overall score for AP Biology = 1.10 x grade

								
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