Comparative Vertebrate Physiology by xld14276


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									Comparative Vertebrate Physiology                                                   August 2006
Biology 423, Fall 2006

Lecture: MWF 9:30, rm Albertsons 203

Lab: M(Lect 01) 2:30-5:20, W(Lect 02) 2:30-5:20, rm LS 341

Instructor: Rolf Ingermann, Prof. Zool.

Office: 237 LS

Phone: 885-7749

Office Hours: MWF 10:30 - noon & by appt.

IA: Jonas Wilson-Leedy

Prerequisites: Biology 213 & Organic Chem., or Permission

Course Goal: This course is designed to give a conceptual framework of vertebrate physiology.
The emphasis will be on general principles that apply to all, or most vertebrates, and as such, the
course will not focus on any one group of vertebrates. However, as much of the most recent and
comprehensive research has been conducted with mammals, there will be a tendency to cover
mammalian systems. In addition to general principles, some unique physiological adaptations
will also be considered.

Recommended Textbook: The textbook for this course is K. Schmidt-Nielsen, Animal
Physiology, Fifth Ed., Cambridge Publishing Co., Inc. Although this text covers much
invertebrate physiology, you are not responsible for this material. You are responsible, however,
for any information given in lecture, including some invertebrate physiology, unless otherwise
indicated. The other recommended text is Human Physiology, Tenth Ed. Both should be
available at the bookstore.
        Copies of earlier editions of Animal Physiology and Human Physiology by Vander,
Sherman, and Luciano are on reserve in the library.

Grading: Grades will be based upon lecture exams, a semicomprehensive final exam ~1/2 new
material, ~1/2 old material), and lab work as follows:

   Lecture exams (3 @ 100 pts)                300 pts max
   Lab reports                                200
   Final Exam                                 200

       Unless stated otherwise, all exams, with the exception of the final, will be given in the
evening as indicated in the time-table below. To reduce the clock as an influence in testing,
exams will start at 6:30 pm and end one hour after 50% of the class has completed the exam.
There will be no formal class meeting at 9:30 am on the Wednesday prior to the exams 1-3. Due
to University regulations, the final exam will be limited to two hours.

        With the exception of the final exam, exams are basically not cumulative, however, you
are responsible for basic principles that are generally applicable. Eg countercurrent exchange,
negative feedback, cascade effect, etc.

    Letter grades will be established based on percentage: 90%: A, 80%: B, 70%: C, 55%: D.

       Note that in accordance with University policy to insure that students are properly
educated and continue to develop communication skills, spelling and grammar will be
considered in grading exams and reports.

        Keys of the exams will be posted, and you are encouraged to compare your exam with
them. After the exams are returned to you, neither instructor will discuss the exams for 48
hr -- under any circumstances. If you feel that your exam was misgraded, you may submit it
for regrading by the instructor or IA within three weeks after your exam is returned. Please
bring any errors in calculating scores to our attention as soon as possible (after the 48 hr).

        Attendance will not be a direct factor in grading except that you must be in attendance to
participate in labs.

        Lecture exams may be taken late, not early, but within one week following the scheduled
date and only with prior approval of the instructor in cases of official University functions or
serious emergencies. You will be asked to submit proof of cause in either case.

       If you miss an exam (excluding the final) without prior approval, not due to an official
University function, or not due to a serious emergency, you will have to take a make-up oral
exam in the instructor’s office.

        If the CVP exam time conflicts directly with an exam in another class, you must provide
course name, instructor name, and instructor phone number of the other class. Having exams in
other classes (at times that do not directly conflict) will not be reason to miss a CVP exam and
permission will not be granted to take the CVP exam at a later time. You know when these
exams will be given; you should be studying well in advance of the exam.

       If you must be absent from lectures or labs, you will want to obtain notes from other
students in attendance. The instructor's notes will not be available in such cases.

        Lab Fee Reimbursement Policy: Lab fees may be reimbursed only if the course is
dropped within the first two weeks of the semester. Reimbursement requires that a form be filled
out by the office staff of the Department of Biological Sciences at the time the course or lab is
dropped. (A credit to your account will be processed by Accounting Services.) Lab fees will not
be reimbursed for the course if it is dropped after the first two weeks of the semester.

         If you have a learning disability and require special assistance, you must bring
documentation of your disability and suggestions for assistance to the faculty instructor within
the first two weeks of classes.

       First lab session will be 11 Sept.

Tentative Lecture Topics & Schedule,

Water, Osmotic Balance
   Physical properties of solutions, Donnan Equilibrium
   Solubilities (gases, dissolved solids)
   Osmotic conformity in cells
   Osmotic regulation in organisms
   Water sources: drink, diet
22 Aug 05, appropriate parts of Chapter 1 & 8: SN (recommended), Appendix E: SN (Chapters
refer to SN 5th & Vander 10th eds.)

   Role of oxygen, oxygen metabolism & toxicity
   Aquatic respiration, organs of respiratory exchange
   Aerial respiration, mammalian & avian lungs
   Control of ventilation
30 Aug, Chapter 1: SN (recommended); Chapter 13: Vander (recommended)

Holiday, 4 Sept

   Function: oxygen and carbon dioxide transport, nutrient transport
   Respiratory pigments, allostery
   Red cell organic phosphates, inc consideration of high altitude adjustments
   Blood as a buffer
11 Sept, Chapter 2: SN (recommended); Chapter 13: Vander (recommended)

(18 Sept: last day to drop course via web without W; last day to reduce course credits)

   General Principles
   Vertebrate circulation, phylogenetic considerations
   Vertebrate heart: heart structure/function, pressure/flow characteristics
20 Sept, Chapter 3: SN (recommended); Chapter 12: Vander (recommended)

No Lecture 27 Sept

Exam: Thursday, 28 Sept., 6:30 pm (covers water, resp., & blood)

GI / Food and Energy
   Physiology of the digestive tract inc. motility
   Bulk food digestion: stomach, intestine, bile function, enzymes
   Energy storage and mobilization, inc. endocrine control of
2 Oct, Chapter 4 & 5: SN (recommended); Chapter 15 & 16: Vander (recommended)

   Effect of temperature change at cellular level (Q10)
   Effect of temperature change at organismic level
   Endothermy vs ectothermy, inc. hypotheses of molecular basis
   Temperature regulation, behavorial and physiological
   Warm fish
   Brown adipose tissue/Hibernation
11 Oct, Chapter 6 & 7: SN (recommended)

No Lecture 18 Oct

Exam: Thursday, 19 Oct, 6:30 pm (covers circ. & GI)

   Nitrogen: ammonia toxicity
   Forms of nitrogen excreted
   Organs of excretion: kidney, gills, skin
   Kidney function/countercurrent multiplication
   Vasopressin, inc. mechanism of water reabsorption
   Salt metabolism/aldosterone/calcium metabolism
23 Oct, Chapter 9: SN (recommended); Chapter 14: Vander (recommended)

   Metabolism and force generation
   Types: skeletal, smooth, cardiac; structure vs function
   Control of contraction and metabolism; neuromuscular junction
   Mechanics, levers, fiber types, elasticity
   Role of myoglobin
1 Nov, Chapter 10: SN (recommended); Chapter 9: Vander (recommended)

No Lecture 8 Nov

Exam, Thursday, 9 Nov., 6:30 pm (covers temp. & excretion)

Nervous System
   Neuron structure and action potential; Nernst equation; synapse, postsynaptic potentials
   Sympathetic/parasympathic division of autonomic system
   Peripheral components of the nervous system/transduction, photoreceptors
13 Nov, Chapter 11 & 13: SN (recommended); Chapter 6 & 7: Vander (recommended)

No Classes 20-24 November

   Hormone structure, specificity
   Mechanism of action, peptide, steroid, other
   Second messenger/target sites
   Release hormones and release inhibiting hormones
   Negative feedback, inc.: thyroxine; growth hormone
29 Nov, Chapter 12: SN (recommended); Chapter 11: Vander (recommended)


Final Exam: 10:00 - Noon, Wednesday 13 December

Possible additional lecture topics:
  Receptors: chemo, mechano, thermo
  Respiration in diving animals
  Fish bouyancy, electrogenesis

Although the chapter readings indicated above are recommended, there will be some additional,
non-text required reading. Announcements will be made in class and access to article(s) will be


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