Ecology Quiz - Henrico County Public Schools Science by fionan


									             Name ________________ Date _____ Period _____

                 8th Grade SOL Review - ECOLOGY
_____ 1. Wherever civilizations have flourished, forests have been destroyed.
Hundreds of years ago in England, rivers and seaports began to fill with silt after the
forests were destroyed. What caused the silt to fill the seaports?
             a. eutrophication
             b. succession
             c. erosion
             d. irrigation

_____ 2. Animals and plants get their food in different ways. Animals usually
ingest their food, while plants must produce their own food. The process
through which plants produce their food is called
               a. respiration
               b. photosynthesis
               c. pollination
               d. germination

_____ 3. Which of these best describes the niche of a lion?
            a. parasite
            b. prey
            c. predator
            d. producer

_____ 4. Which biome is most suitable for raising crops such as corn, wheat and
            a. a desert
            b. a taiga
            c. a grassland
            d. a tropical rain forest

_____ 5. Fossils are evidence of living things that were alive many, many years ago
and often consist of the skeletons of creatures imbedded in rock. Why
don’t fossils contain the animal’s soft tissues, as well?
               a. because the soft tissues decayed before the fossil could be formed
               b. because the rock breaks down soft tissues
               c. because the soft tissues were always eaten by scavengers
               d. because the rock always smashed the soft tissues flat
_____ 6. In 1500, between 60 million and 125 million American bison roamed the
            plains. These bison were used by Native Americans as a primary food
            source, but this did not have much effect on the bison population. A few
            hundred years later, railroad crews and settlers moving west also
            depended on the bison for food. By 1829, it is estimated that less than
            100 bison were left. What were the two main causes of the near-
            extinction of the bison?
               a. Disease and over hunting
               b. Loss of habitat and disease
            Name ________________ Date _____ Period _____

             c. Over hunting and loss of habitat
             d. loss of habitat and starvation

_____ 7. Many complex genetic experiments have been performed on plants. One
         of the very successful ones crossed wild wheat with a fungus-resistant
         wild grass. This ultimately produced a variety of wheat that was
         resistant to a very destructive parasitic fungus which kills nonresistant
plants. Why would such experimentation benefit humans?
             a. the fungus is also dangerous to humans
             b. wheat is one of the most important food crops worldwide
             c. the fungus could spread to other plants
             d. wheat products made from infected plants would taste bad

_____ 8. The island of Guam had no native snake species until the brown tree snake
was introduced. What did this egg-eating snake have on the native bird
             a. bird populations were not affected by the snake’s introduction
             b. bird populations increased as the birds preyed on the snakes
             c. bird populations decreased as the snakes fed on the bird eggs
             d. bird populations increased as the snakes eliminated predators

_____ 9. The relationship between the algae and the frog may be described as
                    ALGAE --> FROG --> SNAKE --> HAWK
            a. consumer --> producer
            b. consumer --> decomposer
            c. producer --> consumer
            d. producer --> decomposer

_____ 10. Changes in DNA are known as mutations and can sometimes produce
          beneficial changes in populations. A mutant form of the normally light-
          colored peppered moth is dark colored. The dark-colored moth blends in
          with soot-covered trees in heavily polluted areas. Why would the dark-
          colored mutations be beneficial in a polluted area?
            a. dark-colored moths have a longer life span than light-colored moths.
            b. dark-colored moths can’t be seen well by predators
            c. dark-colored moths taste bad to most of their predators
            d. dark-colored moths produce more young than do light-colored moths.

_____ 11. The ermine is a small animal that lives along riverbanks and in forests.
           During the spring and summer, it grows a brown coat. It sheds the brown
coat during the autumn and grows a white one. This change of color in
the ermine’s coat allows it to
              a. hide from predators
              b. attract a mate
            Name ________________ Date _____ Period _____

             c. locate a water supply
             d. find food more easily

_____ 12. Finches found on the isolated Galapagos island are different species
with different beak sizes and shapes, but are otherwise similar to a         finch
species found on the South American mainland. What might be the
cause of the differences in the development of the beaks of these
Galapagos finches?
               a. the different types of food available on the islands
               b. the original source of the finches
               c. the differences in the types of nests the birds built
               d. the type of predators found on the islands

_____ 13. Which of these populations is most likely to increase if the number of
grasshoppers decrease?
            a. plant
            b. frog
            c. praying mantis
            d. owl

_____ 14. Which of these best enables this animal to rid its body of excess heat in a hot
desert environment?
             a. its large ears
             b. its flexible feet
             c. its sandy color
             d. its fur

_____ 15. Which process is the foundation for the food web?
            a. respiration
            b. decomposition
            c. photosynthesis
            d. nitrification

_____ 16. Which type of report would probably provide the most accurate answer
          to the question below?
                       What type of animals live in a wetland?
             a. “Water Quality in Wetlands,” published by the United States
                     Geological Survey
             b. “Endangered Species in Our Wetlands,” by a reporter for the Daily
                     Globe Newspaper
             c. “Birds of Wetlands,” in Science, the Journal for the American
             Association for the Advancement of Science
             d. “Organisms in Wetlands,” a report on the internet by the Chesapeake
             Bay Foundation
            Name ________________ Date _____ Period _____

_____ 17. The diagram shows a simple food web of organisms on a forest floor.
Which of these is the most dependent on the earthworm for its food

             a. Slug
             b. Snail
             c. Ant
             d. Centipede

_____ 18. Fifty banded and fifty unbanded snails of the same species were released
in an area where the banded snails are easily camouflaged. Which of the
following best represents the population of these snails after one year?

             Banded Snail                                  Unbanded Snail

             a.                                     b.

             c.                                     d.

                               ECOLOGY NOTES:

                                  * Food Chains

                                    * Food Webs

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