Chapter 16 and 17 Evolution Review Sheet Section 16-1 Developing a Theory 1. What does Evolution mean? Change over time 2. Who is the “Father of Evolution”? Charles Darwin 3. What was his famous voyage? What island did he see evidence of this change over time? Voyage of the Beagle Galapagos Islands 4. Explain Artificial Selection. The human practice of breeding animals or plants that have certain desired traits 5. Explain Thomas Malthus “Struggle for Existence”. Population has the potential to increase faster than their food supply. 6. What did Cuvier, Hutton, and Lyell have in common? Studied the Earth and how things on the earth have changed. 7. Explain both parts of Jean Baptiste de Lamarck’s theory of evolution? – Use and Disuse: The more a body part was used, the larger it got and vice versa – Acquired Characteristics: Characteristics acquired during an organisms lifetime can be passed to their offspring Section 16-2 Applying Darwin’s Ideas 8. Define Natural Selection. The process by which individuals that are better adapted to their environment survive and reproduce more successfully than less well adapted individuals do; a theory to explain the mechanism of evolution. 9. Describe the four steps that summarize Natural Selection. 1. Overproduction: Every population is capable of producing more offspring than can possibly survive. 2. Variation: Variation exists within every population. Much of this variation is in the form of inherited traits. 3. Selection: In a given environment, having a particular trait can make individuals more or less likely to survive and have successful offspring. So, some individuals leave more offspring than others do. 4. Adaptation: Inherited trait that makes an individual more favorable. Over time, those traits that improve survival and reproduction will become more common. 10. What does “fitness” mean? Those organisms who produce offspring 11. What are the four types of evidence of evolution? 1. The Fossil Record 2. Anatomy 3. Embryology 4. Biochemistry 12. Explain the law of superposition. States that successive layers of rock or soil were deposited on top of one another by wind or water Lowest layer, in a cross section of Earth is oldest Top layer, is most recent Fossils within a single stratum are of the same approximate age 13. Explain the three types of evidence of evolution from anatomy. Homologous: Are body parts made out of the same basic components (parts) but used for a different purpose and show a distant relationship. Analogous: Are body parts that serve the same purpose but are built differently, and do not indicate common ancestry Vestigial: Organs that seem to have no useful purpose, but must once have been functional. -A body part not used anymore but still remains in the organism Section 16-3 (pages 386 – 389) 14. Explain the five processes by which inherited traits change over time. (microevolution) Natural Selection: The process by which individuals that are better adapted to their environment survive and reproduce more successfully than less well adapted individuals do; a theory to explain the mechanism of evolution. Migration: is the movement of individuals into, out of, or between populations Population: a group of organisms of the same species that live in a specific geographical area Mate Choice: ability to choose your mate or choice is made for you Mutation: any change in DNA Genetic Drift: the random change in allele frequency in a population All the above items change the genes in a population. All genes in a population are known as the gene pool. 15. Explain Convergent Evolution and Coevolution. (Macroevolution) Convergent Evolution: When unrelated organisms come to resemble one another Ex: Fish and Marine Mammels Coevolution: Organisms that are closely connected to one another by ecological interactions may evolve together Example: Honey bee and Flower- Process of Pollination 16. Darwin’s Finches are an example of what type of macroevolution? Adaptive Radiation: The evolution of several different species from one common species EX: Darwin’s 13 finches all evolved from one common species of finch 17. Describe the two models of the rate of evolution. Punctuated Equilibrium: is the idea that long, stable periods of “organism equilibrium” are interrupted by brief periods of rapid change. Gradualism: is the idea that evolution occurs slowly and steadily over time 18. Define Speciation. Speciation: the formation of new species as a result of evolution 19. Describe the three patterns of natural selection. Directional Selection: When individuals at one end of the cure have higher fitness than individuals in the middle or at the other end Stabilizing Selection: When individuals near the center of the curve have higher fitness than individuals at either end of the curve Disruptive Selection: When individuals at the upper and lower ends of the curve have higher fitness than individuals near the center Look at Diagrams on page 409 in textbook What to study Study all notes and handouts from the unit. All PowerPoints are located on the wikispace.