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Chapter 16 Evolution Review Sheet


									                          Chapter 16 and 17 Evolution Review Sheet

Section 16-1 Developing a Theory

1. What does Evolution mean?

Change over time

2. Who is the “Father of Evolution”?

Charles Darwin

3. What was his famous voyage? What island did he see evidence of this change over time?

Voyage of the Beagle                   Galapagos Islands

4. Explain Artificial Selection.

The human practice of breeding animals or plants that have certain desired traits

5. Explain Thomas Malthus “Struggle for Existence”.

Population has the potential to increase faster than their food supply.

6. What did Cuvier, Hutton, and Lyell have in common?

Studied the Earth and how things on the earth have changed.

7. Explain both parts of Jean Baptiste de Lamarck’s theory of evolution?

           – Use and Disuse: The more a body part was used, the larger it got and vice versa

           – Acquired Characteristics: Characteristics acquired during an organisms lifetime can be
             passed to their offspring

Section 16-2 Applying Darwin’s Ideas

8. Define Natural Selection.

The process by which individuals that are better adapted to their environment survive and reproduce
more successfully than less well adapted individuals do; a theory to explain the mechanism of evolution.
9. Describe the four steps that summarize Natural Selection.

               1. Overproduction: Every population is capable of producing more offspring than can
               possibly survive.

               2. Variation: Variation exists within every population. Much of this variation is in the form
               of inherited traits.

               3. Selection: In a given environment, having a particular trait can make individuals more or
               less likely to survive and have successful offspring. So, some individuals leave more
               offspring than others do.

               4. Adaptation: Inherited trait that makes an individual more favorable. Over time, those
               traits that improve survival and reproduction will become more common.

10. What does “fitness” mean?
Those organisms who produce offspring

11. What are the four types of evidence of evolution?
    1. The Fossil Record
    2. Anatomy
    3. Embryology
    4. Biochemistry

12. Explain the law of superposition.

States that successive layers of rock or soil were deposited on top of one another by wind or water
    Lowest layer, in a cross section of Earth is oldest
    Top layer, is most recent
    Fossils within a single stratum are of the same approximate age

13. Explain the three types of evidence of evolution from anatomy.

              Homologous: Are body parts made out of the same basic components (parts) but used for a
different purpose and show a distant relationship.

              Analogous: Are body parts that serve the same purpose but are built differently, and do
           not indicate common ancestry

               Vestigial: Organs that seem to have no useful purpose, but must once have been functional.
               -A body part not used anymore but still remains in the organism
Section 16-3 (pages 386 – 389)
14. Explain the five processes by which inherited traits change over time. (microevolution)

              Natural Selection: The process by which individuals that are better adapted to their
environment survive and reproduce more successfully than less well adapted individuals do; a theory to
explain the mechanism of evolution.

               Migration: is the movement of individuals into, out of, or between populations

Population: a group of organisms of the same species that live in a specific geographical area

               Mate Choice: ability to choose your mate or choice is made for you

               Mutation: any change in DNA

               Genetic Drift: the random change in allele frequency in a population

All the above items change the genes in a population. All genes in a population are known as the gene

15. Explain Convergent Evolution and Coevolution. (Macroevolution)
       Convergent Evolution: When unrelated organisms come to resemble one another
Ex: Fish and Marine Mammels

       Coevolution: Organisms that are closely connected to one another by ecological interactions may
evolve together
Example: Honey bee and Flower- Process of Pollination

16. Darwin’s Finches are an example of what type of macroevolution?
Adaptive Radiation: The evolution of several different species from one common species
EX: Darwin’s 13 finches all evolved from one common species of finch

17. Describe the two models of the rate of evolution.

Punctuated Equilibrium: is the idea that long, stable periods of “organism equilibrium” are interrupted
by brief periods of rapid change.

Gradualism: is the idea that evolution occurs slowly and steadily over time

18. Define Speciation.
Speciation: the formation of new species as a result of evolution
19. Describe the three patterns of natural selection.

Directional Selection: When individuals at one end of the cure have higher fitness than individuals in the
middle or at the other end

Stabilizing Selection: When individuals near the center of the curve have higher fitness than individuals
at either end of the curve

Disruptive Selection: When individuals at the upper and lower ends of the curve have higher fitness than
individuals near the center

Look at Diagrams on page 409 in textbook

What to study
Study all notes and handouts from the unit. All PowerPoints are located on the wikispace.

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