Sen Hillary Clinton on a three-day visit to India India opens up by gabyion


									        India Review
                                       A Publication of the Embassy of India, Washington, D.C.
                                                                                 April 1, 2005

■ Vol.1 Issue 4                                                   ■

Secretary of
                                            ! Sen Hillary Clinton on
State Rice                                  a three-day visit to India
                                            ! India opens up its

Visits India                                construction sector to
                                            foreign direct investment

! INTERVIEW: Finance    ! The 3rd Patents             ! TRAVEL: A six-month
Minister Chidambaram    (Amendments) Bill             celebration marked
on why Budget 2005      2005 passed by Lok            350 years of the Taj
will put economy on a   Sabha, Parliament’s           Mahal, India’s top
growth path    Page 2   lower house    Page 9         tourist spot. Page 14
             F O C U S

               ‘The industry, the market, the corporate sector, all
                are happy. They think the Budget is pro-growth’
              Finance Minister P. Chidambaram unveiled a $116 billion       crore ($1.1 billion) will be generated in the next one year and
            Union Budget for 2005-06 on February 28 that gives a big        Rs. 50,000 crore ($11.1 billion) in the next five years, but
            push to economic reforms and rationalises the tax system,       there really isn’t a target that you have set for yourself?
            while promising a fresh “assault” on poverty and unemploy-         A: There is no need for a target... This fund has been set
            ment. Laying the foundation for his proposals in a 90-minute    up. We have a list of companies that will be approved by a
            speech in Lok Sabha, the lower house of Parliament, the         Cabinet committee. Once the cabinet committee clears dis-
            Finance Minister said the Indian economy – the fourth largest   investments in these companies up to 10 to 15 percent, they
            in the world in purchasing power parity – was expected to       will be disinvest-ed and the money will go to the fund. There
            expand by 6.9 percent in the current fiscal, and by seven-      is no artificial pressure to raise the money by the 31 of March
                                          eight percent in 2005-06.         every year. I just have to raise it over a period of time. So this
                                          Excerpts from an interview the    gives us much greater flexibility. Also, the lead managers of
                                          Finance Minister gave to BBC      the issue will have the flexibility to give us the best price.
                                          World’s India Business Review     Once the money goes into the fund then we will be able to
                                          program soon after presenting     invest the fund in public sector mutual funds and earn a
                                          the Budget.                       return on it. Once the return is deployed into public sector
                                                                            spending... people will see merit in this corpus fund and then
                                          Q: What is your view of the       the process will gather pace. But first I must gather some
                                       Budget?                              funds.
                                          A: Well, I think the Budget          Q: Let us talk about foreign direct investment. You made a
                                       has been very well received by       clear benchmark with China, but their labour laws are differ-
                                       the people of India. By and          ent, but if you did not have the political compulsions that you
                                       large even the industry, the         have, what would be the big steps that you would take to
                                       market, the corporate sector,        attract FDI?
                                       all are happy. They think the           A: I accept the context and the time. I can never even imag-
         P. Chidambaram                Budget is pro-growth. We have        ine a time without political constraints. We are not a majori-
                                       not strayed from the path of         ty party and I am hardly the head of the party. So I have to
   ‘The way I look at it is reforms. The way I look at it is                take into account various factors all the time. But as far as the
  that I addressed the                 that I addressed the immediate       current year is concerned, we already did consultation. I think
immediate livelihood and livelihood and other concerns                      we need to convince our partners, as we had done in bank-
                                       of the very poor people of           ing and insurance. These are virgin territories that have
 other concerns of the India. I have ensured that the                       opened up.
   very poor people of                 engines of growth will keep             Q: The investment in infrastructure is a concern. What do
  India. I have ensured                humming and moving along. I          you see in the coming years in this sector?
   that the engines of                 believe we have done both.              A: Government funds are being used largely for revenue
     growth will keep                     Q: There is tremendous            expenditure. The bulk of the infrastructure needs to be built
   humming and moving                  amount of emphasis on rural          by public or private partnership. The SPV will give this a big
                                       growth. We all know that at the      boost. Rs. 10,000 crore or $2 billion is the amount the SPV
along. I believe we have end of the day a lot of imple-                     will raise. With this, huge amount of investment will flow. We
       done both.’                     mentations are going to be at        will look for projects. We are open to large-scale participa-
                                       the state government level and       tion.
         local bodies, so what is the Central government going to do           Q: For real growth to happen in the country we need to
         to ensure that the outlay results in outcome?                      improve the quality of jobs in the country. That is a different
            A: I have made a specific mention about this in my speech.      kind of challenge than what exists today. What is your view
         Between the Planning Commission and the Ministry of                on that?
         Finance we will put in place a mechanism that will measure            A: For young men and women with low qualifications we
         the development outcomes of major programmes... We will            need low skill jobs. This will give them a decent income. I
         try to get some external auditors to measure these outcomes.       also agree with you that we require highly skilled people to
         I am very clear that the financial outlays have to be convert-     be highly competitive. So we have announced a skill devel-
         ed into physical outcomes.                                         opment initiative. We are going to make sure that industry
            Q: To move on to disinvestments. You have said that there       gets the people with the right skills. We are going to do both.
         is a corpus fund, and you have mentioned that Rs. 5,000            We have to give it a bigger push this year.                     ■

              2   I   N D I A   R   E V I E W   A   P R I L   1,   2005
              U . S . A .                         N E W S

          Bush Administration unveils contours of a
          ‘broader strategic relationship’ with India

              he United States on March 25 outlined what it And India’s defensive requirements, high-tech cooperation,
              described as “a decisively broader strategic expanding the current High Technology Cooperation Group
              relationship” with India, the goal of which is to and manufacturing licenses, even working towards U.S.-
              see the country “become a major world power India defense co-production”.
              in the 21st century”.                               Noting that the U.S. has responded positively to the
   Briefing journalists at the State Department, senior Indian request for information on next generation multi-role
Administration officials said Secretary of State Condoleezza combat aircraft, the officials said that these need not be lim-
Rice had outlined the contours of the new strategy –– which ited to “just F-16s. It could be F-18s”. Under the strategic
will be much broader in scope than the Next Steps in dialogue, the U.S. is also ready to discuss the “even more
Strategic Partnership (NSSP) announced in 2004 –– during fundamental issues of defense transformation with India,
her meeting with Prime Minister Manmohan Singh in New including transformative systems in areas such as command
Delhi on March 16.                                              and control, early warning and missile defense”, the officials
   The officials said President Bush had himself spoken to said.
Prime Minister Singh on March 25 on “this larger strategic        The energy dialogue, the officials said, would “include
context, some of these initiatives to broaden our strategic civil nuclear and nuclear safety issues.”
cooperation, and he explained his thinking on the decisions       And it would “keep building the Next Steps in Strategic
that we’re talking about today”.                                                            Partnership process, that’s
   Recalling that the first Bush                                                            already underway and establish a
Administration “did a lot to                                                                Working Group on Space. India
spotlight the significance of the                                                           is very much a player in the issue
relationship to India”, the senior                                                          of space launch vehicles, satel-
officials said that it was felt that                                                        lites and so on”.
the NSSP, “though very impor-                                                                  Noting that the Economic
tant, wasn’t broad enough to                                                                Dialogue between the two
really encompass the kind of                                                                nations “needs a little more
things we needed to do to take                                                              juice”, the officials said it
this relationship where it needed                                                           would be “revitalized with the
                                           Prime Minister              President
to go, and so the President and           Manmohan Singh            George W. Bush          discussion of energy, trade,
the Secretary developed the out-                                                            commerce, environment and
line for a decisively broader                                                               finance”.
strategic relationship”.                 The officials said President                          They added that the
   This relationship, the officials                                                         President’s economic advisor Al
said, would aim to consolidate           Bush had himself spoken to                         Hubbard, Treasury Secretary
dialogue between the two                    Prime Minister Singh on                         John       W.      Snow        and
nations on three tracks: strate-                                                            Transportation          Secretary
gic, economic and energy. And             March 25 on “this larger                          Norman Mineta would be visit-
the dialogue on these three key           strategic context, some of                        ing India later this year to carry
elements is expected to receive a                                                           the dialogue forward.
fillip during meetings between           these initiatives to broaden                          Spotlighting the “significance
Prime Minister Singh and                                                                    of India”, the officials recalled
President Bush.                           our strategic cooperation,                        that in November 2002, the
   The President has invited the       and he explained his thinking U.S. and India launched a
Prime Minister to visit the                                                                 Global Issues Forum and estab-
United States in July and is him-        on the decisions that we're                        lished a High Technology
self expected to travel to India              talking about today.”                         Cooperation Group. In January
“later this year or early next                                                              of 2004, President Bush and
year”.                                                                                      then Prime Minister Vajpayee
   Elaborating on the proposed dialogue, the officials said: announced the Next Steps in Strategic Partnership initiative.
“The strategic dialogue will include global issues, the kinds In September of last year, the U.S. and India completed
of issues you would discuss with a world power. Regional phase one of the Next Steps process.
security issues, things like the tsunami situation or Nepal.                                                                ■

                                                                        A   P R I L   1,   2005   I   N D I A   R   E V I E W   3
        I N D I A                                   N E W S

    Secretary Rice on maiden visit to India

Prime Minister Manmohan Singh, left, with U.S. Secretary of State Condoleezza Rice during their meeting at the Prime Minister’s
Office in New Delhi on March 16. (Photo: Press Information Bureau)

                      ndia and the United States pledged to develop an Washington’s “keen interest” in emerging as a reliable part-
                      “extraordinary relationship in the next several ner and a source for India’s military hardware and technol-
                      decades” during Dr. Condoleezza Rice’s visit to ogy.
                      New Delhi on March 16, her first to Asia since tak-   The two sides differed over their approach to Iran, with
                      ing over as U.S. Secretary of State in January.     Secretary Rice expressing her country’s “concern” over
                 Secretary Rice, who spent about 18 hours in the Indian India’s move to source natural gas from Iran through a pro-
              capital in the course of a whistle-stop                                      posed $5 billion pipeline that would run
              six-nation Asia tour, met with Prime “The president wanted through Pakistan.
              Minister Manmohan Singh, Congress me to first come to India The differences were evident during a
              Party President Sonia Gandhi, who is                                         joint press conference by Rice and
              also Chairperson of the ruling United         early in my tenure as          Natwar Singh after their talks that cov-
              Progressive Alliance (UPA), and Leader Secretary of State and ered a wide range of issues, from Iran to
              of the Opposition L.K. Advani. She also early in his second term India-Pakistan relations and bilateral
              held talks –– both one-on-one as well                                        defence and energy cooperation.
              as delegation-level –– with External                because this                The differences over Iran and Indian
              Affairs Minister Natwar Singh.                   relationship has            reservations on the sale of F-16 fighter
                 “Given the complementarities and transformed in recent jets to Pakistan, did not mar the visibly
              shared values, this could be an extraor-                                     warm atmosphere during Secretary
              dinary relationship between our two years from one that has Rice’s visit.
              countries in the next several decades,” great potential into one It was clear from her interaction with
              officials quoted Rice as having told          that is now realising          officials and the political leadership in
              Manmohan Singh. They said she also                                           New Delhi, as well as the positive com-
              expressed to the Prime Minister                   that potential.”           ments by both sides, that India and the

          4    I   N D I A   R   E V I E W   A   P R I L   1,   2005
                        I N D I A                       N E W S

          U.S. have moved a long way for-
          ward in transforming their relation-
             “The President wanted me to first
          come to India early in my tenure as
          Secretary of State and early in his
          second term because this relation-
          ship has transformed in recent
          years from one that has great
          potential into one that is now real-
          izing that potential,” said Rice in
          her opening statement at the press
             Natwar Singh, a veteran diplomat
          who earlier worked with Prime
          Minister Indira Gandhi as a key
          diplomatic aide, and as Minister in
          Prime Minister Rajiv Gandhi’s
          Government, was no less effusive in
          his praise of the U.S. –– and Rice
          in particular.                         Secretary Rice and External Affairs Minister K. Natwar Singh, right, addressing a joint press
             Calling Rice “a friend of India”, conference in New Delhi on March 16. (Photo: Press Information Bureau)
          who fashioned the U.S. policy of strategic partnership with    Secretary Rice, on her part, acknowledged India’s energy
          India, he said: “We look at this relationship, not only for requirements and offered a broad energy dialogue with
          what it offers today, but at its enormous potential to shape India to address the issue. Saying that the U.S. is aware that
          our global future to our mutual advantage.”                  “we do need to look at the broader question –– how India
             But he made it clear that while New Delhi took note of meets its energy needs in the next decades and what is a
          U.S. concerns about Iran, ensuring energy security is of rapidly growing economy that must continue to grow... and
          paramount importance for the rapidly growing Indian econ- that is something, that is a goal we very much support.” She
          omy. He also said: “We have traditional good relations with referred to the new technology available in the U.S. in the
          Iran. We expect Iran will fulfill all its obligations with energy sector and offered to initiate a broad dialogue with
          regard to NPT (Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty).”           New Delhi in this regard.
                                                                                                            Both said the growing
                                                                                                         defence        cooperation
                                                                                                         between the two coun-
                                                                                                         tries, including the possi-
                                                                                                         ble sale of multi-role
                                                                                                         combat aircraft figured in
                                                                                                         the talks, but neither
                                                                                                         would go into the details.
                                                                                                            Minister Singh said:
                                                                                                         “We did express certain
                                                                                                         concerns about certain
                                                                                                         matters on the defence
                                                                                                         issue as to how it might
                                                                                                         lead to some complica-
                                                                                                         tions, but we believe there
                                                                                                         are no serious differences
                                                                                                         of opinion. There are one
                                                                                                         or two items on which we
                                                                                                         don’t agree. Our relations
                                                                                                         have now reached maturi-
                                                                                                         ty that we can discuss
                                                                                                         these things freely and
                                                                                                         frankly. Our views on the
                                                                                                         sale of F-16s are well
Congress Party President and United Progressive Alliance Chairperson Sonia Gandhi, right, with
Secretary Rice, at her residence in New Delhi on March 16. (Photo: AFP)
                                                                                                         known.”                   ■

                                                                                  A   P R I L   1,   2005    I   N D I A   R   E V I E W   5
              I N D I A                                   N E W S

                    SEN. HILLARY CLINTON IN INDIA
                    ‘TCS partnered with University of Buffalo on patented
                    research. I would like to see more of such partnerships’

                                enator Hillary Rodham Clinton,
                                Democratic Co-Chair of the India
                                Caucus in the U.S. Senate, paid a
                                three-day visit to India. In New
                                Delhi to attend a conclave orga-
                    nized by the leading magazine India Today,
                    Senator Clinton met with Prime Minister
                    Manmohan Singh on February 25. “It was a
                    nice meeting and both enjoyed it,” said an
                    aide to the Prime Minister. “They discussed
                    healthcare, education, India-U.S. relations and
                    South Asia. It was a wide-ranging discussion.”
                       Prime Minister Manmohan Singh told the
                    former First Lady that the Indian people fondly
                    remembered the Presidential visit by her hus-
                    band Bill Clinton in March 2000, the aide
                    said. Senator Clinton said her husband “great-
                    ly enjoyed” visiting India and was deeply com-
                    mitted to the HIV/AIDS programme the
                    Clinton Foundation had undertaken in the
                       The New York Senator had a one-on-one
                    meeting with Congress President Sonia Gandhi
                    at the latter’s 10 Janpath residence. “Both
                    assessed the growth of India-U.S. ties from
                    (President) Clinton’s time and how far it had progressed.         Prime Minister Manmohan Singh,right, with U.S. Senator Hillary
                    They have also reviewed the socio-economic situation              Rodham Clinton(D-NY), at his residence in New Delhi on February 25.
                    prevailing in the country,” an aide said.                         (Photo: Courtesy,
                                                                                         On February 26, addressing the India Today Conclave
                                                                                      2005, the Senator urged Indian Industry to invest more in
                                                                                      her country. Though U.S. understood that economic
                                                                                      vibrancy of India was in its own interest, there are people
                                                                                      who feel left behind and might stir up “negative feelings”
                                                                                      against India because they do not understand the eco-
                                                                                      nomic benefits of outsourcing, Clinton remarked.
                                                                                         “In June 2002, Tata Consultancy Services(TCS) part-
                                                                                      nered with University of Buffalo to bring patented
                                                                                      research in the market place. I would like to see more of
                                                                                      such partnerships,” Clinton said.
                                                                                         Senator Clinton allayed apprehensions in India that
                                                                                      there would be a bar on outsourcing. “There is no way to
                                                                                      legislate against reality. Outsourcing will continue,” she
                                                                                         She pointed out that there were three billion people,
                                                                                      who feel left behind and are trying to attack the modern
                                                                                      world in the hope of turning the clock back on globaliza-
                                                                                      tion. “It is not far-fetched to imagine… if the Indian mir-
External Affairs Minister K. Natwar Singh, left, with Sen. Clinton at his office in   acle would be one of the choices of those who feel left
New Delhi on February 26. (Photo: Press Information Bureau)                           behind.”

                6    I   N D I A   R   E V I E W   A   P R I L   1,   2005
               E C O N O M Y

‘Big ticket investments’ sought in infrastructure sector

                ommerce and Industry Minister Kamal Nath
                on March 28 urged investors to take advan-
                tage of India’s huge infrastructure develop-
                ment requirements, estimated at over $150
                billion over the next five years.
   “I would urge the investing community to take full advan-
tage of the facility that covers roads, seaports, airports,
power, water supply, sewerage, solid waste management and
international convention centres,” he said.
   “Given their resource requirement, it is not possible to
fund them fully from the government’s budgetary resources,”
Kamal Nath said while inaugurating a two-day ‘India
Infrastructure Summit’ in New Delhi.
   Addressing the summit, U.S. Ambassador to India David            Minister for Commerce and Industry Kamal Nath, center, being welcomed
                                                                    at the inauguration of the ‘India Infrastructure Summit 2005,’ organised
C. Mulforld called for a financial entity with a large capital      jointly by the Department of Industrial Policy and Promotion, Ministry of
base to extend support to private players in large-scale            Commerce and Industry and the Federation of Indian Chambers of
infrastructure projects requiring long-term capital financ-         Commerce and Industry, in New Delhi on March 28.
ing. Such an entity should be owned and operated by the             (Photo: Press Information Bureau)
private sector, with minority government holding, but sig-          anisms to tap resources, and said while the government
nificant funds from multilateral agencies to ensure minimum         would promote investment, the industry should also rise to
standards of project compliance, transparency and legal fol-        the occasion and enter into collaborations to implement
low-through.                                                        such projects. He emphasised the importance of infrastruc-
   Mulforld also underlined the need for political consensus        ture for economic development and noted that advanced
on creating a “culture of consistency” for infrastructure pro-      economies of the West, including the U.S. and Europe,
jects, adding that preparatory work must be thorough, pro-          besides Japan, had all developed their infrastructure first.
cedures disciplined and awards faithfully honoured by suc-             Closer home, the Southeast Asian countries and China
cessors. “When disputes or failures to perform arise, there         had also done the same. India’s institutional strengths and
must be timely and decisive arbitration and court action to         many other factors have positioned it today as “the world’s
enforce rights and obligations,” he added.                          fastest-growing free market democracy with bright future”.
   Kamal Nath noted that the government had introduced                 However, if India has to sustain the rosy picture, more
the facility of “viability gap funding” to facilitate public-pri-   attention needs to be paid to infrastructure.
vate partnership initiatives in infrastructure sectors.                “Inadequacies in physical infrastructure can severely con-
   “Viability gap funding can be in various forms, and a mix        strain economic growth and, in fact, take us backwards.
of capital and revenue support is possible,” he said.               Infrastructure is both a driver as well as a magnet for invest-
   The minister urged participants, including leading indus-        ment,” the minister said.
trialists, banks and Indian as well as international lending           The summit has organised by the Department of
agencies, to look at the crucial issue of attracting “big-tick-     Industrial Policy and Promotion, the Ministry of Commerce
et investments” into the infrastructure sector.                     and Industry and the Federation of Indian Chambers of
   Kamal Nath called for innovative instruments and mech-           Commerce and Industry.                                       ■

 Infosys receives AS/EN 9100 certification in aerospace systems

      eading consulting and IT services provider Infosys            clients in the aerospace segment. Given the complexity of
      Technologies on March 30 received the AS/EN 9100              the systems... it is important to be a low-risk and high
      certification for its work in designing and developing        value-add partner for our clients,” Infosys chief operating
complex aero structures and engine components.                      officer Kris Gopalakrishnan said.
   With the certification, Infosys joins a select band of glob-        The AS/EN 9100 certificate emphasises on areas that
al engineering and IT services companies that are AS/EN             have the greatest impact on safety, air-worthiness and reli-
9100 certified.                                                     ability for aerospace products.
   The company is involved in the area of engineering,                 “The certification assures our clients of our ability to
design, development and validation of software for aero-            manage the right process infrastructure and helps them
space systems.                                                      achieve quantum improvements in all aspects of the aero-
   “We are developing mission-critical systems for our              space project lifecycle,” he said in a statement.         ■

                                                                                A   P R I L   1,   2005      I   N D I A   R   E V I E W   7
         G - 2 0                           M E E T I N G

        G-20 calls for end to all export subsidies in five years

                      he Group of 20 (G-20) developing countries      Developed Countries (LDC), the Africa, Caribbean and
                      ended a two-day meeting hosted by India in New  Pacific Group (ACP) and the Caribbean Group (Caricom).
                      Delhi on March 19 with a joint declaration that    The main purpose of the two-day deliberations was to
                      asked rich nations to end all forms of export   ensure that the interests and concerns of G-20 member coun-
                      subsidies in five years.                        tries are addressed in the final outcome of the WTO
                                                                      Ministerial Meeting in Hong Kong in December.
          In a rare show of unity in a group with diverse interests and
        positions among the members, the declaration also called on      The agenda for the G-20 meeting included discussions on
        developed countries to substantially reduce trade-distorting  the three pillars of the ongoing farm talks –– export compe-
        domestic support, but did not specify a time frame.           tition, domestic support and market access –– as also other
          The two-day meeting focussed on issues related to agricul-  issues such as the interests of least developed countries.
        ture in the ongoing negotiations at the World Trade              The participating countries were Argentina, Brazil, Bolivia,
                                                                                       Chile, China, Cuba, Egypt, Guatemala, India,
                                                                                       Indonesia, Mexico, Nigeria, Pakistan,
                                                                                       Paraguay, the Philippines, South Africa,
                                                                                       Tanzania, Thailand, Venezuela and
                                                                                         The declaration signed by the participating
                                                                                       countries articulates a common strategy and
                                                                                       position, and reaffirms the commitment to
                                                                                       make progress in the Doha Development
                                                                                       Round and arrive at an agreement as sched-
                                                                                       uled. On the crucial issue of market access,
                                                                                       the ministers reaffirmed the long held view of
                                                                                       the G-20 that the tariff reduction formulae is
                                                                                       the main component and should be negotiat-
                                                                                       ed before the issue of flexibilities. The tariff-
                                                                                       reduction formulae, the declaration said, must
                                                                                       be progressive, ensure proportionality for
                                                                                       developing countries and allow flexibility by
The Union Minister for Commerce and Industry Kamal Nath, in white at centre, with taking into account the sensitive nature of
the commerce ministers of the Group of 20 (G-20) nations, at the inaugural session some products. Ministers also stressed that
of the G-20 Ministerial Meeting in New Delhi on March 18.                              special and differential treatment for develop-
(Photo: Press Information Bureau)                                                      ing countries must constitute an integral part
        Organisation (WTO), but areas like services, non-agriculture of all elements with a view to preserving food security, rural
        market access and trade facilitation were also discussed.     development and livelihood concerns.
           “We had a very productive meeting. We have not only           They also stressed that the elimination of tariff escalation is
        shown that G-20 is alive and kicking, but doing that in a important for developing countries, as it would help them to
        forceful manner,” Brazilian Trade Minister Celso Amorim said diversify and increase their export revenues by adding value to
        at a joint press conference addressed by all delegates.       their produce. But they expressed concern that developed
           “It is essential that G-20 gets perma-                                             countries were increasingly using non-
        nently mobilised,” he said. “We have          “The gathering here                     tariff barriers that are acting as imped-
        shown for the first time that trade lib-         signals a coming                     iments to exports and detrimental to
        eralisation and social concerns can go together in the common the interests of developing countries.
        together,” he added, in reference to                                                     The trade ministers and delegates
        parallel discussions with NGOs.               cause of almost the                     were also treated to a cultural pro-
           “The gathering here signals a com-            entire developing                    gramme and gala dinner on March 18 at
        ing together in the common cause of world,” said Commerce the picturesque settings of a ruined
        almost the entire developing world,”          Minister Kamal Nath.                    medieval fort. They also had a meeting
        said the event's host, Commerce                                                       with Prime Minister Manmohan Singh
        Minister Kamal Nath. “We had a com-           “We had a composite                     earlier in the day.                     ■
        posite assessment of play in the ongo-       assessment of play in                     (For full text of the joint declaration,
        ing trade talks.”                               the ongoing trade                            visit:
           The two-day meeting also had the                       talks.”                                release.asp?relid=797
        participation of other groups like Least                                                            &kwd=G%2D20)

         8   I   N D I A   R   E V I E W   A   P R I L   1,   2005
               E C O N O M Y

Lok Sabha passes 3rd Patents (Amendments) Bill 2005

               he Lok Sabha, the lower house of Parliament, on        relating to new chemical entities and micro-organisms –– the
               March 22 passed the third Patents (Amendments)         two issues that have been referred to the expert committee.
               Bill 2005, with the ruling United Progressive             Earlier, initiating the discussion
               Alliance (UPA) receiving the support of its Left       in the Lok Sabha, Kamal Nath had
               allies. With the passage of the bill, India has ful-   reiterated the government was only
filled its obligation to usher in a new product patents regime        fulfilling an international commit-
under the Trade Related Intellectual Property Rights agreement        ment that had been made on the
of the World Trade Organisation (WTO).                                issue.
    The bill provides for product patents in drugs, agricultural         Among the amendments includ-
products and embedded software.                                       ed in the bill are those relating to
    The bill was passed after Commerce Minister Kamal Nath            areas like definition of inventive-
assured the house that adequate safeguards had been built into        ness, new inventions, compulsory
the legislation to ensure that the interests of the Indian phar-      licensing, royalty and the raising of
maceutical industry are protected and the prices of drugs do          objections before the grant of a
not shoot up. Ten amendments suggested by the Left parties            patent instead of afterwards.
have been incorporated into the bill, while two others have              Kamal Nath said that as far as
been referred to an expert committee.                                 compulsary licensing was con-
    Replying to the five-hour debate over the bill, Kamal Nath        cerned, there was now a provision
said the bill –– which replaces an ordinance promulgated on           in the bill to revoke a patent in the Commerce Minister Kamal Nath
December 23, 2004, to meet the January 1, 2005, WTO dead-             public interest. Similalrly, he said,
line –– would be further amended if the expert committee felt         fresh patents would not be allowed if new properties are dis-
greater flexibility or safeguards were required on concerns           covered for existing drugs.

India unveils new rules for foreign equity in construction sector

     n a bid to attract overseas capital in areas ranging from        opment at 100 acres with at least 2,000 dwelling units.
     hotel resorts to integrated townships, the Indian govern-          The foreign investor is also required to bring in within six
     ment on March 4 issued fresh guidelines for 100 percent          months from the date of commencement of business a mini-
foreign equity in the construction industry.                          mum capital of $10 million for wholly-owned subsidiaries and
  Approval of applications for construction projects have now         $5 million for joint ventures with Indian partners.
been placed under the automatic route instead of having to get          Foreign investment in construction will not displace or
them processed by the Foreign Investment Promotion Board or           replace the local industry, but rather help it grow at a rapid
other government agencies.                                            pace and generate greater economic activity, said Commerce
  The fresh guidelines also seek to forestall speculation in the      Minister Kamal Nath. “We want incremental investment in the
                                              country’s boom-         construction sector so that it triggers employment generation,
                                              ing real estate         greater economic activity, an increase in built-up infrastructure
            Approval of                       sector by foreign       and spin-off benefits for manufacturing,” he added.
        applications for                      investors by pro-         The new rules specify that the original investment cannot be
  construction projects hibiting the sale                             repatriated before a period of three years from the completion
   have now been placed                       of undeveloped          of minimum capitalisation, but the investor may be permitted
    under the automatic                       land, but signifi-      to exit earlier with prior approval of the government.
 route instead of having cantly ease the                                At least 50 percent of the project must be developed within
                                              minimum area            a period of five years from the date of obtaining all statutory
  to get them processed                       requirement.            clearances and the investor cannot sell undeveloped plots, the
         by the Foreign                         The Commerce          guidelines said.
   Investment Promotion                       Ministry’s fresh          The project shall also conform to the norms and standards,
        Board or other                        rules fix the mini-     including land use requirements and provision of community
   government agencies.                       mum area to be          amenities, as prescribed under building control regulations
                                              developed under         and byelaws of various states and local bodies.
                                              each project at 10        The need for a review of the rules was felt as only nine for-
hectares for serviced housing plots and 50,000 square metres          eign equity applications had been received for integrated town-
for construction-related development projects.                        ships and stakeholders had said the 100-acre minimum area
  The earlier guidelines specified the minimum area for devel-        requirement was a bottleneck in attracting investments.        ■

                                                                              A   P R I L   1,   2005     I   N D I A   R   E V I E W   9
          E C O N O M Y

         Plan to improve 4,000 kms of highways cleared

                                                                    he Union government on            under the second segment has also been
                                                                    March 5 cleared an ambitious      given in principle, the official said
In a Nutshell
                                                                    plan for widening and upgrad-       Under the third phase of the project,
                                                                    ing 4,000 kms more of nation-     national highways will be expanded into four
                                                                    al highways at a cost of around   lanes and safety features such as road over-
Exports surge to $70 bn                              Rs. 200 billion ($4.5 billion) –– and a spe-     bridges in place of railway level crossings,
                                                     cial package for roads in the Northeast.         grade separators and crash barriers would
   INDIA'S MERCHANDISE exports                          This takes the total projects being execut-   be incorporated.
surged 27 percent in the first 11 months             ed to improve the country’s national high-         “The project would be undertaken on
of the current fiscal to touch $70 bil-              ways to 18,000 kms, officials said after a       build-operate-transfer basis,” the official
lion, well on its way to a new milestone             meeting of the Cabinet Committee on              said. The government is expected to provide
in external trade, the latest figures                Economic Affairs chaired by Prime Minister       a maximum of 40 percent subsidy for the
reveal. In February alone, exports were              Manmohan Singh.                                  project, while the rest is to be raised
valued at $6.7 billion, pointing to the                 The cabinet also approved a Special           through private investment.
growing competitiveness of Indian                    Accelerated Road Development Programme             Altogether, India has put in motion pro-
industry and the export-led growth                   in the Northeast region under which 6,396        jects for upgrading a total of 18,000 kms,
strategy of the government.                          kms of roads will be developed with an           including the ongoing Golden Quadrilateral
   India is expected to achieve $75 bil-             investment of Rs. 105 billion ($2.4 billion)     Project under phase one and the north-
lion in merchandise exports during the               in two phases.                                   south and east-west corridors under the sec-
current fiscal, and top $100 billion                    The      latest     National      Highways    ond phase.
after taking into account exports by the             Development Project (NHDP) is part of a            The government hopes to complete 92
services sector.                                     10,000-km upgrade to be covered under the        percent of the work on the 5,846-kilometre
                                                     third phase of the highways project, a senior    Golden Quadrilateral –– to link New Delhi,
                                                     official of the Ministry of Shipping, Road       Mumbai, Chennai and Kolkata with an
Tele-density touches 9%                              Transport and Highways said.                     upgraded and widened four- and six-lane
                                                        The third phase is to be completed in two     highway –– by the year-end, one year behind
  INDIA'S TELE-DENSITY touched 9                     segments and is estimated to involve an          schedule.
percent in February, with 2.11 million               expenditure of around Rs. 550 billion ($12.3       As on January 31 this year, about 4,480
subscribers added during the month,                  billion). Approval for another 6,000 kms         km had been completed.                    ■
taking the total number of telephone
users to 97.03 million.
  Mobile telephones continued to                     L.N. Mittal is world’s third-richest man: Forbes
grow rapidly with the subscriber base

swelling to 51.44 million subscribers,                    ndia-born steel magnate Lakshmi N. Mittal has become the third-richest person in the
compared to 45.59 million landline                        world after Microsoft’s Bill Gates and investor Warren Buffet, according to Forbes mag-
users, said a statement issued by the                     azine.
Telecom Regulatory Authority of India.                  A total of 12 Indians have been featured in Forbes’ ‘World's
                                                     Richest People 2005’ list, including Azim Premji of Wipro,
                                                     Mukesh and Anil Ambani of Reliance Industries, and Naresh
Top real estate choices                              Goyal of domestic aviation major Jet Airways.
                                                        “In raw dollars, no one had a better year that Lakshmi Mittal,”
   THE INDIAN cities of Mumbai,                      said the magazine about the London-based, Rajasthan-born steel
Bangalore and New Delhi have                         baron. Mittal, 54, added $18.8 billion to his net worth to take it
emerged as the top three choices of                  to $25 billion, climbing 59 steps from last year to be slotted No.
investors for real estate investment in              3 on the coveted list.
2005 in Asia, according to the industry                 According to Forbes, soaring world prices for steel and acqui-
consultancy firm Jones Lang LaSalle.                 sition of mills across the globe, especially in Eastern Europe,
   According to LaSalle’s annual                     helped Mittal emerge as the third-richest person in the world.
investor sentiment survey, investment                   Last year Mittal saw his steel businesses' profit triple to $4.7
interest in the region would continue to             billion on sales of $22.2 billion.
be robust this year with more confi-                    Recently, Mittal has consolidated his various private steel hold-
dence towards the retail and office                  ings into public companies. Mittal Steel’s shares are listed on the
property markets across the region.                                                                                                  L.N. Mittal
                                                     New York and Amsterdam stock exchanges.
                                                        Born into a steel making family, Mittal struck out on his own in 1976. He is today the
                                                     world's second-largest steel maker behind Luxembourg-based Arcelor.                         ■

           10   I   N D I A   R   E V I E W   A   P R I L   1,   2005
               E C O N O M Y

India’s economic growth drives U.S. media interest

                team of American editors, who travelled to technology sector, Mitra also drew attention to the fact that
                India as fellows of the Johns Hopkins more than 100 global companies outsource research and
                University International Reporting Project, development facilities from India.
                have put anxieties about economic reforms       Micky Hirten of the Lansing State Journal and Paul
                behind and have been awakened to the huge Tooher of The Providence Journal in Rhode Island sounded
economic potential of India.                                 appreciative of the Ficci presentation, which predicted GDP
   After a presentation on India and its economic strengths growth to be around 7.5 percent in the next fiscal year. “The
by the Federation of Indian Chambers of Commerce and future of India certainly looks bright,” said Hirten.
Industry (Ficci) in New Delhi on March 9, Lonnie Isabel,        Said Mitra: “Most of the questions were about reforms.
deputy managing editor, Newsday, said he was quite For the American media team, the huge economic potential
impressed by the record of the Indian economy.               of India has been an awakening of sorts.”
   “There is a growing interest in India. The coverage about    In the interaction with members of Parliament, Andrew
India is increasing in U.S. newspapers and magazines, Ross, national editor of San Francisco Chronicle, however,
which are taking a keen interest in the course of reforms in alluded to the popular interpretation of the mandate of the
India,” Isabel said.                                                              2004 elections that many in the West
   The presentation, made by Ficci sec-        “There is a growing saw as a rejection of economic reforms.
retary general Amit Mitra, touched upon interest in India. The “Why did the NDA (National
‘facts about India were not known to coverage about India Democratic Alliance) lose the elec-
them (the American editors).’’ He high- is increasing in U.S.                     tions? Was it a verdict on economic
lighted, for instance, that India will           newspapers and                   reforms?” he asked. Replying to Ross,
remain a young nation with the median                                             Manvendra Singh, a Bharatiya Janata
age rising from 21 in 2000 to 26 in
                                              magazines, which are Party (BJP) MP said: “It wasn’t a vote
2025. He also pointed out that the taking a keen interest against reforms. It was more a question
decline in poverty levels had accelerat-        in the course of                  of managing coalitions and forging
ed in the 1990s, while the highest reforms in India,” said right alliances in states.”
income household group was in the Lonnie Isabel, deputy                              The editors, who also had a meeting
fastest-growing segment from 2000-             managing editor of                 with Prime Minister Manmohan Singh,
2006. Apart from dwelling on India’s                  Newsday.                    travelled to several Indian cities during
well-known strengths in the information                                           their stay in the country.              ■

Perot Systems to expand India ops MphasiS acquires U.S.-based BPO
P    erot Systems Corporation, the U.S.-based global tech-
     nology solutions provider, plans to expand operations
in India, the company’s chairman has said. The expansion
                                                                  T    he MphasiS BFL Group, one of India’s leading mid-size
                                                                       IT services firms, said it had acquired a U.S.-based
                                                                  business process outsourcing (BPO) company for $16.5 mil-
plans for leveraging the local talent pool were discussed at      lion to expand its presence overseas.
a board meeting, held for the first time in India –– a first of      The all-cash transaction to acquire Eldorado Computing
its kind by a major U.S. multinational IT firm.                   Inc., a profitable entity with revenues of over $10 million,
   “Though we are currently located in Bangalore, Chennai         was to be completed in the quarter ending March 31.
and Noida (near Delhi), we are looking at expanding our              Eldorado Computing specialises in back-office claims
presence in two more cities in the next 12-18 months,” Perot      processing and management solutions for the health insur-
chairman Ross Perot Jr. said after the meeting.              ■    ance industry.                                            ■

    $4.5 billion investment expected in retail trade by 2010
I  nvestments in India's fast-growing organised
   retail trade is likely to expand rapidly in the years
ahead to touch Rs.200 billion ($4.5 billion) by 2010
                                                                  by Images and KSA Technopak. According to the
                                                                  report, Indian consumers are rapidly evolving and
                                                                  accepting modern retail formats in metros as well as
as overseas as well as local firms explore business               in second tier cities.
opportunities.                                                      Indian corporate groups like Tata, Reliance, ITC,
   The size of the organised retail segment is also               Bombay Dyeing and Piramal Groups, foreign
likely to grow at the rate of 25 percent to 30 percent            investors and private equity players are firming up
per annum and is estimated to breach a staggering                 plans to identify investment opportunities in the
Rs.1 trillion by 2010, said a study conducted jointly             retail sector, it added.                          ■

                                                                            A   P R I L   1,   2005    I   N D I A   R   E V I E W   11
U . S . A .                                       N E W S

 Media Watch

It’s time for U.S. and India to go steady
■   By STANLEY A. WEISS                                             responsible global power it is. Within three decades, India is
                                                                    projected to have the world’s third-largest economy and more

               oday, Indian-U.S. relations have matured from        people than China. ...
               that of estranged democracies to engaged part-          President George W. bush has pledged a strategic partner-
               ners, and officials in both countries speak          ship with India and should take the plunge, starting with a trip
               breathlessly of being “natural allies” ... How can   to New Delhi bearing the dowry that would win Indian hearts
               Washington and New Delhi realize their dreams        –– American support for an Indian seat on an expanded U.N.
of a meaningful long-term relationship? ...                         Security Council. Bush should also breathe new life into bilat-
   First, both sides must dump their emotional baggage. ... At      eral trade, which last year was a mere $21 billion. ...
the same time, Washington can be more sensitive to India’s             Building on the recent easing of U.S. export controls on
legitimate security and economic concerns. ... Likewise, the        technology for India’s space and civilian nuclear programs,
United States should resist knee-jerk reactions when Indian         Washington and New Delhi should move ahead with cooper-
seemingly acts against American interests. The $40 billion          ation in high-tech trade and missile defense. ...
natural gas deal recently signed by India, a leading gas               For its part, India must finish what it started in 1991 –– let-
importer, and Iran, a top gas exporter, makes perfect sense.        ting go of socialist economic policies that stifle innovation
Washington should welcome, not fear, plans for an Iranian-          and scare off foreign investment. ...
Indian pipeline across Pakistan, which would give Tehran and           With the right direction and some clever choreography, the
Islamabad economic incentives to behave themselves.                 actors in the elaborate Indian-American drama can fulfill
   With other suitors vying for New Delhi’s affections,             [Prime Minister Manmohan] Singh’s wish that, “the best is yet
Washington can no longer take India for granted. Russia has         to come.”
advocated a “strategic triangle” aligning New Delhi, Moscow         (Excerpts of an article from the International Herald Tribune
and Beijing as a counterweight to the United States. ...                                     dated March 8)
   It’s time for Washington to respect India as the mature,                  (For the full article, visit:

America’s New Beginning with India
■   By THOMAS PICKERING and JOSEPH RALSTON                             Some Indian government officials with whom we met
                                                                    emphasized a new willingness and desire to move forward in

          merica’s relationship with India is at a crossroads, as   the strategic relationship with the U.S. …
          U.S. Secretary of State Condoleezza Rice arrives in          India... holds foreign currency reserves of more than $ 130
          New Delhi today. This represents a strategic oppor-       billion. It wants to spend a significant portion of this money
tunity for both countries. The U.S. and India should have the       and its regular defense budget on upgrading its older, outdat-
confidence and capability to take full advantage of this            ed Soviet-era military equipment. India recently made a
moment to move forward with a robust package of new strate-         request for information to support the possible purchase of
gic, political, economic and business ties.                         American fighter aircraft like the F-16 and F-18. If this request
  On our visit to India last month as co-leaders of a U.S.-         goes unapproved by the U.S. ... licensing process, the Indians
India Business Council group of American defense-industry           will likely buy French or Russian aircraft instead. …..
officials, we witnessed what can only be described as a sea            In addition to Ms. Rice’s current visit to India, a number of
change in Indian attitudes toward cooperation with the U.S.         high-profile Indian government leaders are expected in
There is broad recognition emerging throughout all levels of        Washington this year. These visits will offer ample opportuni-
Indian government and the business community of the dis-            ties for U.S. administration officials and... lawmakers to take
tance that the U.S.-Indian relationship has traveled. The close     full measure of the new Indian attitude toward cooperation
cooperation on relief operations that occurred in January           with America. Bold and innovative thinking on both sides and
between New Delhi and Washington following the disastrous           the courage to get beyond some long-held mistrust holds
tsunami in Asia would not have been possible just a year ago.       promise of an even more vibrant, rich, and mutually beneficial
U.S. and Indian military forces train together in India and         new relationship, and a true strategic partnership.
operate jointly in the South Asian region, Washington and                 (Excerpts of an article from The Wall Street Journal
New Delhi share sensitive intelligence on mutual threats both                                 dated March 15)
countries face in dealing with global and local terrorism.               (For the full article, visit:

 12   I   N D I A   R   E V I E W   A   P R I L   1,   2005
              U . S . A .                            N E W S

‘Meet the Author’: Achamma C. Chandrasekaran

              he Embassy of India, in collaboration with the
              Asia Society, Washington Chapter, organised
              an interesting ‘Meet the Author’ event at its
              premises in Washington, D.C., on March 8,
   Achamma C. Chandersekaran, a long-time resident of the
Washington area, who was formerly at the U.S. Department
of Commerce, has translated 25 short stories by award-win-
ning Malayalam authors into English and compiled these
into a book called ‘Daughters of Kerala.’ The event attract-
ed a large and diverse audience.
   Introducing the author, Deputy Chief of Mission
Raminder Jassal recalled his connection with Kerala where        Achamma C. Chandersekaran, right, speaks at the Embassy of India in
he spent a year as a young civil service recruit on district     Washington, D.C., on her book ‘Daughters of Kerala.’ Also seen in the photo
training in the mid 1970s. Stating that he had, even then,       are R.S. Jassal, Deputy Chief of Mission, centre, and Joseph C. Snyder, Executive
found the women of that state of India to be full of charac-     Director of the Asia Society, Washington. (Photo: Kiran Jagga)
ter and inner strength, he was delighted that the present        Chadersekaran was candid and direct in her responses. The
collection of short stories would help convey this image to      animated discussion which followed, also touched upon the
a wider audience in the English-speaking world.                  status of women in India.
   Answering a volley of questions from the audience,               Joseph Snyder, Executive Director of the Washington
Achamma Chandersekaran spoke of how she had selected             chapter of the Asia Society proposed a vote of thanks. The
the stories, what had attracted her to the particular ones she   Embassy hosted a reception thereafter, during which
finally chose and what she wanted to convey to her readers.      Chandersekaran signed copies of her book.               ■

Global IIT Conference in May                        40-member UJF delegation visits Embassy

        he 2nd Global IIT Alumni Conference,
        ‘Beyond iiTechnology,’ is scheduled to
        be held at Washington, D.C., from May
20 to 22. About 2,000 guests are expected to
attend. Human Resource Development
Minister Arjun Singh will inaugurate the con-
ference, while a galaxy of speakers including
Jack Welch, former CEO of GE; Larry
Summers, Harvard University president; C.K.         Ambassador Ronen Sen, centre, with Deputy Chief of Mission R.S. Jassal
Prahlad, professor at the University of             and Susan M. Farber, president of the United Jewish Federation, at the
Michigan; and Victor Menezes, vice chairman         Indian Embassy in Washington, D.C. (Photo: Kiran Jagga)
of Citi Group; have confirmed attendance.

                                                              40-member delegation from the United Jewish Federation
Ambassador Ronen Sen will deliver the confer-                 (UJF), New York, called on Ambassador Ronen Sen at the
ence’s closing keynote address. The directors                 Chancery on March 17. The delegation, led by UJF President
of all seven IITs will be in attendance.            Susan M. Farber, attended an interactive session at the embassy
   The conference themes include collabora-         focussing on India-U.S. and India-Israel relations.
tion between the IITs and leading technical            In his address to the delegation, Ambassador Sen spoke of the ancient
universities in the U.S., a rural infrastructure    contacts of the Jewish community with India and the peaceful co-exis-
technology panel will discuss ways of attracting    tence of Jews in India with other religious communities throughout his-
investment and creating employment in rural         tory. He emphasised that India was one country where Jews never faced
India, a defense research panel will brainstorm     any persecution, and noted that since diplomatic ties were established
on possibilities of IITs collaborating with the     with Israel in 1992, bilateral relations have advanced tremendously.
U.S. defense industry, and U.S. NGOs with              In his remarks, Deputy Chief of Mission R.S. Jassal, mentioned the
experience in village technologies in India will    immense regard in which David Ben Gurion held Mahatma Gandhi. He
narrate their experiences and talk of collabora-    also cited parallels between Ben Gurion and Jawaharlal Nehru as two
tion proposals.                               ■     great nation builders and dwelt upon the strengthening and expansion
 (For more information, visit      of the contemporary ties between India and Israel.                    ■

                                                                            A   P R I L   1,   2005      I   N D I A   R   E V I E W   13
 T R A V E L

Taj Mahal
350 years
of splendour

                   or 350 years now, the Taj                decided to erect a memorial that the world     Punjab, carnelian from Baghdad, turquoise
                   Mahal has inspired poets,                would never forget. The site selected for      from Tibet, agates from Yemen, corals
                   painters and musicians to try            the tomb was a garden by the Yamuna            from Arabia, garnets from Bundelkhand,
                   and capture its elusive magic in         river, unshadowed by any other structure.      onyx and amethyst from Persia.
                   word, colour and song. Since                Over 20,000 workers laboured for 17            Taj Mahal stands at one side of a garden
       the 17th century, travellers have crossed            years to build the mausoleum. Shah Jahan       laid in the traditional charbagh style, with
       continents to come to Agra and see this              spent his last years in the Mussalman Burj     its square lawns bisected by pathways,
       ultimate memorial to love, and few have              looking downstream at the Taj where his        water channels and rows of fountains.
       remained unmoved by its incomparable                 beloved Mumtaz Mahal lay. After his            Halfway down the path there is a square
       beauty.                                              death, he, too, was laid to rest beside her.   pool, its limpid waters reflecting the mar-
          The celebrations marking the 350th                   Shah Jahan’s two biggest passions were      ble tomb. Unlike other tombs, Taj Mahal
       anniversary of the Taj began in September            architecture and jewellery and both are        stands at one end of the garden instead of
       2004 and was marked with special events              reflected in the Taj Mahal. The marble         the centre. This was done deliberately, to
       over the next six months.                            building is decorated with semi-precious       leave its vista uncluttered by any other
          Standing on the banks of the Yamuna               stones inlaid with the delicacy of hand-       building.
       river, this marvel in marble was built by            crafted jewellery. For the intricate pietra       The tomb stands on a marble plinth six-
       Mughal Emperor Shah Jahan in the me-                 dura the finest gems were collected —          metres high. The four minarets at each
       mory of his beloved wife Mumtaz Mahal.               crystal and jade from China, lapis lazuli      corner beautifully frame the tomb. The
          After Mumtaz’s death, Shah Jahan                  and sapphires from Sri Lanka, jasper from      plinth stands on a high standstone plat-

  14     I   N D I A   R   E V I E W   A   P R I L   1,   2005
               T R A V E L

form and at the far ends of this base are
two identical sandstone structures, a
mosque to the west and its jawab, or echo,              Taj: Facts and Factoids
to the east. Thus, the main building is not
just of great size but beautifully propor-
                                                 ■ At least 20,000 people were                   Tibet, lapis lazuli and sapphires
                                                   employed to built the Taj Mahal for           from Sri Lanka, coal and carnelian
tioned and balanced in design.
                                                   around 17 years.                              from Arabia and diamonds from
   The actual graves lie in an underground
crypt directly below the cenotaphs.
                                                 ■ The site selected was a garden by             Panna.
                                                   the Yamuna river.                           ■ The white marble was quarried from
   Taj Mahal is 75 metres high and is, in
fact, taller than the Qutb Minar in Delhi.
                                                 ■ It stands on a marble plinth six-             the mines in Aravalli ranges in
                                                   metres high.                                  Dholpur and Jaipur.
   Taj Mahal changes its moods with the
                                                 ■ The monument is 75 metres high.             ■ For the accommodation of workers,
seasons and the different times of the day.
At dawn, the marble has a delicate bloom
                                                 ■ It’s cost of construction was up ay           a small town named after the
                                                   Rs. 5 million then.                           deceased empress, Mumtazabad
in shell pink, by noon it glitters majestical-
ly white, turning to a soft pearly grey at
                                                 ■ To date, the identity of its architect        now known as Taj Ganj, was built
                                                   remains a mystery. It is said Shah            adjacent to the building site.
dusk. Monsoon clouds give it a moody
                                                   Jahan may have served as his own            ■ A popular belief associated with the
blue tint and it appears and disappears like
                                                   artistic director. In the official            monument is that Shah Jahan
a mirage in the drifting mists of winter.
                                                   Mughal histories, 37 men are men-             chopped off the hands of all the
   It can be solid and earthbound, fragile
                                                   tioned by name under the category             20,000 workers so that the they
and ethereal, white, amber, grey and gold.
                                                   of designers and architects.                  cannot rebuild another monument
The many faces of Taj Mahal display
the seductive power of architecture at its
                                                 ■ The material was brought in from all          like the Taj.
best.                                      ■
                                                   over India and central Asia and it          ■ Another belief is that Shah Jahan
                                                   took a fleet of 1,000 elephants to            had planned to build another Taj
                                                   transport it to the site.                      Mahal in black marble, which was
 A virtual tour                                  ■ Red sandstone was brought from
                                                   Fatehpur Sikri, jasper from
                                                                                                    to be his own tomb on the oppo-
                                                                                                      site bank of river Yamuna and
                                                   Punjab, jade and crystal                                      connect the two by a
 of Taj Mahal                                      from China, turquoise from                                      bridge.

         ake a virtual tour of the magnifi-

 T       cent Taj Mahal even if you cannot
         actually visit one of the world’s
 most famous monuments to love.
 A website imparts
 the history of the marble mausoleum.

                                                                  TOURIST                    INFORMATION
                                                    How to Get There                           Entry Fee
                                                    By Air: Kheria Airport is 7 kms from       Rs. 15 for the Taj Mahal and the
                                                    centre of town. Delhi’s Indira Gandhi      Museum from 10 a.m. to 5 p.m.
                                                    International Airport is 204 kms away.     Rs. 100 from 8 a.m. to 10 a.m. and 5
                                                    By Rail: The Agra Cantonment station       p.m. to 7 p.m. Children below 12 free.
         Detail of carving on the Taj               is the nearest railhead. It is 6 kms       Free entry on Fridays.
 The website, developed by students,                from the city centre.                      Foreigners are charged a composite
 enables surfers across the world to learn          By Road: Uttar Pradesh Roadways’           fee of Rs. 500 that allows them entry
 everything about the Taj, its rich history         buses leave for other major cities from    to all the monuments in Agra — Taj
 and exquisite architecture.                        the Idgah bus stand.                       Mahal, Agra Fort, Itmad-ud-Daula
 Splendid images of the Taj add to the net          Timing                                     and Sikandra.
 surfer’s virtual experience.                       8 a.m.-7 p.m.; closed on Mondays.
                                                    Taj Museum is open from 10 a.m.-5            For more information, visit
 The site will keep the surfers updated on                                                       
 various events to be held till February            p.m.; closed on Mondays and Fridays.          
 next year to commemorate the 350-year              Best time to visit                           
                                                    October to March                            

                                                                          A   P R I L   1,   2005     I   N D I A   R   E V I E W   15
                                                                                                      KIRAN JAGGA
                                           EMBASSY OF INDIA
                             2107 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, D.C. 20008
                                      Tel: 202-939-7000; Fax: 202-462-7276

Consulate General of India     Consulate General of India    Consulate General of India      Consulate General of India
   3 East, 64th Street,         540 Arguello Boulevard        455 North Cityfront Plaza      1990 Post Oak Blvd. # 600
        New York                    San Francisco            Drive (NBC Tower Building)          3 Post Oak Central
       N.Y. 10021                      CA 94118              Suite #850 Chicago, IL 60611       Houston, TX 77056

   Tel: 212-774-0600               Tel: 415-668-0662          Tel. 312-595-0405 to 0410         Tel. 713-626-2148/49
   Fax: 212-861-3788               Fax: 415-668-2073               Fax. 312-595-0416              Fax. 713-626-2450
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