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Physical Fitness - Download as PowerPoint


   DoD policy states that all service members must
    possess the following to successfully perform their
    – Cardio-respiratory endurance
    – Muscular strength and endurance
    – Whole body flexibility
   Your conditioning effects overall readiness and
    mission effectiveness
                 Navy fitness goals
 Create a culture of fitness to enhance a member’s
  ability to complete tasks that support the command’s
 Commanding officers will:
    – Conduct three moderate to moderately high intensity
      physical training sessions per week
    – Sessions will be a minimum of 40 minutes in length and
      include warm-up, aerobic activity, and cool-down
        The co’s program will
 Increase and maintain cardio-respiratory
 Muscular strength, endurance, and flexibility
 Reduce excess body fat
 Promote year-round fitness and health
 Provide nutritional guidance
    Marine corps fitness goals
 Combat conditioning
 Health
 Fitness
 Unit cohesion
 The fitness program will not focus exclusively
  upon the semi-annual physical fitness test
         Marine corps fitness goals
 Contribute to health & well-being
 Prepare a marine to perform duties in garrision and
 Develop a reserve level of endurance to enhance the
  chance of success in combat
 Increase an individual’s self-confidence & desire to
  excel, thereby enhancing the unit’s overall discipline,
  morale, esprit de corps, and combat readiness
         Officer candidates in nrotc
 Physical conditioning is a measure of self-discipline,
  self-reliance, and commitment to service as an officer
 A PNS may not require that all your physical fitness
  training be supervised
 Do not rely solely upon your unit’s physical fitness
  program to attain the standards necessary for credible
  service as an officer
 The command & midshipman share responsibility for
        Officer candidates in NROTC
 Failure to meet fitness standards could result in
  disenrollment from your commissioning program
 Failure to meet fitness standards could result in the
  withholding of your officer appointment
              Physical fitness
   Definition: the navy and marine corps
    consider physical fitness to be the ability of a
    sailor or marine to meet the physical demands
    of any combat or duty situation without
    undue fatique
         Physical fitness components
 Strength: the ability to move the body through
 Many associate strength training with progressive
  resistance exercises using weights and machines
 The ability to effectively handle their own body weight
  is a prerequisite before integrating strength training
  with machines into your fitness program
 You can meet this basic prerequisite if you follow the
  principles of physical conditioning
         Types of strength training
 General: strengthens the muscular system by focusing
  on a full-body workout for strength and size
 Major muscle groups are exercised without a specific
  task or functional goal
 This training contributes to overall health
         Types of strength training
 Specific: this type of training is task specific
 Example: an ao2 (aviation ordinanceman) may want to
  focus upon those muscles that help him move and
  place ordnance on aircraft
 Example: a marine that knows he will be operating in
  mountainous terrain may want to specifically increase
  lower body strength
             Physical fitness components
   Endurance: two type of endurance conditioning that
    you should incorporate into your physical fitness
    – Aerobic (with oxygen) endurance: physical demands
      that are sub-maximal, or not an ―all-out‖ effort, lasting
      more than 3 – 5 minutes
          Distance running and road marching
    – Anaerobic (without oxygen) endurance: physical
      demands that are high intensity and of a shorter (less than 2
      – 3 minutes) duration.
          Weightlifting (muscles experience a burning sensation) and
           running short, quick distances (interval or sprint type training).
             Physical fitness components
 Mobility:a sound conditioning program does not focus solely
  upon strength and endurance training
 Mobility conditioning is geared toward improving quality of
 This depends on improving and maintaining
    –   Flexibiilty
    –   Stability
    –   Balance
    –   Agility
    –   Coordination
    –   Power
    –   Speed
   Always ensure you properly warm-up and cool-down (stretch)
     Principles of physical conditioning
   Progression: incorporate a systematic means to
    increase training load
    – Increase time or intensity level
 Regularity: training must be consistent. A
  minimum 3-5 session per week
 Overload: as you condition you will adapt
    – Increase intensity level
     Principles of physical conditioning

   Variety: vary your conditioning program
    – Introduce new activities
        You will maintain interest

        Your body won’t adapt

   Recovery: be progressive & allow for adequate
    recovery time
    – Too much stress causes counterproductive injury
 Balance: focus on the three fitness components
 Specificity: if you want to be a better runner—run,
                   Target heart rate
   Exercise
    – Body speeds up
    – Heart speeds up
 How much speeding up is safe?
 Compute a maximal target heart rate by:
    – Subtracting your age from 220
    – Multiply this by 60% and 70%
   This gives you the target heart rate to sustain during
    aerobic exercise
    – Monitor by regularly taking your pulse
              Time spent on exercise
   The minimum time spent (at your target heart rate) on
    exercise for beginners is:
    – Aerobic activity: 20 to 30 minutes for optimal
    – Strength training: 3 to 8 repetitions per set of exercise
    – Strength endurance: 12 or more repetitions per set of
      exercise for…
    – Flexibility: following adequate warm-up, hold stretch 10 –
      15 seconds, 30 – 60 seconds during cool down
      Cardiovascular fitness activities

   Running/brisk walking    Aerobic dance/step
   Swimming                 Rowing
   Cycling                  Skating
   Stair-climbing           X-country skiing
   Jumping
     Muscular strength & endurance
   Recommended activities
    – Free weight lifting
    – Resistance machines workouts
    – Calisthenics
   Don’t limit yourself to these activities
             Training sessions
 5 – 10 minutes of warm-up
 Aerobic exercise (30 – 40 minutes)
    – Heart rate in the zone!
 Flexibility exercises
 Muscular strength and endurance
 Cool-down activities
    Warm-up & cool-down activities

 Walk/jog
 Whole body calisthenics
 Body segment calisthenics
 What we’ve discussed are only the basics of a
  sound conditioning program
 You’re only limited by self-discipline,
  imagination, and resources
 Focus on total body development
         U.S. Navy physical fitness
   Purpose: to provide personnel with goals to
    promote their basic physical fitness, health
    and readiness
                   The pfa
 Physical activity risk factor screening
 Body composition assessment
 Physical readiness test (prt)
Physical activity risk factor screening
 Completed 10 weeks prior to each scheduled
 Provides ample time for any required medical
 Documents that member was given proper
  notice of upcoming prt
          Body composition assessment
 Height and weight screening
 Body fat estimation using circumferences of body parts
    – Upper allowable limits for u.S. Navy members

                                 Age (Years)

                               17-39                 40-40

             Male                22%                  23%
            Female               33%                  34%
    Physical readiness test (pfa)

 Prt   has the following events
  – The sit-reach
  – The curl-up
  – The push-up
  – The 1.5 mile run/walk or 500 year/450
    meter swim
                   The sit-reach
   Ensure proper warm-up & stretching
   Sit on deck, legs extended, knees slightly flexed,
    feet together, & toes pointed up. Shoes are
   Rearch slowly forward and touch toes with
    fingertips of both hands simultaneously
   Hold the reach for one second
    –   Do not bounce or lunge
 Conducted with a partner on a level surface. Shoes
  are optional
 Flat on back, knees bent, heels about 10 inches from
 Arms folded across & touching chest
    – Hands touch upper chest or shoulders
 Feet held to the floor by partner’s hands
 Timer signals start of 2-minute event
   Curl body up, touching elbows to thighs while
    keeping hands in contact with the chest or shoulders
   After touching elbows to thighs, lie back, touching
    lower edge of shoulder blades to deck
   Participants may rest in either the up or down
       Curl-ups are repeated correctly as many times as
        possible in two minutes
    –     Partner monitors form
       The event is ended if a participant:
    –     Lowers legs
    –     Raises feet of deck
    –     Lifts buttocks off deck
    –     Fails to keep arms folded across & touching the chest
    –     Fails to keep hands in contact with chest or shoulders
   Performed with a partner on a smooth, flat surface
    – Shoes are optional
   Performed as follows:
    – Hands placed on deck, directly beneath the shoulders
    – Both feet together on the deck
    – Back, buttocks, and legs are straight
        Must remain so throughout the test

    – Timer signals start
 Participants lower the whole body as a single unit by
  bending the elbows until the upper arms, shoulders,
  and lower back are aligned and parallel to the deck
 Participants return to the starting position by
  extending the elbows, raising the body as a single unit
  until the arms are straight
   Participants may rest only in the up position while
    maintaining the arms, back, buttocks, and legs in the
   Push-ups are repeated correctly as many times as
    possible in two minutes
    –   Partner monitors form and counts
   The event is ended if the participant:
    –   Touches the deck with any part of their body except
        hands and feet
    –   Raises one or both feet or hands off the deck
    –   Fails to maintain back, buttocks, and legs straight from
        head to toe
                  1.5 mile run/walk
   Running or walking 1.5 miles as quickly as possible
    – Any combination of running and walking is allowed to
      complete the event
 Conducted on a track or outdoor course where the
  surface is deemed flat and solid
 May be conducted on a treadmill
    – Check opnavinst for guidance
          500 yard/450 meter swim
 Proper facilities must be available
 25 or 50 meter pool
 Any swim stroke and turn may be used
 Begin test in water
 You can push off side during turns
 You can rest by holding side, standing, or treading
 Goggles, face mask, caps okay
 No wetsuits, fins, snorkels, floatation or other devices
                    Grading the PRT
   To pass the PRT, you must meet or exceed the
    ―probationary performance standards for
    – Curl-ups
    – Push-ups
    – Run or swim
 Anyone whose overall PRT score is probationaary
  shall join individuals who failed the PFA in the
  command’s fitness enhancement program
 An overall score of ―45‖ is probationary for both
  males and females
                   Grading the PRT

   The PRT scoring system assigns points based on
    performance categories and levels
   Scores from the curl-up, push-up, run/walk or swim
    categories are totaled and then averaged
    –   Total scores are not rounded up
                     Grading the prt

   Event standards are established for 5-year age
    intervals for both sexes
    –   17 – 19 years of age
    –   20 – 24 years of age
    –   25 – 29 years of age
   The intervals extend up to 65-plus years of age
                 Grading the PRT

   A category and level score is not achieved until the
    total minimum points corresponding to that
    particular category and level are attained
   Members must perform all three events to attain a
    PRT score
   If medically waived from an event, you are not
    assigned an overall score
  Overall (averaged) prt score:
CATEGORY              LEVEL       POINTS
Outstanding           High         100
Outstanding           Medium        95
Outstanding           Low           90
Excellent             High          85
Excellent             Medium         80
Excellent             Low           75
Good                       High          70
Good                       Medium        65
Good                       Low           60
Satisfactory          High          55
Satisfactory          Medium        50
Probationary                        45
                             Prt failure
   Failure to meet satisfactory requirements in any event,
    other than the sit-reach, constitutes failure of the prt
    – Regardless of overall score
   If member attempts and fails a cardio event, it is
    considered a prt failure
    – A different cardio event may not be attempted, and is not
          Example: a who member fails 1.5 mile run cannot participate in
           the swimming event
                     Prt failure
 A member’s inability to touch his/her toes and hold
  for one second does not constitute a failure of the prt
 The member will participate in the command fitness
  enhancement program to improve flexibility
          Usmc physical fitness test (pft)

   Purpose: measures the collective level of physical
    fitness marine corps wide.
    – It is a measurement of general fitness, vice combat
      readiness and unit/mos capability
    – Units are responsible for testing their marines for combat
      fitness and readiness as it pertains to their unit’s mission
          Usmc physical fitness test (pft)

   The three pft events are designed to test:
    – Strength & stamina of the upper body
    – Midsection and lower body
    – Efficiency of the cardiovascular system
         Usmc physical fitness test (pft)

   The pft includes:
    – Pull-ups/male    flexed-arm hang/female
    – Abdominal crunches (curl-ups)
    – 3-mile timed run
 Goal is for the marine to execute as many accurate
  and complete pull-ups before dropping off the bar
 Procedures:
    – Not a timed event
    – Pull-up bar is grasped with both palms facing either
      forward or to the rear
    – Correct starting position begins when the marine’s arms are
      fully extended beneath the bar, feet are free from touching
      the ground, and the body is motionless
 The marine’s legs may be positioned in a straight or
  bent position, but may not be raised above the waist
 One repetition consists of raising the body with the
  arms until the chin is above the bar, and then lowering
  the body until the arms are fully extended
 Repeat the exercise
 The marine cannot rest his chin on the bar
 The intent is to execute a vertical ―dead hang‖ pull-up
 A certain amount of inherent body movement will
  occur as the pull-up is executed
 The intent is to avoid a pendulum-like motion that
  enhances the ability to execute the pull-up
 Whipping, kicking, kipping of the body or legs, or any
  movement used to assist in the vertical progression of
  the pull-up is not authorized
                   Flexed-arm hang
   The goal of the flexed-arm hang event is for a
    marine to maintain elbow flexion for as long as
   Procedures:
    –   This is a timed event (70 seconds)
    –   Assistance to the bar with a step-up, being lifted up, or
        jumping up to the start position is authorized
          FLEXED-ARM HANG, cont.
–   The bar must be grasped with both palms facing either
    forward or to the rear
–   The correct starting position begins when the marine’s
    arms are flexed at the elbow, the chin is held above the
    bar and not touching it, and the body is motionless
–   At no time during the event may the marine rest her chin
    on the bar
          FLEXED-ARM HANG, cont.
–   Marines are authorized to drop below the bar during the
    flexed-arm hang
–   Some degree of elbow flexion must be maintained with
    both arms
–   Once a marine’s arms are fully extended or the marine
    drops off the bar, the clock will stop
   This event mirrors the navy event in
                       3.0 mile run
   The goal is for a marine to complete the measured
    course as quickly as possible
   Procedures:
    –   This is a timed event
    –   On the command ―start,‖ the event will begin when the
        last marine crosses the starting point
    –   Finishing time will be called out to the marine as he or
        she crosses the finish line
              Grading the pft
   To successfully pass the pft, marines must
    complete the minimum acceptable
    performance requirements in each event and
    achieve an overall combined score for their
    age group as shown in the following table
AGE    PULL-    AB        3.0    TOTAL MIN. POINTS

17-   3/15      50      28(M),    105    135    30
26    (SEC)              31(F)

27-   3/15      45      29(M),    94     110    16
39                       32(F)

40-   3/15      45      30(M),    88     88     0
45                       33(F)

46+   3/15      40      33(M),    65     65     0
A marine earns a classification score per their
age group:

 PFT          AGE      AGE       AGE        AGE
CLASS        17-26    27-39     40-45       46+
 1st          225      200       175        150

  2nd        175       150        125       100

   3rd       135       110        88         65
                      Pft event scoring
 The total score a marine can accumulate on the pft is
  300 points
 100 points per event
    – Pull-up = 5 points each
    – Fah = 1 point per second first 40 seconds
           = 2 points per second last 30 seconds
    – Crunch = 1 point each
    – 3.0 mile run
          Male < 18:00 = 100 points
          Female < 21:00 = 100 points
    – Lose one point per 10 seconds slower than minimum time
                     Pft failure
 Failure to pass an event or accumulate the requisite
  points for your age constitutes failure of the pft
 Marines who fail the pft will be assigned to a remedial
  physical conditioning program
 The philosophy of remedial pt is not punitive, rather it
  is encouraging
         Marine corps body composition
                 program (bcp)
   Marines are not within body fat standards when their
    body weight and body fat exceed maximum allowable
    – Male = 18%
    – Female = 26%
 Marine is assigned to BCP
 Waiver can be granted by CO
    – 1st class pft and cannot be 4% in excess
All naval personnel, regardless of age,
shall participate in semi-annual pfas
 and pfts unless medically prohibited
Recreational and home safety
      Athletic requirements

 Bicycling
 Boating
 Hunting
 Jogging

 Racquetball
 Targetshooting
 Boxing
    Home safety precautions

 Battery charging, welding, spray
 Photo developing
 Child safety
 Home and vehicle repair
Home/dormitory fire safety
         Alcohol vs. Fire death
 Strong   link between alcohol and fire
  – In more than 50% of adult fire fatalities, victims
    were under the influence at the time of the fire.
  – Alcohol abuse often impairs judgment
  – Cooking is the leading cause of fire injuries on
    college campuses, closely followed by careless
    smoking and arson.
     Factors in dormitory fires
 Improper use of 911 notification systems
 Student apathy
 Hindrance in evacuation efforts
 Delay in building evacuations
 Vandalized and improperly maintained smoke
 Misuse of cooking appliances
 Overloaded electrical circuits/extension cords
         Safety precautions
 Maintain  and regularly test smoke alarms
  and fire alarm systems.
 Replace smoke alarm batteries every
 Regularly inspect rooms and buildings
  for fire hazards. Ask your local fire
  department for assistance.
 Inspect exit doors and windows and
  make sure they are working properly.
      Safety precautions, cont.
 Create and update detailed floor plans of
  buildings; Make them available to emergency
  personnel, resident advisors and students.
 Conduct fire drills; Practice escape routes and
  evacuation plans.
 Do not overload electrical outlets and make
  sure extension cords are used properly.
 Learn to properly use and maintain heating
  and cooking appliances.

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