Docstoc

Foundation - DOC

Document Sample
Foundation - DOC Powered By Docstoc
					                                     Foundation


The main cause for the foundation of Awassa town is the natural beauty of Lake
Awassa located in the surrounding area. Awassa town has got both its name and
beauty from Lake Awassa. The right name of this Lake is not "Awassa" but
"Hawassa" which means “big" in Sidama language. In earlier times, this place
was not inhabited by many people. It was a place where mainly pastoralists used
at to conflict to control the land for grazing.


In 1949 E.C, when Ras Mengesha Siyoum was the governor of Sidamo
"Tekelaigizat" (governorate General) Emperor Hailiesilassie Permitted and
ordered the preparation of suitable master plan for the foundation of a town for
tourist attraction on the land along the shore of Lake Awassa.. Besides there was
a strong interest to make Awassa center of Industry. Especially agro- processing
Industries were largely expected to be established. This was proved with initial
plantation of wide agricultural farming in Awassa.


Accordingly, seven experts have started the planning work in coordination with
Italian engineers. Awassa was the only former town of Ethiopia founded on the
basis of a plan. The plan was found to be very necessary to partition the place
for different uses and to construct the roads of this work.


In 1949 E.C the construction of a palace was accelerated at Loke. This palace is
purposefully built for a temporary stay for the king. In 1950

.C the finance and materials for the constriction of the palace was allocated along with
enough man power, and the construction was completed in 1951 E.C.


This palace is also called the “Kuyuwata” palace. It comprises one big and six medium
sized beautiful houses. The largest room of this palace was used for dinning. There was
relatively large dinning hall too. Some times during the Dergue regime seven houses of
the palace were offices of farmers producers cooperative. The `dinning hall with


                                                                                       1
additional rooms served as an elementary mission school. At Present the palace is said to
be part of Hewot Berhan Church.


In 1951 E.C a person named Ato Kasahun Tefera appointed as head of the survivor
group and assigned to Sidama province especially to lead the task for the foundation of
Awassa town and the plantation of agricultural sectors . After the survey had been
completed in 1952 E.C, the people were provided pieces of land and the house
construction was begun on the basis of the plan. In the same year the office of Abela Vice
District Government, which is currently named Abela Tula sub City was transferred to
the present “Awassa Zuriya” wereda Police. Station right at the back of
telecommunication Awassa Branch, and Commercial Bank of Ethiopia Awassa branch.


The Agricultural Development centre was also founded in the same year. The study and
investigation of the region for agricultural plantation (farming) was begun by
Yugoslavian and Ethiopian experts. Before 1954 E.C, the on going process and the
foundation of Awassa had been supervised by different high ranking officials including
by Ministry of work. of the time.

Then the municipality was founded in 1954 E.C. The area of the town was only (48 Gashas)               by then.
"Abbat Turetengoch Sefer" Arab (Serategnoch) Sefer, and Mehal
Ketma (Piazza) Sefer came into being in the immediate periods of the foundation of the town.


                                               1.1 Naming
As it is mentioned above, Awassa town has got its name from the name of " Lake Hawassa" Before the
establishment of Awassa town this land (a long the edge of Lake) was named "Ada‟are" which means "a
field of cattle" in Sidama Language. The existence of water throughout the year and the availability of
grass for grazing the cattle gradually attracted the highlanders to visit the area constantly. Due to that there
was a constant conflict between Sidama people who inhabited the southern and Arsi oromo the northern
areas around the Lake and who shared Lake Awassa and grassland each other long before.

The Tabor hill which is beautifully situated in the south of the town, was formerly called with two names.
The rear part of this Hill at the side of Referral Hospital is known as “Tillte” which means a plate cultural
food is served on in Sidama language. The front part of the hill at the side of the town, is known as
“Dume”; it means “Reddish” in Sidamigna. This is coined because the soil of the hill is fairly red in color.



                                                                                                              2
Having started the construction earlier than 1949 E.C the loke palace was built for king Haile Silassie at the
southern beach of the lake, about 6k.m away from Awassa.

In 1951 E.C when the king came to Awassa for inauguration of the palace, he visited the peaceful and
beautiful Lake Awassa and the natural beauty of the land which area is around stretched "Tilte -Dume"
hill in all directions. The emperor was surprised by this nature and said "it seems like Debre Tabor
Mountain of Israel. It is just after then that “Dume” hill is renamed Tabor hill.
In its earlier name, the northern area of the town, around the bridge of Tikurwuha “Black water” river, was
called "Daaka"; It means “Swimming” both in Sidama and Oromo languages. The area is situated on the
present boundary of Sidama zone and Oromia Regional State. In the early days, both the surrounding
people used this "Tikur wuha" river as a swimming pool.
The joint place of "Tikur wuha” river and Awassa Lake is locally called "Timii" It means, in Sidama
language, a place where two water bodies meet together. The ancient name of the land from "Tikur wuha"
river up to Sisal factory was "Diko or Hachaqate ". Hachaqate means market in Sidama language. Diko is
the name of the area, thus Hachaqate Diko means “Diko Market”. This market was the first market place
for the surrounding of Awassa inhabitants and stood once a week. This market was founded by the land
lord of the area who was called Madam Bahiroa Tiksee, the daughter of Fitawrari Tikisee.
                                1.2 Growth and Progress of Awassa Town
The growth and expansion of Awassa town was a sudden as compared to every town in the country; it
happened with in short period of time. Particularly since the 1970 s Awassa had shown a very fast growth.
But no one denies that the rise of every town including Awassa could not be out of the natural and human
factors.

The natural factors include accessibility, relief, climate, vegetation, water supplies, soil etc. While the
social factors include defense, administration, economy, the political systems and other conditions.
Similarly, the rise and development of Awassa is the result of various factors combined. some of the
following factors are:


The natural attraction of the area (the lake, the highlands mountains, the vegetation flat land etc.)
The Arsi oromo and Sidama pastoralists made their camps around lake Awassa when they came to search
   for green grasses and water for their cattle.
Traders from the central country made their camps around where the ceramic factory is located recently.
The government settled 404 retired defense military along with their families in the town.
The establishment of health centers, schools, various religious institutions etc
The establishment of large size government farm, Community Development, Agricultural farming and
   training centre, Wanza Wood Processing Industry by Ministry of Work to assist the construction, the
   Sisal factory to assist agro industry etc and the settlement of a number of people in the town in search of
   jobs



                                                                                                            3
    7. Awassa‟s continous promotion to be seat of political and administrative centre


                                          1.2.1 The Earliest Villages
                             Harar, Addis Ababa, Wukiro and Korem
        During one of his visit to the loke Palace, Emperor Hailesilassie gave order that the former Adaare
        jungle to be replaced by modern farm, and the mission was given to General Mulugeta Bulli, the then
        Ministry of Community Development. To the effect of the mission 404 Commissioned soldiers were
        brought to Awassa from various parts of the country.
        They came and settled in their newly named and set up villages: Addis Ababa "sefer"; Harer
        "Sefer", Korem 'Sefer' and Wukiro "Sefer" The naming of these villages was directly related to the
        places the soldiers came from. It was deliberately done in remembrance of the settlers‟ earlier origins
        of the immediate periods of their coming to Awassa.
        Among the 404 expatriate soldiers, 80 of them arrived in Awassa in May 1952E.C. form Addis Ababa.
        The remaining from Harar arrived in December and from Korem and Wukiro in May 1953 E.C.


        These soldiers were provided 28 corrugated iron-roofed houses, 1500 hectares of land for each and
        Birr 20 as pension payment per a month. They formed a sort of cooperative farm under the supervision
        of the Ministry of Community Development. Generally, the coming of these ex-soldiers is considered
        as milestone in the history of Awassa. Presently Addis Ababa and Harar villages are located in Mehal
        Ketema sub city Administration Formerly Harar sefer was found in higher Kebele 01 and Addis Ababa
        in higher 1 Kebele 03. Earlier before the time of Dergue they were with in zone “K”.

    Motorboats carry passengers to and from Wabe-Sheble land 11 hotels that are built on the shore and
    peninsula of the lake which offers an excellent chance to tourists to see the length and width of the lake in
    all directions.

    A fleet of colorfully painted passengers‟ boats, flying the green yellow and red Ethiopian flag entertain
    their passengers with soft Ethiopian traditional music and religious hymns while sailing on the peaceful
    lake under the blue sky except these there are three natural heritages sites (spring water) surrounding
    Awassa town. These are Burqitu Wondo genet and Gidabo Spring water
Burqitu:-It is hot spring water located in south eastern direction of the city. The people of Awassa and the
    surrounding localities travel twelve km to have a swim bath and take long baths in the hot spring water
    which is believed to have a curative nature.
Wando Genet:- is located 37 kms from Awassa this resort area was founded in 1962 E.C. by princess
    Tenagene work Haile Selassie as a winter retreat. It is now run by the WabeShebelle Hotels
    administration. The hotel has a modern restaurant, guest room, a spring water bath and a luxurious
    swimming pool that attracts thousands of domestic and foreign tourists. The spectacular beauty of the
    landscape, spring mineral waters, and dense green forest around the Wondo Genet Forestry College makes


                                                                                                               4
the place a tourist paradise
Gedabo:- the rehabilitated of the spring water site on the banks of Gidabo river was complete in the year
1955 E.C. under the rule of Ras Mengesha Seyoum. The Gidobo spring water lays 41kms south to Awassa
on the main road to Yergalem. The Gidabo hot spring has modern catering facilities and bathrooms of
various standards Other establishments also give housing and catering services to patients who stay for
prolonged period of time.

great open air market at the heart of the town is a displaying ground of the wealth, styles of hair do dress
and makeup‟s of the people that constitute different cultures of the region .The market days are Mondays
and Thursdays. Tabor hill on the western end of the town towers above the peaceful Lake Awassa to the
left and the town stretched below it in all directions.

Mt. Alamura
It is a small mountain situated at the south western end of the town. From the mountain top one can enjoy a
partial view of the town and the lake stretched below it paying a visit to this mountain and ascending to its
top is worth a day of any one‟s time. The south –western lake shore locally known as “Amora Gedel” is
probably named after the flock of pelicans, marabous‟ stork, hammer kop, kingfisher and other prey bird,
soaring over the grounds of the shore in search of fish left over Along with the early morning hectic
activities of fish-men and small boys with cleaning knives. The place is an ideal spot for bird watches.

Lake, Awassa is another place to tourists miles wide. The lake is rich in Barbus, Telapia and Catfish for
tourists who care to indulge in leisure fishing. The breezing of cool air in the morning and evening hours
rolls the lake with gentle tides and washes millions of planktons to the shore to be devoured by fishes and
fisher birds.

Marabus Stork, Great-white Pelican, Hammer Kop, shovelder, Egyptian Goose, wattled ibis, Saddle-
Bill Stork, African Fish, Eagle, Hoopoe, Spur wing Plover, Carmine Bee-Eater and pied king Fisher-
make the lake an ornithological paradise. Boating on Lake Awassa with the spectacular and breath taking
view of the sun set is a moment of tranquility among visitors.

These 404 ex-soldiers and their members were gathered together from different parts of the country for
military purposes. All of their members were civilians who joined the patriotic movement forces in
different parts of the country (North, South East and West) against Italian invasion of 1928 to 1933 EC
(1953/36 – 1941).
In the immediate time of the liberation Italian occupation these patriots were made members of Ethiopian
(National) army and had served permanently in the military until they came to Awassa.

These ex-soldiers were brought to Awassa for different reasons. This time the emperor and highly ranking
officials decided to found a new town and agricultural farm. The Emperor and highly ranking officers of
the town and farm land brought these soldiers to labor supply for the new farm and to confirm the security



                                                                                                           5
of the region. There were constant conflicts between the Arsi Oromo and Sidama pastoralists on the
grazing land of Ada’are. The expatriates were assigned to control the conflicts the Arsi oroms and
Sidama Pastoralists. Besides these some nearby individuals to the government believed that these soldiers
were reduced from the army deliberately because there was fear of Hailesilassie government against the
possible opposition of the army against the imperial regime.

These ex-soldiers also established traditional association "Idir" to facilitate their social affairs and to run
some administrative issues. This "Idir" was administered by men elected from each village members.
Among the recruited shamble and shaleqas one of the shaleqa would be appointed as their chairman. The
main service of this "Idir" was mainly to support families who would lose their relatives in death .Each
member contributed 10 cents as the “idir” was initial formation.


                               Arab "Sefer" ("Yeserategna Sefer")
This part of the town was one of the first villages or "Seferoch" came in to being in the history of
founding Awassa. It is located along the sides of the main and prior road of Awassa town from Piazza to
Mobil oil station that was paved by the first group of ministry of work who were assigned to lead the
survey and foundation of the town.

This village got its name from the from first settlers; Arab citizens Came from Dilla and latter from other
areas also. In the absence of market (good supplies),it didn‟t seem to be possible for the increasing numbers
of workers in the Community Development farm and other settlers. These first residences of the village
opened shops.

This village was renamed 'Yeserategna sefer' in 1967 E.C. during the Dergue by the Municipality of
Awassa. However, until now the population of the town has been calling it by its first or earlier name
„Arab Sefer‟

                                        Piazza (Mehal Ketama)
This place is considered as the centre of the town. It is the area found south of St Gabriel along the main
road crossing to the municipality and at the meeting place of the two main roads which come from Mobil
petroleum station and St.Gebereal Church. to Lake road. This place got its name from Italian word 'Piazza'
which means a public square. This name was also called in 1967 E.C. as Mehal ketema (City center) based
on its geographical location and its being the centre of the hot movement of the people and trade of the
town
                                             10. Tourism
The southern Nations Nationalities and peoples Regional Government has many accumulated historical,
cultural and natural heritages. These potentials attract tourists and to their targets most tourists cross
through Awassa .


Awassa is one of the most beautiful cities in Ethiopia, exploring the city is an enjoyable and worth while
experience for both foreign and domestic tourist According to 1986-1995 E.C census-the town has 74,228


                                                                                                             6
dwellers Most of the people in the city are followers of Christianity and Moslem religions As a regional
capital of the south, Amharic is an official working language. Other regional languages and English are
also a medium communication in the town.


Awassa is located 275 km south of Addis Ababa, 100km south of Ziway and 20kms south of Shashamene
by which Ethio-Kenyan International road linked all road. Bicycles, Taxies and house drawn carts
locally known as “garii” are the major means of transportation in the city . There are about seven fueling
stations in the city, The city has bank, telecommunication, insurance, post office and a number of other
service giving institutions in the city including the cultural hall. The city hosts its guests and tourists in
seventy three hotels, forty eight restaurants, forty two snake and seventeen guest houses, The city council
plans to increase the number of tourist accommodation facilities to meet the needs of the ever growing
number of tourist flow in to the city, The city an ideal transit spot for tourists who travel between Addis
Ababa-MoYale, Moyale- Awassa –Arba Minch- Jinka and Awassa- Wolaytasodo-Jimma –Mizan
Teferi roads
Amora Gedel occupies about 261.910.5 sq meter. It is found near the main fish centre. Earlier, this area
was occupied by „lielt‟ Tenagnework Teferi and her families. After the revolution it was reserved as main
park of Awassa people under Awassa municipality. Its naturally grown trees are well protected. There was
also man made grown trees. During the Dergue regime a cultural tukuls of Wolaita, Borena, the Sidama
and the Gedio were planted and said to be used to show the cultural heritage of each and where the cultural
food and drink were available to users presently two Sidama cultural tukuls are found in the park.

The Sidama cultural hall park –
It is found in front of the Sidama cultural Hall. It was made park during the Dergue regime. It occupies
about 5000 sq meter.

Main Squares in the City
Meskel Adebabay (Meskel Square)- It occupies a bout 15,744.05 sq meters. This square had began to get
attention from about the time of Awassa promotion to seat of Sidama Governorate General since 1960 E.C.
It was in this place that the foundation stone was placed by Emperor Hailesilassie and the inauguration
ceremony took place. Beside this on this square public gatherings, religions ceremonies and cultural
festivals, bazaars etc has been conducted widely.
A square in front of St. Gibiral is also one of the important square of Awassa town which occupies 2,036
sq meters. A square around Awassa municipality also occupies 2,250.0057sq meter which was named by
Awassa Municipality in 1967 E.C. as, Africa Square.

It was also one of the initial places where people began to settle like 'Arab Sefer' and "Turateegnoch
'sefer.' The earliest hotels were largely found in this part of the town. Big initial shops were also there. It
had been also serving as bus station and center of taxi.

                    1.2.2 Community Development (Community service)
                                   Awassa Community Development
                                  Training and Demonstration Center


                                                                                                             7
This residential co-educational Training centre, the only one of its type in the whole of the empire, was
established on 23rd of July 1952 E.C. when his Imperial Majesty, Haile Selassie I laid its foundation stone
at its premises (the present Hawassa University Campus) Awassa Agricultural Campus.

The premises of the centre comprised of a near square field about 24 hectares which was nothing but an
abandoned forest area immediately before the foundation of the training campus. The land was given from
the then responsible body of the foundation of Awassa. Before it came to Awassa this community
Development Training and Demonstration centre was found in the Governorate–General of Shoa at
Majete. That centre was brought to Awassa because it was seriously devastated by earthquake and the
training was interrupted. Then on the Ministry of Community Development decided to re-house the centre
to Awassa .The students those who had already been under courses were brought to this newly opened
Training Centre which began training on September 1954 E.C.

The principal aim of the establishment of the centre was, from country side to town dwellers, to create a
socially that could lead actualized way of living that care for his health, has to use his environment and lead
A statement from their yearly magazine says that “Community Development requires a new kind of
workers one who is able to get on well with the common people, is knowledgeable about their way of life,
is sympathetic with their hopes and aspiration and is genuinely desirous of helping them. He must have
some working knowledge in several technical fields and be able to make use of it in helping people in his
area of operation to solve their problem. Awassa Community Development Training and Demonstration
Centre has taken on it self this up hill task”


Since its early days, the training campus has been comprised of class room buildings, , dormitories and a
hall, residential houses, administration buildings, an auditorium, a health centre, a power station, a water
station, a garage, a barn, volleyball, basket ball and tennis courts, football field, library, co-operative store,
model house, cow-dung gas plant, blacksmith workshop and carpentry workshop, handloom workshop, art
room ,poultry houses, nursery and vegetable gardens and arboretum.


This community development centre had given pre-service training and shorter courses. The pre-service
training contained Community Development, Agriculture (Horticulture, Forestry and Animal
Husbandry), rural Economics and co-operation, Handicrafts and cottage industries, Health and
Sanitation, Home Economics, Social Education and Social Welfare, Housing Road construction and
other local Development Projects, Administration and Games, Sports, Recreation and Physical Training.

According to a study paper of Sidama cultural hall, it was established with money collected from the whole
population of the Sidama administrative region.


Cinema was watched daily in the hall. Theaters and music were also played until recently before
maintenance began at the mid of 1999 E.C. Currently this cultural hall is under the Sidama Zone
Information and Culture Department.


                                                                                                                8
                                                   Parks
According to the Awassa municipality magazine of 1959 E.C. there were two squares (entertaining place)
reserved at the centre of the town. Gradually parallel with the growth of the town attentions began to be
given, then on lands reserved for similar purposes. Among all the main parks to be mentioned are.


`Tukur` Waha Park – It is the park that found at the entrance to the town from Shashemene. Its
reservation as protected park has its own history According to elders and letters in Awassa municipality
this park was previously the land of Ras Andergachew Mesay handed over to Awassa municipality with
purchase about mid of the 1960‟s. It was from this time
onwards that the Tikur wuha recommended as Awassa park. Its total area is estimated about 475,037.50 sq
meter.
Timket Bahir:- It was about 1954 E.C. that this area reserved and began to serve as open space and where
particularly the epiphany had been celebrated in Awassa town and its surroundings. It occupies about
35,250 squ meter. .

Among these four were privately owned one was socially owned (in group) and the remaining eight were
belongs to various government organizations and they had given service to their respective organization. In
1994 E.C.

the number of garages increased to fifty (50) including wheel maintenance. Presently there are about 60
legally registered private owned garages and wheel maintenance in Awassa town.

                                           Ciname and Theater
The development in this service sector was weak in Awassa city. It was in the 1960‟s that for the first time
a foreigner called Mr. Martini had began showing cinema in the beach of Awassa Haik in his private house
the now destroyed house by Awassa Lake water near Wabe Shebele Hotel No 1 It was not lasted long It
was interrupted when the man left the country.

About 1972 E.C. the Awassa General council for the first time opened cinema house in higher kebele 04 in
the kebele hall with new Projector bought with 35,000 (thirty five thousand birr).

In may 1978 E.C. the Sidama cultural hall was inaugurated. It can accommodate about 1080 people at a
time. This hall was constructed on 1428 sq meter and had cost 1-8 million birr. It is found in higher 1
kebele 04 in areas earlier known with the town‟s bus terminal and sport fields.


Its foundation stone was laid in 1976 E.C. and its construction completed in 1978 E.C. When the hall began
its service it had possessed two new projectors bought with birr 169,496.03.




                                                                                                          9
This training centre had also demonstration sites in Awassa and in its surroundings namely Tula, Gemeto,
Abela (Kassaber), Morocho, Leku, Mesenkela, Melgiewondo, Bussa, Wujigra, Shamena and Awassa
town. The demonstration sites worked largely on Vegetables, developing springs for pure water, paving
roads that meet villages, establishing meeting hall, kindergarten schools, clinics, cooperative shops, mills,
bakeries, digging water holes, establishing trough, establishing crash (animal shed), toilet, and teaching
weaving skills, planting generators, teaching the use of biogas from cattle dung etc.


Women and child demonstration centre there planted new weaving machine brought from India in the
campus of present regional micro and small scale industry and development. The present agricultural
survey section and the workshop of handicrafts in Awassa Agricultural Collage were some of the centers
re-established by this training and Demonstration Centre.


                    1.3 Awassa as a Political and Administrative Centre
                               Awassa Promotion to Woreda Town
According to yearly magazine of Awassa municipality published in 1959 E.C. the transfer of Abella
woreda governorate (Which was 60Km far from Awassa ) got decision initially when the town was
founded. As the result during one of his trips to “Plazar hotel”of Awassa, in 1958E.C. Prince Ras
Mengesha Seyoum the then governor of Sidamo ordered the transference of the Woreda(district) office
from Abella to Awassa. The first building of the Woreda office was built at the place where Awassa Zuria
Wereda police station is found presently, just at back side of Telecommunication Office .

To overcoming , the usual tribal clashes between the Sidama and the Arsi people was one of the very
reasonsfor this transference. Consequently, big hotels namely 'Bekele Molla' and Wabishablle No2 were
opened. The establishment of these hotels and different district offices attracted not only investors from
Addis Ababa.


However, the transfer of the Woreda office was resented by the               dwellers of 'Abella' dwellers,
Representatives of the population of 'Abela' went to the emperor for an appeal, but the king reaffirmed the
princes decision. Rather the king gave an order, which allowed foreigners to own land and construct their
own houses in Awassa.


As the resulted in after that higher officials and well to do people started constructing beautiful villas near
and around the lake. These villas were the best villas in the town. including „Villa Alpha‟ of The Most
Hon. Maitre Artiste World Laureate Afewerk           Tekle, just at the gate of Plazar, which has lost its
architectural qualities, due to improper handling.




                                                                                                            10
Even shortly after ,Awassa was upgraded to Woreda level, there existed the district (Abela woreda)
governorate office police station, the Judiciary and the Treasury. All these including the main open market
were clustered together in an office at the present site of Awassa Zuria Woreda police station at the back of
present Telecommunication building. This area was coded as zone „H‟

It raised to 8,639 private and 330 governmental and 356 non-governmental organization. Its yearly capacity
of water supply was almost constant in the three years but its needs is 1,530,120m3. To increase its supply
capacity a deep water well digging project was going on at Gamete which according to the enterprises, that
it would be completed and would began service in 1999 E.C.

                                        9.7 Other Services
                                     Fuel stations in Awassa
The history of fuel station in Awassa went back to its early foundation period about 1956 E.C. The first fuel
station in Awassa was Shell. Its first site was in nearby area of presently destroyed building around Wabe
Sheble No 1 Hotel., formerly known as the Office of Relief and Rehabilition Commission .After
interrupt of some years, it was replanted to its present site along the main international road near by NOC.
fuel station a few years before.

According to the economic and social studies of the 1979 E.C. there were two privately owned fuel stations
in the town These were Total at Piazza and Shell in the gate to Awassa around Tikur wuha. Presently their
number raised to seven fuel stations. Plus to these former two fuel station then came Mobil around
technical school, Mobil-piazza, Shell, NOC. and Total around bus terminal near by. Addis Ababa Kenya
International road

                                                Garages
Like any other service giving enterprises, the number of garages also increasing from time to time.
According to „Dilfana‟ Magazine of 1972 E.C. there were five private garages in Awassa town. About
1978 E.C. there were thirteen garages in Awassa that gave maintenance services to cars.

Another water storage tanks was constructed in 1974 E.C. by the water and sewerage enterprise at 13km.
    south of the town, It discharges 43m3 of water per hour.
3. one of the deep water work dug by the emergency water supply project to improve the provision of
    potable water has began offering service by producing 42m3 of water per an hour. Now a day, it has
    been producing 225m3 of water per hour for the town population and the neighboring rural kebeles.
All the five bore holes are currently connected to the existing distribution system with the water capacity of
40.81sec. The total supply of water from kedo river, loke spring and the five bore holes is about 92.69 sec.
These are water treatment reached the coverage of water provision of the city is about 71%
Although the Mete deep water well, which was constructed by the emergency water supply project and
mentioned on number 3 above, has especially contributed a lot in truckling the shortage of drinking water



                                                                                                           11
and in avoiding the shift system in the distribution of water, the provision of pure water has not been yet
solved all in all. However, since the emergency water supply project has began its activates before three
years, four deep water wells were dug, pumps were installed, the house of motor engine was constructed
and one of the four deep wells started offering service, The electromechanical maintenance is also partially
completed. And the installation of 12 km. pipeline with different width is being undertaken in the town.
Accordingly when the work of the emergency potable water improvement project is completed and handed
over to the office of water and sewerage service, the provision of adequate and reliable potable water would
be ensured for the coming 5 years.According to the information from Awassa Town water supply service
enterprise the water customers in 1996 E.C. were 8,303 private individuals and 310 organizations. In 1997
E.C.

1.3.1 Awassa as a seat of Governorate General
In 1960 E.C Emperor Haslesilassie, laid the foundation stone for the establishment of Awassa as the capital
of Sidamo Govenorate General at the present Meskel square.

Various logics of arguments were made over why Awassa was a seat of the promoted as a governorate
general seat of Sidamo. The time when Awassa emerged as an urban center was the time capitalism started
to flourish in to rural Ethiopia. Royal families, other government officials had started mechanized farm in
Awassa and its surroundings and occupied wide areas with in the town. Namely Ras Andargachew
100,000 sq.m,. Princes Tenagnework Hailesilassie 24,976 sqm, Ras Mesfin Sileshi 14104 sqm. etc had
occupied land in Awassa. This was one of the reasons to promote Awassa to the capital level of the
governorate of Sidamo.

In addition to the facts mentioned above ,these decisive officials and royal families had enforced the
promotion of Awassa to 'provincial' capital level expecting ahead to sell the land that had already been
under their occupation with good price. There is an instance; that Ras Andargachew Messai had sold
395,180 sq.m of land for 100,000 Birr to the municipality by an order of General Isayas Gebresillasie, the
then Governore of Sidamo.

Awassa Lake its surroundings natural beauty also greatly attracted the attention of those officials and royal
families as resort and recreational sites. Ras Mengesha Seyoum, General Isayas G/silassie and others
convinced the king about transferring the seat from Yirgalem to Awassa for surely they liked Awassa.

The response to this action had a dual nature. While it was supported by the people of Awassa, it faced
protest from Yirgalem People. The representatives of Yirgalem population went to the emperor to appeal
but they returned with no satisfactory response except Yirgalem was permitted to resume as the capital of
Awraja.
Immediately after the town was promoted to capital of Sidamo Governorate, the main office, police station,
the Jail, treasury and other governmental departments were brought to Awassa. The first office of Sidamo
Governorate General in Awassa was Mr.Martini building near by area of Oasis (Wabisheble Hotel No.2).



                                                                                                          12
Then, It was transferred it to its own building located in front of Meskel square where the office of the
regional president is presently existed at. Using Awassa as a political and administrative center became a
continuous process in the coming government even after the imperial periods.
Awassa was also chosen as the seat of different governmental offices that represented. Southern
Administrative regions during the Dergue regime. The proximity of the town to Shashemene (which joined
most southern administrative regions: Bale, Arsi, Gamo Gofa & Sidama) and the beauty of the town were
the main reasons why Awassa was promoted again. Some of offices opened in Awassa were South
Administrative Regions Agriculture and Industry Development Bank Office, South Administrative Regions
Commercial Bank Office, Main office of the Southern Army Command, Main Office of South
Administrative Regions Editorial Delegate, South Administrative Regions, Water Development Office,
House Rent Administrative Organization (institution) of South Administrative Regions, Insurance
Organization of Southern Regions, South Administrative Regions of Rural Project, South Administrative
Regions of ISO, Corporation of Production and Market of Forestry, South Administrative Regions
Organizer of Small Scale Industry, etc.

Thus the dwellers dug water wells in their respective compounds and used the wells as the source of fresh
drinking water. There were 1850 water wells in the Awassa town during the early time.


The first water well was dug at Arab Sefer by Arabian person. According to some elders, however, the first
water well was dug in the town by a Walayitian born person. According to these elders, Walayitan person
dug a water well for a certain priest named W/Amanual. It was said that the town inhabitants were
purchasing fresh drinking water from this priest, the owner of the water well. On the basis of 1981 E.C.
census it was found out that 50 of the Awassa town population or among 45,860 inhabitants half of them or
about 22,930 inhabitants were the beneficiaries of water wells.


About 1979 E.C. there were 1150 culturally hand dug wells in the town About the 1997 E.C. regarding the
distribution of water wells in the Awassa town, the information obtained from two higher and 14 kebeles
confirmed that 1055 water wells were available in the town Accordingly it was proved that there were 659
water well in the seven kebeles of higher 1 and 396 water well in higher 2 kebeles.

Looking at the distribution of pure water for Awassa town, the Awassa water service enterprise the potable
water project was began in 1971 E.C. This project was completed and become functional in 1975 E.C.
After the Ethiopian Water Resources Development Commission was established in 1974 E.C. the
development of pure water was began for 30,000 town people in water transmission lines alone.(about
1997,4916m3 water is being distributed for about 150,000 inhabitants of the town and the surrounding
population thought 71 pumps for 8,552 customers).

In addition by then there were 12 sectarian offices, three main police offices, 2 Banks, one (1) Insurance
organization, 10 schools, 4 Factories with in the boundary of the town, two factories nearer to the town, 27



                                                                                                         13
other governmental organizations and 9 religions Institutions.
Finance, health, urban development, domestic trade housing, labor and social affairs, education, justice,
court, information and news agency, agriculture, coffee and tea development, public and national security
had their regional sartorial branches in Awassa. In 1972 E.C there were two banks in Awassa, namely
Ethiopian Commercial Bank of Awassa Branch in Higher 2 kebele 05 and saving and House Construction
Bank found in Higher 2 kebele 05.

The first building of Commercial Bank of Ethiopia Awassa Branch was established and inaugurated in
March 1963 E.C. Its first building is presently occupied. The present building of commercial Bank of
Awassa Branch found besides telecommunication building was also established in 1985 E.C.


In addition to these Sidama police main department, custom department, and the jail administration were
found in Awassa including police clinic and police garage.


Besides the above mentioned sectarian and regional offices there were about 27 organizations. These were
Sidama administration, regional production campaign department, R.R.C, coffee distribution, pension and
insurance office, agriculture and the research section, Fafa migiboch distribution        center, office of
domestic revenue, Provincial court, sport commission, art and culture office , forest and wild life office
,high way and transport, house construction organization, post office and telecommunication station.

At   Awassa woreda level there were Awassa administrative office , District treasurer, city police
department, health centre, Woreda Court , agro-industry office , Awassa retail ware house , Awassa
malaria protection center etc.


Apart from the governmental offices and institutions there were several mass organizations which were
centered in Awassa town during the Dergue regime.


Ethiopian trade union, Ethiopia peasant Association, Revolutionary Ethiopia youth Association,
Revolutionary Ethiopia women Association, Ethiopia Teachers' Association, Ethiopia Health professional
Association, Ethiopia Veterinarian Professionals Association, Ethiopian Patriots Association were the mass
organization whose catchment areas were the whole Sidama administrative region but their seat was
Awassa.


Ethiopia Trade Union, Ethiopia peasant Association, Revolutionary Ethiopian youth Association,
Revolutionary     Ethiopia women Association, Ethiopian Patriot Association, Ethiopian Teachers
Association were also the mass organizations of Awassa wereda where their catchments areas were the
wereda and its rural part. Revolutionary Ethiopian Youth Association, Ethiopia Women Association,
"Gari" Drivers Association, Awassa Weavers producers Association, Awassa Higher 2-06 Tailor Producers




                                                                                                        14
cooperation, Awassa Fishermen cooperative, Awassa Central Urban Dwellers Association, Higher One
urban dwellers Association, Higher two urban Dwellers Association were the mass organization whose
catchments area was the town. In general at that time there were about 139 offices which made their seats
in Awassa Town.

They were 46 industries, 223 government organizations and 3144 private individuals. Among 6,008
private residence of that time about 2594 had possessed their own ampere by then the Awassa city council
had rendered road light services with 87 fluorescents and 131 in candescent street line arms. During the
Dergue Government the electric power was promoted to 9.6 M.W and the electric light service was
extended to 24 hours.

Currently, i.e., during the government of EPRDF, the power of electric light has been increased by two
fold and reached to 19.2 M.W. According to the information of Ethiopian electric power corporation
Awassa branch out of this power 10M.W. is in use In 1997 E.C there were 11,625 electric light customers
in the Awassa town which include 285 government office, 1539 organizations and 9801 private residential
units. Until July 30,1998 E.C. there are 14389 domestic, 2,382 general and 77 industrial as the main
subscribers of Awassa electric power substation The total number is 16,848.


                                        9.6 Water supply
Before the installation of potable water for Awassa, the dwellers had been using the water from the Awassa
lake. As this lake water consists of fluoride and nitrate acids, it has been causing a great damage on the
teeth and bone of the town dwellers. Thus, every Awassa born person has got golden colored teeth just like
the person who was born and grown in the similar rift valley areas. Now a days the ages of the children
who were born in Awassa town and whose teeth were clean are not more than 22 years. This shows the
time when the Awassa town began to obtain safe drinking water later the Awassa lake become more and
more polluted as town inhabitants had been taking a bath in the lake.

They were 46 industries, 223 government organizations and 3144 private individuals. Among 6,008
private residence of that time about 2594 had possessed their own ampere by then the Awassa city council
had rendered road light services with 87 fluorescents and 131 in candescent street line arms. During the
Dergue Government the electric power was promoted to 9.6 M.W and the electric light service was
extended to 24 hours.

Currently, i.e., during the government of EPRDF, the power of electric light has been increased by two
fold and reached to 19.2 M.W. According to the information of Ethiopian electric power corporation
Awassa branch out of this power 10M.W. is in use In 1997 E.C there were 11,625 electric light customers
in the Awassa town which include 285 government office, 1539 organizations and 9801 private residential
units. Until July 30,1998 E.C. there are 14389 domestic, 2,382 general and 77 industrial as the main
subscribers of Awassa electric power substation The total number is 16,848.



                                                                                                       15
                                            9.6 Water supply
Before the installation of potable water for Awassa, the dwellers had been using the water from the Awassa
lake. As this lake water consists of fluoride and nitrate acids, it has been causing a great damage on the
teeth and bone of the town dwellers. Thus, every Awassa born person has got golden colored teeth just like
the person who was born and grown in the similar rift valley areas. Now a days the ages of the children
who were born in Awassa town and whose teeth were clean are not more than 22 years. This shows the
time when the Awassa town began to obtain safe drinking water later the Awassa lake become more and
more polluted as town inhabitants had been taking a bath in the lake.


                          1.3.2 Awassa Current Status as a Political and
                                            Administrative Center.
Generally the Continuous promotion of Awassa as a seat of political and administrative centre (from
Wordea level to Governorate General, then to the capital of southern region plan office during the Dergue
regime and then to the seat of the SNNPR at present) has become the milepost to its urbanization process
and fast development. Each promotion was followed by farther construction and opening of various
administrations, economic and social service giving offices and sectors.

This and other progressive changes that has taken including the drafts of its master plan from time to time
(May, 1973 E.C and 1999 E.C), rapid population growth and expansion of residential areas are among the
consequences of the promotion of the town as a political and administrative center.

The city has been serving as a capital city of Southern Nation Nationalities and Peoples regional state,
Sidama Zone Administration as well as Awassa Zuria Woreda Astedader since 1887 E.C. It was by the
constitution of southern nations, nationalities, and peoples regional state proclamation that Awassa was
stated as the seat of the regional state.
Since 1988 E.C. SNNPRS bureau (office) have been established in Awassa. These were Agricultural
Bureau, Public works and urban Development Bureau, Justice Bureau, Planning and Economic
Development Bureau, Education Bureau, Finance Bureau, Health Bureau, Labor and Social Bureau, Water
Mines and Energy Resource Development Bureau, Trade Industry Tourism Bureau, Culture and
Information Bureau, Transport and Communication office, investment office, Disaster prevention and
Preparedness Office, Civil service Office and Sport Office.

According to the Official Socio Economic and Demographic profile of Sidama administration zone of 1998
E.C HIV/Prevention and Control, Higher court, Rural development, Trade Industry and Town plan,
Finance and Economy, Capacity building, justice and administration, Information, Public coordination,
Youth and Sport, Woman Affairs, Office of Prison Administration, and youth, sport and culture are
sectarian offices present seat is Awassa city. At Awassa woreda level woreda court, Education office,
Health office, Rural Development, Finance and Economy, Capacity building, Woreda Administration,



                                                                                                        16
spokes men, Information and public coordination had been staying in Awassa town.


In general at present there are about 30 governmental, 35 non governmental, 16 Sidama zone offices, 10
Awassa zuriea woreda offices and about 20 Awassa town level offices.



                   1.3.3 Awassa-Self Administrating Municipal City
The transitional administration of Awassa as advanced municipality level was set up based on proclamation
No. 51/2002 SNNPRS. Transitional Administration of Awassa whose accountability to the Regional
Government. Came in to being on May, 20/95 E.C with its present office. The management was to be run
by the mayor and mayors committee. The first mayor of Awassa Transitional Administration was Ato
Legesse Woldie and Since June 1997 E.C onwards the Transitional Administration of Awassa have been
Led by Ato Ayano Berasso.

Presently based on data of Awassa branch of Ethiopian Telecommunication there are 12890 Fixed
telephone, 7604 Mobile, 523 in ternate, 2 booth, 26 test line, 54 coin box, and 61 service line in Awassa
City There are 9265 residence, 2227 business organization, 1303 government and 95 others subscribers
of Awassa Telecommunication.


                                       9.4 Postal Service
According to an information from Awassa Post office, postal service in Awassa started in 1956 E.C. by an
agent. Regular service started in 1958 E.C. The first postal office was sited at Awassa lake beach with
only two workers. By 1958 E.C. it was transferred to new site near by the present telecommunication
building. Again in 1982 E.C. it began its wide services in its present buildings in the near by area of
regional bureau.


Till 1967 E.C there were 100 boxes rented, and by 1979 E.C. the rented boxes number raised to 230, as
where according to the total population in contrast one box services 157 persons. According to an
information from Awassa post office in 1996 E.C., 1997 E.C. and 1998 E.C the number of postal boxes
were 1650, 2000, 2000 respectively. The number of its customers were also 1327,1462,1708 in the same
years mentioned above.


During the dreg region the public transportation buses had duties to transport postal message any where in
the country. To strengthen the duties public transport buses had boxes put down on “post and news paper”
on moving every directions .This efforts made posts and news papers available quickly.

In 1979 E.C. there were 45 private bicycles, two small size city buses and three small automobiles served
as Taxis in the town. The city buses had been served from piazza to Tikur wuha and Timbaho Monopol



                                                                                                       17
with price (transport feel) ranges from 15 cents to 25 cents in the years between 1972 E.C. to 1983 E.C.

Before taxi and bicycle means of transportation the population of Awassa has more horse drawn carts.
Presently there are more than 217 taxis in Awassa town, 67 are Mini buses, 94 are Ladas and 56 Bajaj and
Red Fox taxis. Awassa town has no Air transport. Based on the first master plan design proposal , to the
east side of the town for airfield purposes 79,950 square meters land was under protection. But not yet
lucky to have air field and air transport user. In the very early foundation of Awassa few foreigners to
recreate at Awassa Lake were used a small size Air planes landed by near area of the lakes‟ beach.
Helicopter sometimes used the r(D1)
Task 2
Caref


                                       ly consider health or
social care environments, for example local hospitals, schools, nurseries or residential homes.
From your knowledge of these settings produce a poster that clearly identifies potential hazards. (P4)
Using some of the findings from your poster describe methods that could be taken to minimise risks in
health or social c


e environments. You may use newspaper articles, internet searches and other resources to show how risks
are currently minimised. (M3) Review the strengths and weaknesses in any actions that may be taken to
minimise the risks you

ve identified. (D2)
Produce a report that describes the importance and main principles of health and safety legislation and
guidelines for health and social care environments. (P5)
Explain the main principles of health and safety legislation and guidelines for health and social care
environments. (M4)




                                                                                                           18
19
Unit 3: Vocational Experience in a Health or Social Care Setting
Learning hours: 60
NQ


Level 2: BTEC First


Delivery and assessment guidance
Work experience is recommended in the Edexcel Level 2 BTEC First Certificate, and strongly
recommended in the BTEC First Diploma in Health and Social Care. This unit aims to give learners the
opportunity to identify, plan and complete a minimum of 60 hours in a health or social care setting.
Supporting materials for thfledged governance and management system in place.


The governance and management system is led by the transitional administration. At Awassa city level, the
city transitional administration has 11 departments, namely; the Mayor office, Capacity building
Department, Health Department, Education Department, Youth and Sport Department, Finance and
Economic Development Department, Environmental Development and Public Organization Department,
Women Affairs Department, Small scale and Micro Trade and Industry Department , Information and
culture Department, Tax Desk, Justice and Security Department, Water Supply Service, Houses
Development Agency, Health Centre, Police, Courts and the municipality. These are the office and Social
service sectors found at the time under the city administration..
,

According to the above mentioned SNNPR state proclamation the purpose of establishing self government
of cities was to enhance the socio- economic development and to provide widen the urban services. It was
to create a system which enhances good governance, modern management, accountability, transparency,
principled relation with the governance and the active participation of the people.


The level (grading) of the cities was to be measured by population size, its economic development,
infrastructure and its governance and management system. An advanced municipal city shall have a
population of 100,000 and above, attain an advanced level of economic development in place, a well
developed service Infrastructure. An advanced municipal city shall put a full fledged governance and
management system in place.


The governance and management system is led by the transitional administration. At Awassa city level, the
city transitional administration has 11 departments, namely; the Mayor office, Capacity building
Department, Health Department, Education Department, Youth and Sport Department, Finance and
Economic Development Department, Environmental Development and Public Organization Department,
Women Affairs Department, Small scale and Micro Trade and Industry Department , Information and



                                                                                                      20
    culture Department, Tax Desk, Justice and Security Department, Water Supply Service, Houses
    Development Agency, Health Centre, Police, Courts and the municipality. These are the office and Social
    service sectors found at the time under the city administration..
    ,

    These includes the roads from surrounding square of municipality to South spring Hotel, from near by
    municipality square to St.Gebriel, from total oil station to Mobil oil station, from St. Gebriel square to
    `Warka` square, to Mekurya Hotel, from Warka Hotel to gate of Awassa University Campus, and from
    „Shoa ber‟ to Mobil oil station. The second phase which covers the remaining 11.551km had been under
    construction since 1998 E.C. to 1999 E.C. It also covers the roads from Lawi Hotel to Referral Hospital,
    from Sidama cultural      Hall to Arab `Sefer`, from Regional Administration Office to Sidama Zone
    Administrative Office, from Awassa municipality to Awassa Lake, from St.Gebriel church to Health
    Bureau, from logita Restaurant to end of „liz sefer‟, Mobil petroleum Station to Awassa Printing Press and
    from Robin pastry to the Awassa Agriculture centre club and from St. Gebrael to Logeta Restaurant.
    `

                                             9.2 Transportation
    Awassa town bus terminal constructed first at Arab village surrounding.
    Then it was transferred to piazza before the terminal transferred during Dergue regime to Sidama cultural
    hall surroundings. In the year 1977 E.C. the modern bus terminal was placed on 44,800mt.square at its
    present site.


    The Awassa town population had been using three types of transportation systems These are carts (single
    horse pull), bicycles and Taxi. After Loke Hospital constructed functional taxi service begun to transport
    patients, but, it was the only one. In 1987 E.C. the legalized Taxi drivers owners members association
    emerged consisting of 19 taxi drivers owners members In 1998 E.C. there are two taxi Drivers/owners
    Association consisting of 97 members.

A road from `Yewozader` road accessed to `Hamile‟ 19 road is known as `Teramaj` road.
A road starts from Tourist road passing between the main two big Warka trees accessed to the International
    road was named ` Yekatit` 25 road.
    A road from Adventist mission Church by passing around the third Agricultural Farming station accessed
    to the missionary graving yard was called `Duame` the original name of Tabor Terara.
    In Awassa asphalt road construction began in 1975/76 E.C. on three main roads of the town, these were the
    main road from Tikur wuha accessed to nearby square of Awassa Municipality passing in front of Wabe
    Shebele Hotel No1, the road from piazza to Mobil petroleum delivery passing via Arab Sefer, and the road
    from Africa square (the square by Awassa Municipality) starting from St.Gebreal Church ends at Ethiopia-
    Kenya road near the Southern Region Water construction office. Totally the road accounts for 86,400 sq.
    meter.




                                                                                                           21
The road system in Awassa had been changed in length, width and in quality parallel with the expansion
and general growth of the town from time to time. Accordingly based on the 1979 E.C. socio-economic
profile asphalt work was done on the main roads of the town. The total length of the asphalted road was
9845 meter long, its average width was 7 meter and its total area was 68,915 meters square.


According to the information from Awassa municipality at present the total asphalt road is more than 21
kilometers and the main gravel road is 80 kilometer. A remarkable road asphalt work widely began from
1997 E.C. and continued in 1998 E.C.

Awassa is established more or less on a flat landscape that gently slopes to the west (to the lake). The
average elevation of the town reaches 1700 meters above sea level. The elevation of the higher ground (the
Tabor Hill is 1813meters) while it is 1750 meters at the foot of the same hill, where its lowest lake side is
1680 meters high above sea level.

The town is found with in the Rift valley system. So it is with in the possible earth quake zone of Ethiopia
and expected to contain the mineral soda. Awassa is with in the lake Awassa basin, being surrounded to the
north and north east by the extensive swampy area of 'shallow'. Around where river "Tikur Wuha” starts to
flow, to the east and south, Awassa basin is surrounded by the foot of Amora Gedel and Tabor hills both
sloping to Lake Awassa.

To the west the basin is surrounded by chain of mountains since the surface generally slopes to the lake, the
town especially to the lake side is characterized by flooding in the rainy season.


                                              2.3 Climate
Awassa is characterized by seasonally variable climate. According to a study carried out by 1979 E.C, the
mean annual temperature is 200C, Maximum temp. 33.80c and minimum temperature 7.50c According to
the study paper of Awassa agricultural institute in the years between 1972-1985E.C the town‟s mean
annual temperature was 18.340C, its maximum temperatures was registered in March and November
respectively. According to the data from National Meteorological Agency of Awassa in the years between
2003-2005 G.C the annual mean temperature was 20 0C, the maximum was 33.80C and on the minimum
was 10.70c.

Based on the 1979 E.C socio-economic profile, the average annual rainfall of the same year in Awassa was
993mm. According to the National Meteorological Agency of Awassa branch the average annual rainfall of
1995, 1996, 1997 E.C. were 788 mm, 879.8 mm and 997.6mm respectively.


As reported by Awassa agricultural research center (1961 – 1977 E.C ) the relative humidity of the town
was 63%. The highest amount of water in the air had been between May & September. It was very low in



                                                                                                          22
the months of December, January and March.


According to study paper of the SNNP Regional State Water Resources Development Bureau the relative
humidity of Awassa area is maximum during the wet seasons and significantly decreases during the dry
season the main monthly value of relative humidity in the area varies from 70% to 80% during the wet
seasons (May to October )The mean monthly relative humidity during the dry season (November to
February) varies between 40% and 60%.

                                          2.4 Lake Awassa
Lake Awassa is very important hydrological natural resources. It is one of the natural gifts which are also
taken as one of the causes for Awassa foundation, its naming, tourist attractions etc.


This lake is located at the north of Sidama, south of Oromia areas, and West of Awassa city. The Lake is
situated in the main Ethiopian Rift Valley system. It lies between 6˚49'N and 7˚15'N latitudes and 38˚17'E
and 38˚44'E longitudes. The altitude of Lake Awassa varies between 1680 meters to about 2940 meters.

Uncrossing Awassa town the road accessed from Addis Ababa to Nairobi (Kenya) international road
constructed before the foundation of the town, and thus, to Awassa town‟s communications with others
towns gave an excellent support. In 1967 E.C. this road was officially named International road. Similarly
the remaining roads of the town were called with new names.


1. These are the main road from Tikure wuha passing in front of the Ajip fuel      delivery to the centre of
   the town backing the Bekele Mola Hotel till the Adventist Church was called Meskerem 2 road.
The road accessed to Loke Palace which was partitioned from the Tikur wuha to Moyale International
    road passing behind Ajip feul delivery along the boarder of Awassa „Haiq‟ was named Tourist road
A road from Agip that came to the centre of the town back to Bekele Molla Hotel (Hospital of south Army
    command) was named „Arbegnoch` road.
A road from Philadeolphia Mission accessed to the end along „Hemilie 19‟ was called „Arbegnoch` road
A two path road that set up from the Awassa Haiq accessed to the international road passing near Africa
    square (the square near by Awassa municipality); Awassa Municipality office and building of
    Commercial Bank of Ethiopia was called Hamile 19 road.
The road south of Arab Sefer Muslim Mosque that began from `Arbegnoch` road accessed to Agricultural
    farming centre garage was called „Yewozader road




                                   9. Social Infrastructures
                              9.1 Roads and Transportations
Awassa town could have transportation service since 1952 E.C. During that time transportation activities



                                                                                                               23
    were done by ministry of works According to a report paper of Salah Hinit of April 4 1953 E.C. the total
    length of Awassa road was estimated 92 (ninety two) kilometers out of which 20 kilometers were graveled
    roads.


    The first main highways to be said were
    Following Awassa lake beach from north accessed to Wabeshebele Hotel No 1
    From Awassa Lake accessed to Saint Gebriel Church accessed to Comboni
A road accessed to Loke palace (this road was the first)
Starting from Tikur Wuha river accessed to the Municipality of Awassa
From Mobil fuel delivery accessed to Shoa `ber`
From Saint Gebiel Church accessed to Comboni
Road accessed from Awassa Hotel to Wabeshebele Hotel
Road accessed from wooden products enter to Airfield.
    From Mobil fuel delivery to Piazza (cultural hall) etc. are roads constructed in the immediate period of
        Awassa foundation.
    .

    According to the study of Water Resource Development Bureau of SNNPR of 2007, the mean surface area
    of Lake Awassa is about 94 km. sq. The mean volume of Lake Awassa is about 1363 MCM. The maximum
    depth of Lake Awassa is 22 m. and mean depth is of about 13.5 m .The Lake has about 8 km. width and 16
    km. length with a circumference of about 49 km.

    Lake Awassa is characterized by constant water color (always pure) and it contains different species of fish,
    variety of birds and animals like Gumare. The most wanted fish species, Tilapia, is also found in the lake
    of Awassa. The study made by Water and Swage service Authority of Southern Planning office (based on
    4 namunas samples) proved that the solidity of lake Awassa is 16 milligram (1litter fluoride 16 mg/1litter)
    and its weight is 60 milligram per 1 litter (hardness 60 mg/ 1) Thus it is hard to use the water of Lake
    Awassa for drinking.

    Lake Awassa has one tributary river named 'Tikur wuha". This river starts from the former shallo Haiq
    crossing the present swampy area of 'chefe sar'. Before it reaches the swampy of the chafe area the river
    accommodates water from small other rivers namely Lango, sole, shenkora Tensa, Wodesa, Abosa, Boga
    and Abela. These rivers flow down from and have their origins in the highland of wondogenet
    environment. Then they create this comparatively big river after passing the swampy area together and be
    named Tikur wuha. The length of the river from the swampy areas to the lake is 7km.

                              2.4.1 Lake Awassa and its Importance.




                                                                                                              24
Before the installation of potable water, Lake Awassa had been used for drinking purpose by the residents
of the town, surrounding peoples and their cattle, particularly in the immediate periods of the foundation of
the town,

before and after. At present time still the people on the other side are using the water for drinking.
As source of food, fishes of different species namely Ambaza, Telapia, Korso and Bilcha are supplied to
Awassa and Addis Ababa markets. One study proves that in the 1970 s the lake gave about 77.5 kilograms
fish product per hectar and lake Awassa was the second fish product area after Koka dam (koka Haiq) in
the country.


Lake Awassa had not been used widely for transportation. Before Mr. Pauly (the first owner of Wabi
Sheble N01 Hotel) left the town in 1963 E.C. the lake had modern motor boats that served for
transportation of people and largely for tourists who used to visit the lake and its environments reaching
the other side of the lake, Wondo Tika.


From that time on there were no modern means of transportation except boats that used to catch fish.
However, at present there are five motor and 12 rowing boats serves both for catching fish and recreation.


                                             3. Population
The total number of Awassa population in 1953 E.C. was estimated from 2500-3000. In 1959 E.C. it
reached to 5460. In 1972 E.C. it was 24168 out of which 11964 were men and 12204 were women.


According to the 1979 E.C. socio economic profile based on C.S.A of 1976 E.C. the total population of
Awassa was 36, 169 out of which 17,672 were men and 18,497 were women By then the average family
number was 5.2.



                                          Area
List of Land used                         With   meter     percent
                                          square
List of land used
For house residence                       13,503,603       30.99


For roads                                 50,250           0.12
For Industries                            2,578,357        5.92
For recreation and open areas             198,707          0.46
For government organization and           2,132,736        4.89
Institutions




                                                                                                          25
    For varied social services                 -                       -
    For Private organizations                  1,066,368               2.95
    For open market                            89,146                  0.20
    For graving yards                          139,639                 0.32
    For Churches                               265.270                 0.61
    For Mosque                                 161,386                 0.37


                                                                Area

                List of Land Used                  With Square             Percent
                                                      meter
    For house residence                            10,318,492          42.29
    For roads                                      3,965,448           16.53

    For Industry                                   3,199,157           13.33

    For recreation and vacant Places               2,126,983           8.86

    For governmental organization        and       1,752,582           7.31
    Institutions.
    For different social services                  1,365,035           5.69

    For Private enterprises and open market        682,063             2.84

    For graving (grave Yard)                       280,000             1.17

    For Churches                                   259,240             1.08

    For Mosque                                     51,000              0.21


    Total                                          24,000,000          100 %

    Recreation centers and squares that had been already under use by then
Tikur wuha- total area - 475,037.50 Sq. Meter
Awassa public recreation center –37,000 Sq. Meter ("Timkete Bahir")
Recreation area near by Awassa Hotel- 35,250.00 Sq. Meter
The square found in front of St. Gibreal – 1920.00 Sq. Meter
The square besides Awassa municipality – 2122.64 Sq. Meter
    6. Meskel square –50,744.05 Sq. Meter
    According to Information from Awassa municipality presently the total area of Awassa town is 50 sq. Km
    excluding Tula Kifle Ketema
    About 1969 E.C. the total population of Awassa was 22,399 and in 1976 E.C. its total number raised to
    36,169. Hence from these figures b/n 1969 E.C. to 1976 E.C. the population number of the town increased
    with 13,770. This means the average increment was 10% Therefore if the population growth would
    increase with this extent in 1984 E.C the population number would be doubled. In 1987 E.C it would be
    more than 103,000.

    According to the 1987 E.C. census the city has 74228 dwellers. Finance and Economic Development


                                                                                                        26
Department socio economic profile of 1999 E.C. the total population of Awassa by 1996 E.C. (2004) was
112282 out of which 57,256 were male and 55026 female.

Followed by Awassa promotion as a political and administrative center of SNNPR Government,
immigration of peoples to the town to seek job, development of investment, the opening of Hawassa
University and various high schools privet and governmental Colleges, foundation of different industries
and bib market made great contribution for the fast growth of the size of the city population of Awassa.
Therefore due to the aforementioned factors the total population size of Awassa is estimated to 200,000 out
of which 102,000 are male and 98,000 are females. When the Abella Tulla population 106,056 is added
Awassa has a total population of nearly 306,056 just presently.


                                              4. Religion
Different Scholars defined religion differently. Some argued that, it is a cultural universal which can exists
in all human societies. And consists of beliefs and behavior concerning with supernatural beings, powers,
and forces immense cross- cultural studies have revealed many expressions and functions of religion along
with a series of religions figures.

From the above general studies what we understand is that, religion establishes and maintains social
control. It does this through a series of moral and ethical beliefs along with real and imagined rewards and
punishments.
Religion also achieves social control by mobilizing its members for collective action. Although it maintains
social order, religion can also promote change. According to Taylor, religion was born as people tried to
understand conditions and events they could not explain by reference to daily experience. Where as the
Anthropologist Anthony F.C. Wallace has defined religion as “belief and ritual” concerned with
supernatural beings, power and forces “He also justified it like ethnicity and rang age, religion many be
associated with social divisions within and between societies and nations.


                                4.1 Norwegian Missionaries and
                            Evangelical Church Mekana Eyesus
According to the 50th year‟s anniversary report of the Evangelical Church of Southern Snoods, the first
dispatch of the Norwegian Missionary was headed by four notable figures named, Mr. Magnar Magroy,
Mr. Albert Bredvey, Mr Good Mond Vinvene and Mr. Omund Birklay. When they arrived at the present
city of Awassa, the area was completely covered with dense forest which is quite difficult to stay and
launch their program


Different written materials describe that, though it was vulnerable, the strategic location of the area
however greatly increased the interest of the missionaries to have their own foot holds along the lake side.




                                                                                                           27
Some informants reported that, during that time there was an unknown Ethiopian man who used to live
along the lake side building his own limbering house.


                                              8.1 Land Use
Concerning the land allotted to Awasssa town there are difference in figures. According to a report of Ato
Salah (Assistant Minster of Work and Development) of 1953 E.C the initial allotted land to the town was
71 gasha out of which 56 gasha was given to Community Development for its plantation agriculture. The
remaining 15 gasha was allotted to            residence houses, government offices and industries. Where
according to Awassa municipality magazine of 1959 E.C the total allotted land of Awassa town was 100
gesha out of which 75 gasha was under Community Development Agriculture Farm and 25 gasha was
under urban development In 1953 E.C the land was already given to government offices namely Wanza
wood work processing Industry, Office of Town survey and administration, Office of District Government
and police, Community Development Training Centre (later Age) including Awassa Health center, for
about 92 kilometers of new paved roads in the town During then 700 residence house land hold were sold
and mud houses were built.
In 1959 E.C the total land used for residence houses, hotels, shopping, roads and government offices was
22 gasha North of the main center of the town 8 gasha of land was given and reserved for private and
government schools, for Industries, for church and graving yards.
Based on Awassa municipality magazine of 1972 E.C the total land of Awassa Town was 60 gasha. Out of
this land individual persons and government organizations had received land for residences and offices. In
addition to this by then House Rent Administration organization had already taken land for 100 self help
house in higher 1 Kebele 01and for 120 self help house in higher 2 Keble 07. In 1972 E.C beside offices
there were 2244 private residence houses, 2955 Keble Houses and 29 Houses for rent in the town

In 1959 E.C. the land under full control of Awassa municipality was 48 gasha out of which 22 gasha bad
been already under services and lands occupied 18 gashas was reserved for further expansion around
Tabor Terara. Five gashas in the northern part of the town was reserved for industrial zone and three
gashas for private and public schools, religious institutions and grave yards for both (Churches and
mosques). In the 1972 E.C. Awassa municipality yearly magazine the then total area of Awassa town was
60 gasha.

The first master plan of Awassa town was designed by Ethiopian and Italian engineers from 1950 E.C. to
1951 E.C. and the second master plan was designed in 1956 E.C. By the time to make the supervision and
control simpler, area space blocks form A.L. Alphabets plan coded (named). In 1968 E.C. during the
Dergue regime these code names substituted by keftegna and kebeles coded names.

Slowly the municipality income increased time to time from various sources such as trade license, market
place rent, land tax, cattle sell tax, water supply, electricity supply, telephone, fire brigade, public holidays,
daily tax income collections etc In 1959 E.C the payment for house holding land were for first rank 15


                                                                                                               28
cents, and second rank 10 cents, land rents for first rank of four meter was 15 cents and 5 cents for 2 square
meters on 2nd rank.

During the Imperial regime there was an advisory body which consisted of seven members elected by the
people among notable elders. Its period of work was only one year. During the Dergue regime the
municipality was accountable for Awassa city General council. The available source materials indicted that
from the foundation of the city to the present about 25 appointee officials has run the municipality of
Awassa city.

This advent created best opportunity for those foreign missionaries either to be let or to buy the resort of
that Ethiopian gentry. After an intense talk initiation finally they able to promote their interest through
renting the house. As a researcher we are tried much to know the first setters in the present area of the city
we have made different technical inquiries. If it is described in line with the entrance of missionaries the
first settlers may be the white protestant missionaries.

Though it was comfortable for the missionaries to stay along the lake side, the prevailing continual storm of
the lake compelled them to leave the beach in for another lucrative centre in the town. As of the
justification Church men the second office quarter of the missionaries might be the present “RESORT”
which is situated near Amora Gedel.

The available source materials indicate that, though they had firm foot holds in the town, the Norwegian
Missionaries however were not able to conduct their ministries in a very organized and structured way
independently. The most possible answer for this might be the prevalence of other religious faiths like,
monotheistic orthodox Christianity and. Muslims in the town. Thus, it compelled them to import those
individuals who have adopted new faith in another geographic area under their ministry as preachers. This
gradually enabled them to begin their out reaching ministry with full-fledged. It was in situation that, in
1959 December due to the enlargement of their ministry in the town and the strategic importance, the town
the seat of the southern Snoods was shifted from Dilla to Awassa. Then the Evangelical church on behalf of
the Snoods of the region began to involve in different development works (activities). For instance, two or
three months later first Tabor Seminary and the present buildings of the head quarters were built
respectively.

Beside their religious denomination and determination the collaborative works of Norwegian Missionaries
and the Evangelical Church of Mekane Eyesus played a significant role in respect of accelerating urban
development and increasing the population of the town. Thus, whenever, we mention about the foundation
of the town of Awassa we are expected to state the paramount effects of the development of the region on.


                                     4.2 Philadelphia Church
According to the available source materials, among different protestant churches in the town, Philadelphia




                                                                                                           29
church believed to have been the first church in Awassa. The preaching ministry of the church had not been
limited (confined) only in the town. By sending local missionaries to the surrounding areas the ministry of
Philadelphia mission had got a considerable converts in the region simultaneously.


The missionaries also bulkily involved in training local peoples, specially those converts through opening
vocational school. For this end, they asked the then mayor of the town Awassa to have their own plot of
land. Though it had its own bureaucratic channel, the administration by observing the proposal of the
church, granted 1414.2 square meter land for the Philadelphian missionary sect. On this plot they began
construction of giant temple, dining hall for the students of vocational class, houses for the preachers,
welding and wood work shops. Reports from the church reveal that the construction of the giant temple
accomplished and began to give services in 1957 E.C.


                                          8. Municipality
Awassa town municipality was founded in 1954 E.C. The municipality office to run its duties rented house
for Birr 50 (fifty) fee to a month from an individual at Arab "Sefer" In 1960 E.C. the municipality office
on use now was inaugurated and began service. It was built by Diwogardi cemental company with 19196
89birr. The first survey, distribution of house holding land and other related works were initially headed by
a person named Ato Kessahun Tefera who was send to the region by Ministry of Work in Community
Service Development as head of land survey and Agriculture concession. In 1954 the whole responsibility
of the town was handed over to Ato Tesfaye Teklewold. Again Ato Kassahun Tefera was appointed as
Mayor of Awassa and came back in 1957 E.C and served until 1961 E.C. in Awassa . During establishment
the municipality had no enough income. The employed staff was too few. It began to exercise its duty with
35399.70 (Thirty five thousands three hundred ninety nine and seventy cents) given from Sidama General
Governorate treasury. When the municipality founded in April 1954 E.C. its total income was 45625 (forty
six hundred twenty five birr) In 1959 E.C the total income of Awassa municipality has risen to 84410
(eighty four thousand four hundred ten birr). In 1959 E.C. the total staffs of Awassa municipality were 16
workers. For the first time it was in 1952 E.C. that land was began to be distributed for town dwellers and
simultaneously houses has been established along the sides of the main roads.


According to the first land survey of 1952 E.C. the total area of Awassa town were 100 gasha out of which
for the time 75 gasha was given to agricultural farm of Community Development.

common shower and toilet. All basic departments are properly functioning.
This hotel needs renovation including introducing new technologies in facilities, kitchen and restaurant
equipment. the management needs business initiation to bring new change in hotel.


                                            Yamare hotel
Yamare hotel was established and began its services since 1966 E.C. It was a privately owned hotel situated


                                                                                                          30
at the center of piazza close to the main shopping center. It has a total number of 44 bedrooms, categorized
in 7 doubles & 37 single beds. Apart from the double bed room the single bed rooms are with private
shower and toilets. It has reception, food and beverages, and kitchen.


                                             7.5 Banking
The banking service in Awassa began in the immediate few years of its foundation by Addis Ababa Bank
share Association. Its first office was in the building of Mr. Martine later became the first office of Sidama
Governate General, near Wabishbele No1.Hotel

The Commercial Bank of Ethiopia Awassa branch began service since march 1963 E.C when its first
building was inaugurated by Emperor Haile Selassice In 1968 E.C Development Bank was opened during
the Dreg regime. Other banks namely Bank of Housing and Saving, Agriculture and Industry Development
Bank, Medhin Insurance were on function. During EPDRF Governance other private and government
bank namely Abyssinua Bank Wegagen Bank, Dashen Bank, Hibiret Insurance, Construction and
Business Bank and Nyala Insurance came into being

                             4.2.1 Major Contributions of the Philadelphian
                                           Swedish Missionaries
Besides their religious mission, the Swedish missionaries were also intensively involved in different
development activities in the newly founded town of Awassa. This in turn contributed much for the
expansion of urbanization and eradicating rate of illiteracy in the town and the surrounding areas. Among
different institutional plantations of the Philadelphian Missionaries the signals were the following
Primary school which was opened in 1955. The school continued to exist under the ownership of the
    Church up to 1976 E.C. Gradually, followed by change in the governing system and change in
    ideology, the school was nationalized by the Dergue. Since then it has been named Haik Dar primary
    school. This was a satellite school of Awasssa Tabour Primary School.
Opening vocational Training Institute. This is the present Awassa Vocational Training Institute; found near
    ENAT HIWOT BERHAN CHURCH. Together with the church the construction of the institute had
    began in 1954 E.C. Initially, the school gave training services in wood work, metal work and other
    vocational skills. Which remained as a turning point for urban development of the town; for instance
    Ethiopian town like Awassa
Opening Health Centers and posts which were indispensable aspects for the newly founded town. The
    greatest fear of the population of the town of the period was the prevalence of epidemics like malaria
    and dysentery. That was why health centers and posts were inevitable for the containment of these and
    other related health problems.

According to information from the elders of the church, the Dergue closed church services and used the
chapel for different secular purposes after it issued different socio-economic and political reforms in




                                                                                                           31
country, in 1975 E.C. The situation continued to exist up to 1983 E.C. Post the Revolution of May, 1983
the church legally confiscated its ex-holdings and resumed giving its spiritual services just like the previous
one.


                                       Hiwot Birhan Church
For many of us Hiwot Birhan Church might be familiar or known. The church had once been named
Philadelphia Church. According to the available source materials when the communist regime seized
power, under its radical reforms, closed all church ministries and worked hard to hasten secularized social
entity in the country. This development forced those white missionaries to leave the country. At this critical
situation, finally, the whites organized a verbal which would confirm the confiscation of all the properties
of the whites by their Ethiopian brothers, In course of this, the whites simultaneously proposed for the
change of the name of the Philadelphian Church. According to the justification of those Ethiopians who
were the participants of the transfer of properties, it was rather for the sake of creating a notion towards the
church and its adherents as if it was an Ethiopian chapel. In general terms the former Philadelphia church
after 1968 E.C. came to be known as “Hiwot Birhan” church Since then up to 1975 E.C. the church under
the name Hiwot Birhan continued to exist in giving services to the followers with its own doctrine and
principles.

It was nationalized by the Deregue regime in 1972 E.C (in 1980 G.C). The hotel was originally built for
tourists and weekend vacationers from Addis Ababa, when Awassa was still a small weekend resort town.
The hotel buildings are set way back from the main street from which they are hidden behind dense
vegetation.

On arrival at the hotel entrance one has the impression of entering some sort of a camp or barracks rather
then a hotel. The driveway terminates at the reception office building where there is adequate car parking
place.

Just in front of the Reception office block near by the lake there is the Bar-Restaurant-Kitchen building,
which is a hollow block structure erected with salvaged materials from a previous Bar-Restaurant building
damaged by the rising waters of the lake In front of this building but at a considerable distance is located 13
guest bedroom blocks each of which consisting of several connected double rooms. The bedroom blocks
are arranged in an "L" shaped site plan, enclosing a planted garden. On the lake front side is located a
swimming pool and tennis court. The rising waters of the lake endanger these facilities.

The hotel was conceived as a weekend vacationers' hotel and to give the clientele maximum privacy, it was
planned in a very decentralized manner. Buildings are arranged in-groups each according to their function.

                                                Warka Hotel
It was opened in 1963 E.C by then called Alemayehu Hotel. The owner of this Hotel was Barambaas
Worku Desta. During the Dergue regime it was nationalized. Now Ethiopian Labor union owns it. Warka


                                                                                                             32
hotel is semi-traditional hotel located in front of Meskel Hotel It has a total number of 30 bedrooms, 18
room with private shower and toilet and 12 bedrooms with

In addition to these there were horse as means of transportation for guests and motor boat. There was also
swimming pool. It was the first swimming pool in town. To mention the present situation of this Hotel the
driveway from the hotel entrance takes you to the reception office building where the management office is
also located. It has adequate car parking place.


In front of the reception there is a restaurant and bar designed on the Sidama traditional cottage style. At
the back of the reception restaurant and bar at considerable distance 37 bungalows and semi bungalows are
located. On the lake front side is located swimming pool. The resign water of the lake had swamped the
swimming pool. The tennis court has also faced the same problem.


A small laundry for wet cleaning is available inside the hotel. It has also standby generator and telephone
connected to each bed room and other public areas.


                         Wabe Sheble Hotel No, 2 (Blazer Hotel)
                                     (United African Group)
This hotel which is located at the bank of Awassa Haiq in the near by area of the gallery house of Artist
Afewoke Tekle was also built by a private foreign (Switzerland land) entrepreneur Mr. John Blazer in 1962
E.C Ato Kassehun Tefera and General Isayal G/Silassie were Share holders of this hotel. This hotel was
called Vel-V-u-Du Lak- in French means oasis.


    4.3 The Monotheistic Orthodox Religion
                And Saint Gabrael Church
When we excavate the introduction of Orthodox Church in the Sidama district at large and the town of
Awassa, it was Yirgalem which stood as a head quarter for the southern snoods of the Ethiopian Orthodox
Church. As the reports of the church‟s annual magazine, the introduction of Orthodox Christian church in
Awassa was related with the coming of 404 pensioned soldiers of Haile Sillassie to the area. As we have
noted in one of our study of this book (about the 404 pensioned soldiers) it was undertaken in1952.
Richard Pankhrust in his book entitled a „social history of Ethiopia‟, has noted that wherever there has
been new settlement which have been conducted by Christian clerics and nationals, it is obvious that there
should be at least one Arch which would facilitate the day to day spiritual aspects of the resided population.
Thus, it was inevitable to plant local church in Awassa to serve the 404 residents. Before the introduction
of St. Gebrael Church in the town, the christen population of town had used St. Tekelehymanot church
which is located in South of Awassa town at the specific place called Timbaho Monopol. However it was
some how difficult for the Christians of Awassa of the period to be nearly and easily worship going to this


                                                                                                           33
church facilitates what they wanted from the church.

Observing the situation the then Abun of the country, Abune Timotiwos, in 1953 E.C. ordered the snood of
the south to plant an Arch in the newly founded town. According to the magazine of the church‟s annual
report, an arch of St. Gebrael came to Awassa on the 19th of May of 19, 1953 E.C. from the then seat of the
Sidama District and head quarter of the southern snoods, Yirgalem.
As mentioned by reports of some informants, the constrictions of this giant church was under taken to the
increasing of the population size of the town which can be related with Awassa‟s being the capital of
SNNPR. The contraction of this big church building took very long period of time. After many ups and
downs both the believers‟ of Orthodox faith and the town it self have got an impressive spiritual heritage. It
began to give the central role of its spiritual matters since the 19 th of May, 1995 E.C.

Some written materials indicated that, Saint Gabrael church is noted as the unique architecturally built
temple in the region. It is obvious that, the Orthodox Church and „Holy water‟ for mass baptism never and
ever has been separated. It is because another important area where the Epiphany took place. At about mid
night baptism by immersion began and by sunrise was in full force. A quite number of priests waded, and
through out the preceding night never stopped singing, there by blessing the water, Though it is the
ceremony which is celebrated through out the country, the ceremony along the natural lake side however
makes the Epiphany in Awassa as unique as the original one, the ceremony that had been made along river
garden two thousand years ago.

Besides spiritual services, the church has also tourist attraction with its beauty and painting drawn in its
inside wall. Expatriates and domestic visitors take photos of this church and its paintings of inside wall. In
addition to this, the church together buildings with other have given a very specific grace for the city of
Awassa.



services which fulfilled the standard set for each business by the commission for Hotel and Tourism But the
actual figure raised to 39 Hotels and Bars and 32 Restaurants 8 Snack and 3 Bed services. Some of them
did not satisfy the criteria formulated by the commission for Hotel and Tourism. By that time among 48
Hotels and Bars in Awassa, one was without bed services only 23 of them served food and only 21 of them
had showers.

According to the information from Awassa municipality the registered "TeJ" houses were 98,177,366 and
33 in 1972 E.C, 1978 E.C, 1980 E.C, and 1994 E.C respectively.

                              Brief History of Some Earlier Hotels in Awassa
                                       Oasis-Wabe Sheble Hotel No-1
                                       (Medroc Ethiopia Zewd Village)
This hotel was first built by private foreign German entrepreneur named Mr,Hans Pauly in 1956 E.C. On
August 12,1963 E.C the hotel was handed over to Addis Ababa Bank which claimed money borrowed by




                                                                                                           34
the earlier ownership of the Hotel.


On 9/3/76 E.C the Ethiopia Commercial Bank transferred the proprietorship of the hotel to Ethiopia
Tourism and Hotel Commission of hotels and spring water Corporation. There was two years interruption
of services until it had began a full scale services by 1969 E.C.

The Hotel stands along the lake Awassa, during its early foundation its total area was 31,744 sq. meters and
gradually it had risen to about 51,984 square meter.

In its initial stage the hotel began its service with family bungalow fully equipped four beds, three bed
room, two bed rooms, single bed rooms, bath room, with hot water own commissary, tennis court, mini-
golf beach and pier.

There are about 38 levels A business enterprises whose capital is over 500,000 each.
Under level B there are about 126 whose capital is over 100,000 each. 5936 are level C whose capital
varies from 10,000 to the smallest.

Since any town depend mainly on trade activities the Awassa town municipality earns income from 1966
E.C to May 30, 1972 E.C was in 1966 E.C Birr 159597, in 1967 E.C birr 217415, in 1968 E.C Birr 94274,
in 1969 E.C Birr 156825, in 1970 E.C Birr 165259, in 1971 E.C Birr 234995 and in 1972 E.C Birr 325175
Collected.

According to other municipality source the town from 1987 E.C to half of 1999 E.C the revenue collected
has been increasing from year to year. In 1987 E.C Birr 1,551,081.03 was collected. After 1995 E.C the
revenue increased five times to 1987 E.C In 1995 E.C Birr 5,128,108.04 was collected .In 1996 E.C it has
raised to 10,053,303.67.In 1998 E.C Birr 15,047,479.62 and from July 1998 E.C to December 1999 E.C the
municipality collected more than 28.6 million birr.

In addition to this the Awassa Transitional Administration Tax Desk in 1997E.C it collected about
14,231,684 Birr. In 1998 E.C its income was about 12,000,045 Birr. In 1999 E.C collected income is 20
million birr.

                                      7.4 Hotels and Bars
According to the magazine of Awassa municipality of 1959 E.C at that time there were about 7 (seven) big
hotels that could render enough services for guests. In 1972 E.C in Awassa town there were 29 Hotels, 27
Bars, 12 Restaurants, 98 "tej" (liquor) houses and butcher's shop. By 1978 E.C their number have risen to
34 Hotels, 20,Bars, 8 Snack Bars, 17 Restaurant, and 3 pension


                4.4 Catholic Church and the Comboni Missionaries
                               in Sidamo (Awassa Particular)
In 1962 E.C. Ras Mengesha Seyoum the then Gvernor General of Sidamo Province thought to start athirst
centre and a farm below mount Tabor near lake Awassa. Then he had offered various embassies the




                                                                                                         35
    opportunity to buy land for a holy day centre in the same place. At this time the first embassy that used this
    opportunity was the Vatican Embassy which got permission to build the school for the Sidamas. Soon the
    embassy built three separate rooms: one is for the residence, the second for guests and the third one is big
    room for school. Then the embassy employed to the catholic Kambata workers, (who were employed in
    Awassa Agricultural Enterprise) and various European missionary bodies. Finally in 1963, E.C. in Rome
    the embassy succeeded in finding the Comboni fathers for the work by application to superior General.
    Then the Combonis were willing and ready to come to Sidamo in 1964 E.C. This was the beginning of the
    work of Comboni missionaries in Awassa.


    After one year the Vatican Embassy got permission for letting two Comboni fathers namely Father Bruno
    Maccani and Father Burno Lonfernini (Sometimes called the two Buruno‟s)to come in to Ethiopia. The
    two Brunos had served in Sudan particularly in Equatorial provinces from 1949-1963 E.C. and escaped
    from the persecutions of the Sudanese Girt.
    They were allowed to enter Ethiopia as teachers and school directors. In September 1964 E.C. they left
    Rome for Ethiopia. After twenty days of stay and getting some basic Amharic language orientation in
    Comboni College in Asmara they left for Dire Dawa to see the bishop, since Sidamo was entrusted under
    the bishop of Dire Dawa.

    From Dire Dawa in the 18th of December 1964 E.C. they reached to Awassa and began their work in the
    same month.

    In actual fact they had taken their action in 1965 E.C. But it was not in the town of Awassa, rather rides it,
    in the country side. This had a great effect on the development of the mission for many years to come
    because of the following reasons:
the separated head quarter of the father out side of Awassa
The rampant of protestant missionary besides the Orthodox Church.
    The animist or followers of African traditional religious people as we call them to and the Comboni father
    made a focus upon this population for their objectives.
        In general terms in this region the mission work was much expanded starting from 1973 E.C. after
         Abba Gasping was appointed as a bishop of Awassa in the Catholic Vicariate. Simultaneously they
         have established a church, a civic, and a school. From the above discussion what we understand is that,
         the catholic missionaries and their church have been planted in Awassa along with all these process of
         changes.


                                     5 . Educational Development
    Education is a purposive social phenomenal and life long process as a universal picture of human beings
    done by all society at all steps of social development and gathered to the harmonious development of the
    physical, intellectual, social and moral, emotional and aesthetical aspects of individual. Education has been




                                                                                                               36
the common practices of humor societies for centuries; it has also been done with definite purpose of
development of individual‟s personality.

Whom was the mayor of Awassa named Ato Kassahun Tefera opened the first restaurant. The place was at
piazza surrounding right now is the Haqe sport goods shop using the house. The dual first bars named
Geberewoch (Farmers bar) were sited at piazza at a place now given to Dashen Bank building. Including
Tabor bar that found in the same surrounding place were belonged to a person named Ato Tarekegne
Gebre both had food, drinking and bed room services.

Until recently compared to other neighboring town like Sheshemene, Dilla, Yrigalem and Soddo the
commercial status to Awassa was very weak. Information collected from two higher kebekles in 1979 E.C
shows the total capital of all shops of the town was estimated about 216973.41 birr only. By the same
period there were about 471 shops including whole sale, trade retail trade, and service giving enterprises.

There were 87 retail goods selling shops 10 government shops,1 vender ,4 pharmacies, 1 book centers,3
stationeries , 2 type writing training centers ,1 singer training centers 5 organizations , 2 car spare part
shelling shops, 5 privet garages ,4 black smiths,29 hotels, 27 bars ,12 restaurants , 3 groceries , 7 groceries
of packed food items and vegetables , 98 tej bets , 9 butcher shops , 11 bakeries ,3 tea houses ,8 honey
trading shops ,2 butter selling shops ,15 cereal shops, 5 skin and hide training centers , 6 photo houses ,2
barber houses ,1 laundry ,1 radio and tape repairing shop ,1 music shop , 1 car driving training skill center
,2 petroleum stations ,1tayer repairing station , 2 car selling centers, 17 flour mills and 1 beauty salon.

According to Awassa Transitional Administration Tax Desk currently there were about 6100 legally
registered trading shops and services giving enterprises in Awassa town.

This present open market covered one hectare of land. The upgrading project of this open market of "Arab
sefer" is said to be under work in the present day. Besides this a new open market was inaugurated in Tabor
Kebele in the surrounding of 'Timbaho monopol' as of -1999 E.C.
The main items widely exchanged on Awassa open market includes main crops, spices, vegetables, fruits,
animal products, other agricultural products and also fire wood, ready made food items and including
"Injera" local drinks such as "Tela" and "Bordie " (local beers), textile and textile products (local new
and second hand) other industrial product such as soap, glasses, kerosene etc hand crafts products such as
shema, plough, hoe, chair, shoes etc. In the place of the open where drinks found peoples at large number
practiced smoking "gaya" local pipa.


According to municipality sources in the 1970s E.C about 15-20 thousand people were estimated to be
served in this open market of every major market days (Monday and Thursday). Although the market had
been found busy from almost 8:a.m – 5:p.m.it reaches its apex from 12 noon-2p.m. At that time the average
taxes collected by the municipality was about 600 birr, the range laid between 400-700 birr.


Besides the "Arab Sefer" shops and the open market the commercial activities in relative case was also


                                                                                                              37
remained concentrated in piazza Commodity shops, drinking houses, hotels came to being in earlier period
of the town particularity in higher 2 kebele 06 around the piaza and in higher 1-02 and 06 kebeles in Arab
Sefer.

In Awassa Town a women named w/r Asegedech Woldegiorgis opened the first liquir house ('tej') bet at
tabor mountain direction access road .


Education is the basic necessity for social, economic, cultural political etc. transformation of any society. It
is also one of the essentials in the behavioral, emotional and attitudinal changes of the society. In our study
however; we discuss merely the general formal educational development in Awassa.


Different source materials indicate that, these aspects of development were started simultaneously with the
foundation of Awassa town in the early 1950‟s. With the increasing number of the population of the town,
in 1954 two years after the foundation of Awassa (1952 by the good will of the Emperor, Hailesilassie I,
and the first school was opened.


                           5.1 Educational Development During
                                         the Imperial Regime
The history of Ethiopia traced the regime of Menelik II for the actual beginning of modern education in the
country. However the expansion of modern education at the different parts of the country, believed to have
been seen during the regime of Haile sillassie I. This might be because of the emergence of modern
bureaucratic state system in the country. It made education, the products and elites inevitably important in
the system.


When we come to the case in Awassa, however it was the incessant appeal of the society that eventually
gave the opportunity for the opening of the first modern school in the town.



The principal objectives of the educational system were to acquaint the learners with the legal power of the
Emperor, create loyal and obedient citizens of the area build advanced state in terms of technology and
modern bureaucratic tools and to create courage people both for the country and flag. Even though the
development in education had begun during the regime of Hailesilassie, the situation had continued
stagnantly. For instance through out his regime of imperial majesty, the town had only one primary school
and one vocational training school.

                            4.2 Development in Education During
                                          the Dergue Regime



                                                                                                             38
Unlike the reign of Hailesillasse, in Awassa (in Ethiopia) educational development changed radically
during the Dergue regime. As the newly emergent government with new ideology the whole curricular
development of the schools of the country became socialist oriented which acquainted the students of the
country with socialist ideology. Then it became more secular. In spite of these, during the Dergue regime
different primary, Senior, Secondary, and Vocational training schools were opened in the town. The
available source materials indicated that due to the expansion in the educational access to the people in
1979 E.C the literacy level of the country became 47% of the total population of the town. The figure was
very high when we compared with the general literacy of the population of the town. For instance during
the Imperial Regime the rate of literacy was not more than 7% of the total population of the town and 56%
of the city of Addis Ababa. The possible reason for this might be the universal campaign which had been
launched through out the radical regime of the Deregue. From this what every one has understood is that,
the Deregue launched a staunch and offensive campaign for the eradication of illiteracy in the country.




The principal objectives of the educational system were to acquaint the learners with the legal power of the
Emperor, create loyal and obedient citizens of the area build advanced state in terms of technology and
modern bureaucratic tools and to create courage people both for the country and flag. Even though the
development in education had begun during the regime of Hailesilassie, the situation had continued
stagnantly. For instance through out his regime of imperial majesty, the town had only one primary school
and one vocational training school.

                           4.2 Development in Education During
                                        the Dergue Regime
Unlike the reign of Hailesillasse, in Awassa (in Ethiopia) educational development changed radically
during the Dergue regime. As the newly emergent government with new ideology the whole curricular
development of the schools of the country became socialist oriented which acquainted the students of the
country with socialist ideology. Then it became more secular. In spite of these, during the Dergue regime
different primary, Senior, Secondary, and Vocational training schools were opened in the town. The
available source materials indicated that due to the expansion in the educational access to the people in
1979 E.C the literacy level of the country became 47% of the total population of the town. The figure was
very high when we compared with the general literacy of the population of the town. For instance during
the Imperial Regime the rate of literacy was not more than 7% of the total population of the town and 56%
of the city of Addis Ababa. The possible reason for this might be the universal campaign which had been
launched through out the radical regime of the Deregue. From this what every one has understood is that,
the Deregue launched a staunch and offensive campaign for the eradication of illiteracy in the country.




                                                                                                          39
According to Awassa municipality source of 1979 E.C there were 37 small scale industries. These were
two Metal work, twenty two (22) floor mill, one House utensils and office equipment, seven bakery and
five wood work. Based on the game source of Awassa municipality by then (1979 E.C), There were 50
weaver, one gold smith, two blacksmith, one pottery and four basketry hand craft Industries in Awassa.


At present there are about 150 large and small scale industry projects in Awassa town .This figure includes
those factories undergoing production and still under process of building.


According to the information from Awassa administrative small scale and micro trade and industry
department some of these are 27 food complex factories 15 floor mill,11 soap factories,15 oil mill,13
cement product,10 coffee and tea processing industries, 2 ceramics, 5 house and office furniture factories,
1 species complex,8 plastic factories,1machin industry, 2 stone product,1 mechanized farming,1
manufacturing co., 4 building material processing industries,1 liquor fact.,2 paper facto.,2 patronized iron
sheet,11 nylon sack, 1 chocolate fact.,1metal work,1 motor engine maintenance, and assembling,1
cosmetics factory,1leather products,1 electrical workshop,5 nails fact.,1 honey and wax processing,5
printing process,2 agricultural equipment spare parts and 1 solar system devices.




In respect of the expansion of education to the ordinary mass, the government had worked hard
(intensively). According to the available source materials there had been five kindergarten schools which
were constructed between 1968E.C. and 1973E.C. in the town. Within the same years interval three
different primary schools were added. Junior secondary governmental and non-governmental schools were
also built. The Awassa Tabor Secondary School actually began to give services in 1977. During the earliest
phase, the school started its activities with 77 teachers. Out of these eight of them were expatriates; one
from India and the rest seven were from USSR.


                      5.3 Educational Development Since 1991.
Every one notes that 1991 (1983 E.C.) was a year of governmental and political transition. This marked the
fall of Dergue regime. Soon afterwards different changes /reforms/ began to appear through out the
country. Like wise, the reforms of educational system has also accelerating since 1991 (1983 E.C)
especially in Awassa. According to the available written material up to 2006/1998 E.C. there had been (35
elementary first and second cycle schools), 10 Senior and General Secondary schools. There are also about
25 kindergarten schools in the city of governmental and non governmental.


From this point what we understand is that, since 1991 educational access to the resided population of the
town tremendously increased. The possible reason for this might be the newly issued educational and


                                                                                                         40
investment policy of the country. This allows students to learn using their own mother tongue; especially at
primary level.




                              5.4 The First Primary School
According to the information from local elders, the first primary school was opened in the town in 1952
E.C. by Ato Kassahun Tefera, who was the then of survivor of the town of Awassa. According to the
available materials the actual location of the school was at place called Bushullo or Kuywatta, which is
now located nearly seven kilometer away from the town of Awassa in the South. Though there is no clear
cut information about the rest history of the school, this primary school for a very long period of time
continued to exist as primary school until it was transferred to its second site in the present Awassa Zuria
Woreda at the back of Tele communication building. It stayed here for short time till Awassa Tabor
primary school was opened.


                           5.5 Awassa Tabour Primary School
Different written materials justify Awassa Tabor Primary School was opened in 1954 E.C. with five class
rooms in the heart land of the present Awassa. During the time the school gave services for grade 1 -5
student‟s grade levels with 5 teachers. At the time there were approximately 300 students.

Initially being a governmental school, Awassa Tabour Primary and Junior Secondary school was opened to
create, a generation who become honest and devoted to the Emperor, the flag and the country. However
currently the school aims at playing a significant role in meeting the general educational objectives of the
country which primarily focuses on promoting development

Most of the students were children of those pensioned soldiers as their number increased, gradually with
the assistance of school directors, families, and other philanthropic organizations, nearly 17 classes were
built between 1964 and 1967 E.C.




Awassa Flour Mill Government owned factory, was began in 1977 E.C by Ethiopian Ministry of
Construction and simultaneously started production as of July 1979 E.C. It produced mainly flour and
animal fodder. Its main raw materials are wheat and corn flour.
Following these the Awassa Textile Factory and the Awassa Ceramic Factory came in to being.
Awassa Textile Factory :- A fully Government owned enterprise, was established in November 1989 G.C
(1982 E.C). The textile mill is an integrated modern factory located in the Southern People Regional
Administration capital city Awassa.

It is designed to produce various kinds of woven fabrics from 100% cotton as well as to finish polyester



                                                                                                         41
cotton blended and 100% polyester fabrics.


The factory's land holding is 371,000 square meters of which 31275 is covered by building and 31,000
square meter by an efficient treatment lagoon.

The Awassa Ceramic Factory:- Fully government owned factory. It was the first factory in its types
throughout the country Its project study began in 1976 E.C (1983 G.C) The construction was held by
Ethiopian Building Construction Authority and started production in April, 1,1994 G.C (1986 E.C).
Products made from ceramic materials are not limited only to pottery. Indeed, the range of other "Ceramic"
products is vast but they may be considered in four main groups.

White wares, consisting of pottery (tableware, cookware, decorative ware), wall tiles, and sanitary ware
products, structural products such as those used in building construction (bricks, roofing tiles, pipes and
floor quarries).


Sisal Factory and edible oil, Mill and Awassa Flour Mill (Set up in 1979 E.C)
Wanza Wood Work
At present it is called Wanza Furnishing Industry P.L.C. It is located in Adiss Ktema Sub City In its initial
establishment it served as temporary stay for the first group of Ministry of Work under Ato Kassahun
Tefera who did the survey and foundation of Awassa Town The main purpose of its establishment was
mainly to supply furniture for the widely new established offices and houses by then. Its main products
were timber, window and doors, office and house furniture. Its main market areas were Awassa,
Shashemene, and other parts of Sidama, Addis Ababa, Bale and Gemo-Gofa.

This factory was opened in 1953 E.C and closed since 1968 E.C and reopened in 1970 E.C. it was sold to
private entrepreneur after 1983 E.C and actively began its production in 1998 E.C with new name Wanza
Furnishing Industry PLC.

Cement Factory :- It was set up by an Indian citizen called Signor Diogirdi in 1954 which its main
products were tiles, pipe blocks, bricks and cement articles.

Agro- Industry Sisal- It was the only of its type in Ethiopia which mainly produced sisal thread, mat, and
sacks. It got its raw materials from nearby its agricultural framings.


Agro Industry Oil Mill :- It was well known with its products of edible oil and fodder. It also got its raw
materials from Awassa Agricultural Framings. After long years interruption this Awassa oil mill began to
produce and sell to the public in 1999 E.C




                                                                                                          42
Being the first primary school of the town, Awassa Tabor Elementary School alleviated the most crucial
problem of the residents of Awassa. The growing number of the population and the absence of secondary
school however forced the entire population of the town to urge the government for the establishment of
new secondary school. For this end the population of the town tried much to persuade the central
government and the mayor of the city.

Gradually, the central government had passed a decision in favor of the town. A year later in 1967 E.C. the
educational office of the town had began registration for grade 9 using Tabor Elementary School and the
next grade levels in the subsequent Years. In general terms, until 1968 E.C. Awassa Tabor Elementary and
Junior Secondary school gave services of secondary grade levels. In 1968, however, with the opening of
new secondary School, named Awassa Tabor elementary and Junior School remained only with grade
levels from 1st – 8th
Written materials indicated that, the school had no its own fence until 1968 E.C. This advent greatly
disturbed the teaching learning process in the school a very long period of time. In order to solve the
problem, the then director of the school and teachers in collaboration with an American person named Mr.
Vent, the school was able to be fenced with barbered wire.

Internal documentary materials indicate that in 1974 the number of student population radically increased
which had been major problem of the school. Thus, as a solution, the School and office management
reached a decision about opening two more satellite schools under Tabour Primary and Junior Secondary
School. These were Awassa Gebeya Dar School and Awassa Haik Dar Schools.Until 1982 E.C. these
two schools were ruled (directly supervised) by the director (principal) of Awassa Tabour Elementary and
Junior Secondary Schools.




In addition to these, the government even used rented classes from Awassa Comboni School for 5 th & 6th
grade levels


Tabor School continued to exist as the only primary and junior secondary school through out the Dergue
regime. In the post Revolution period, due to substantial assistance from the government the school able to
increase its capacity. For instance in 1996 E.C. different works has been conducted. From among these the
construction of library, offices, stores, laboratory rooms, pedagogical centre, and toilet rooms for both
teachers and students were built. Thus the school was able to accommodate the growing number of student
population.


Currently the school at the heart land of the town has played a significant role in respect of alleviating the
general educational objectives of the country.




                                                                                                           43
                      5.6 Abasha School ( Now Betekhinet School)
It is obvious that, for a very long period of time in the history of Ethiopia church and state was one and the
same, which means the other side of a coin. In general terms, all the administrative works of the secular
government had in one or another direction been the effect of the ritual institution which was the church.
This advent in turn hastened the spread of the idea of Christianity at the different parts of the state. Even in
respect of educational development, the church until very recently had played a significant role. For
instance, in the town of Awassa we do have a school which formerly owned by the church. The Orthodox
Church under St.Geberael sect had planted its own School named Abesha School in the town in 1966 E.C.




In addition the state farm cultivation had occupied not less than 25 gasha of the town land by then. There
were also significant amount of land with in the urban center which were owned by the Kebeles to be
distributed to the dwellers in Higher 1 "Kebles" 01, 02 and 07 and higher 2 in Kebles 04,05 and 07. The
dwellers had to pay the negotiated amount of money to their respective Kebles.

Educational institutes, such as the Awassa junior Agricultural college which had more than 425 hectares of
land (excluding the research plots with in the campus), Awassa T.T.I, Awassa Comprehensive High
School, various offices such as the head quarter of Sidama police, the regional branch office of Ministry of
Health, the Sidama Peasant Association, the Regional branch office of Ministry of Health, the Southern
Zone Agricultural Development office etc also cultivated the idle land they Possessed. In addition to this
Awassa Junior Agricultural College and SOS Children's village had been supplying the town with milk
since long period of time .
Presently   the city agriculture is managed by the small scale micro trade and industry department
.Accordingly it enable to organize unions who involves in different city agriculture . There were 60 unions
in all sub cities of cattle breading, fattening and diary cows breeding ,sheep etc .There are about 10 unions
involves in silk development. Besides large number of town population earns its income from cereals and
vegetables farming.

                                            7.2 Industries
Until recently the rate of Industrialization in Awassa was very slow compared to the rate of urbanization
.The earlier four large manufacturing industries in Awassa were Wanza Wood Work (set up in 1953 E.C)
Cement Factory (Setup in 1954 E.C), Awassa Agro Industries (Set up in 1953 E.C),

In addition to this governmental hospital Asher private owned hospital was also inaugurated and began to
give services since April of 1998 E.C Generally at present the number of health service giving institutions
are increasing. In addition to aforementioned health institutions there are about five private owned clinics,
ten medium level clinics, seven pharmacies, three drug stores and eight V.C.T centers.




                                                                                                             44
                                      6.1 Ambulance Services
The town had one ambulance which was used to serve the town population from 1972 E.C. to 1983 E.C.
This ambulance was the property of Awassa municipality.

According to Information of that time about 1978 E.C there was one ambulance which belonged to the
Ethiopian red-cross society. The Sidama Agricultural Development Unit and the Southern Region Army
Command had their own ambulances for their own use. Besides these the Ethiopian Red Cross society
Sidama Branch had also an ambulance that render services for Awassa and surrounding population

                                     7. Main Economic Activities
                                           7.1 Agriculture
In the initial time of its foundation most of Awassa land was cultivated both by private farmers and
governmental organizations.. Large number of town residents directly or indirectly got their main income
or their livings on Agriculture.
According to some studies in 1979 E.C there were 325 adults directly earn their live hood from cultivation.
Almost all of them, (300 of them) were in higher 2 "Kebele" 07 at the periphery near and around Tabor
Terara Maize, Teff, Cassava and Potatoes were the main products.

The church was offering church education since its foundation grade. Different sources have shown that
initially the school had nearly 240 students. The medium of instruction was given in Gezz and Amharic
languages.


Following the fall of the regime of Hailesilassie however the legitimate owner ship of the church over the
school came to end and the school was transferred to the government. This was under taken in 1967 E.C.
Following this advent different classes were built which would facilitate teaching learning process. Many
of us have realized this school with the name Betekhinet which gives services from 1st -8th grade levels.
Currently the school on its part played a central role in respect of alleviating the problems which are closely
to shortages, specially of primary schools.


                             5.7 Awassa Senior Secondary and
                                      Comprehensive School
Awassa secondary school was opened in 1969 E.C. According to the annual magazine of the school (1987
E.C.), the opening of the school was the due result of continuous request of the population of the town. For
a very long period, the city had no secondary school. The graduate students, who completed their Junior
classes forced to go to the Yirgalem for their high school education. That was why the absence of
secondary school remained to be major problem for the residents of the town. Gradually, by observing the
grievances of the population of the towns in 1964 E.C. the ministry of education together with the




                                                                                                            45
population of the town had began registration for9th graders secondary education using Awassa Tabor
Junior and primary school until constricting new classrooms or a new school.




According to the available source materials Awassa Tabor Primary school served as secondary school up to
1968 E.C. In 1969, a separate secondary school was opened with the same name at the southern edge of
Mount Tabor. In 1969 E.C. the school had began registration of students for grades 10, 11, and 12. The
magazine of the school revealed that during the time, the school was running the teaching learning
processes for 1,712 students.

Awassa secondary school as the only secondary school, however, couldn‟t accommodate the growing
number of student population of the town. That was why, the government together with the substantial
assistance of the society of the town, since 1971 E.C. built new class rooms, library room, laboratory room,
offices etc. starting from 1971 E.C.

The coming of this events facilitated teaching learning processes moderately. In the same year, in 1971
E.C. different departments were opened and the school became Senior and Vocational Training school.
From among the newly opened fields of studies the most important were Commercial and Agricultural
trainings which started in 1973 E.C. Home Economics and Productive Technology were also the others. As
notable vocation training school, Awassa senior secondary and comprehensively school gave services up to
1994 E.C. Due to the present government‟s policy on education, the school is currently giving academic
services for grades 9 and 10 as well as preparatory students.


                          5.8 Awassa Haik Dar Primary School
Awassa Haik Dar primary school is located north of Awassa town with total area of 2.11square km. Written
materially indicate that the school was founded in 1955 E.C. by the Swedish Philadelphia missionaries. The
opening of the school was directly related with the then imperial policy of the country.

These health institutions were offering health services for the workers of their respective organizations.


In 1978 E.C. a drug vendor enterprise was established in Awassa town. It was founded by Awassa town
dwellers association and administered by Medical equipments production and distribution corporation At
its foundation the enterprise had 1 pharmacist, 2 health assistants 2 messenger and 1 guard. This drug
vendor shop was providing important drugs for the population with a reasonable prices. It was also
providing a minor family planning service to the community. In addition, there were 6 private rural drug
stores in Awassa town.


The Awassa Health Care Center and the Loke Clinic have been contributing a lot in an effort to provide the




                                                                                                             46
Awassa community with health services. These health institutions are expected to offer medical services for
17.26% or 6243 children in the town who are aged bellow 5.


There hadn‟t been either private or government hospital in Awassa town until 1998 E.C. Before the
construction of Referral Hospital, most patients were taken to Yirgalem Hospital when the treatment be
came beyond the capacity of Awassa health center and Loke clinic. The establishment of Awassa Referral
hospital is intends to give wide health services for the people of Awassa and its surroundings. It also
intended to give training and research services for students of Hawassa University. Based on these
objectives Awassa University Medical Science College began to render services as of December 1998 E.C.

This health center had four health professionals at its foundation; 1 health officer, 1 nurse, 1 accountant and
a driver. After 20 years i.e., in 1975 E.C. its man power distribution was 1 health offices, 5 nurses, 13
health assistants, 2 health supervisors, 1 laboratory technician, 5 disease survey workers, 10 administrative
workers The number of workers had increased by 2.9% in 1975 as compared to that of 1954 E.C. when the
health center was established.


In 1985 E.C. the Awassa Health Care Center was offering health services for 53,495 populations. In 1995
E.C. this health center had 6 doctors, 1 health officer, 2 psychiatric nurse, 1 surgical nurse, 3 midwifery
nurse, 13 senior nurses, 1 junior nurse, 12 health assistants, 8 laboratory technicians, 3 health supervisors, 2
health technicians and 1 senior health assistant, and totally there were 53 health professionals. In 1995 E.C.
this health service was offering health service for 126, 458 population with the help of these workers
Among these workers: 2 doctors, 1 senior nurse, 1 junior nurse, 2 lab. Technicians, 1 pharmacy technician
(7 professionals) are attending trainings for the purpose of capacity building in the past three years.


Apart from the Awassa health center, there is a clinic located 6 km. away from Awassa town at Loke
(Busholo) which was founded in 1971 E.C. and administered by the catholic Mission. This clinic has been
offering medical services to the population of Awassa and other surrounding regions. In 1979 E.C. this
clinic had 3 nurses, 1 anesthetist, 1 lab technician, 8 health assistants and 18 administrative workers. It had
also 60 patient beds.


In addition to the above mentioned health institutions, there were some other health institutions in the town.
enterprise clinic.

Though they had the interest to launch an extensive evangelism in the area, the imperial regime obliged
them to have active dual part in their respective foot holds. It was this occasion that led the missionaries to
open new primary school in Awassa.


The primary objectives of the school thus revolved around reducing the rate of illiteracy in the town. The



                                                                                                             47
available data in the school describe that, most of the students of the early school were children of
pensioned soldiers of Haile sillassie. The first students of the school had paid five birr a month for learning
and the school had also accepted those students who were not able to afford to learn. The school continued
to exist as non governmental institution up to 1974 E.C. The last chief of the school was Mr.Grat Flisten
According to reports of some informants since Mr.Flisten didn‟t treat the teachers with respect and
consideration, the school was finally transferred to the ownership of the ministry of education.

As the result of this in the late 1973 the Sidama Awuraja Education Bureau owned the school and it
considered as governmental school. For the next three years however the school was existed as a
subordinated (satellite) school of Awassa Tabor Primary and Junior Secondary school since 1977 E.C. until
it became an independent and led by its own principal .Gradually with the incremental in number of the
student population, classes were built through the help of different governmental and non-governmental
organizations.

Currently together with other primary schools, Haik Dar primary School able to attain the general
educational objectives of the regional and central government of the country.


                            5.9 Awassa Teachers‟ Training Institute
                                 (Awassa college of Teacher Education)
The institute was established in 1969 E.C. but started training students in 1970/71 E.C. It used to accept
trainees only from Sidamo, Gamo Gofa, Bale and Addis Ababa. The institute was a boarding school with
20 bed rooms, It also provided housing for the principals of students, nurses, health personnel. Initially it
gave services for trainee teachers‟ of the primary schools. When it began training the institute had only the
capacity to accept 600 students. However, the increasing number of trainees and the accommodations of the
institute didn‟t match.

The historical background of the school was directly related with Kotebe College of Teachers Education.
When Kotebe College of Teachers‟ Education gave up its training for teachers‟ of primary school, Awassa
Teachers‟ Training Institute came in to being re-housing the trainees and running the courses which were
given in Kotebe. According to the reports all the materials that were initially used in the Awassa Teachers‟
institute had been brought from Kotebe College of Teachers‟ Education. The institute had began training
with 24 teachers who had first degree.

As stated by the available materials, the institute had been training primary school teachers for almost two
decades. In 1988, the ministry of education transformed it to college level launching departments which
provide 12 + 2 diploma courses. Since then the college has been increasing its training scope. It able to
alleviate the prevailing problems among schools of the region both at primary and junior secondary
schools. For this end both the government and the college fulfilled the potentials of the college to the
newly launched programmers.



                                                                                                            48
There are many private and governmental colleges including one university. To mention them; Awassa
College of Teachers‟ Education, Awassa TVET, Awassa Health Science College, Alef Health Science
College, Debub Ethiopia College, Union College, General Para Medical College, Africa Beza College,
Furra College, Zion Technology College, Tabor Teachers College, Farma Health Science College, Info
Link College, Medico Bio Medical College,Central Health Science College, Joint Vision Development
Studies College, Ethio-Tech Business and Information College, Awassa Women Development Center,
Kidist-Mariam University College, Alpha University College, 2020 Open College, Admass College,
Ethiopic Distance College.


                                             6. Health Services
The first health service at Awassa town was Awassa Health Care center. This health care was established in
1954 E.C. to provide health service for about 2695 population. It was mainly engaged in giving medical
services and preventing the spread of Malaria in the city. The people were using traditional medicine to
cure malaria in that time. Plus before the Awassa Health Centre was founded, a person named Ato Mamo,
a village doctor, was coming to Awassa town to treat the patients.


The foundation of Awassa Health Care center has it own history. There was a clinic established to give
health services for Awassa Tabor District Community Development Work shop institute workers in the
town. As there was not any health service institute in the town, this clinic was made to be under the
Ministry of health and it was named the Awassa Health Care Center.



                                Year of
R.NO      Name of the        establishment        Status         Location of the
            school               in E.C.                            School

1       S.O.S                1978             Senior           Addis Ketama Kebele
                                              Secondary
                                              School
2       Kidanemehirt                          Primary School   Haik Dar kebele
3       Adventist            1996             Primary School   Tabour Kebele
4       Mount Olive (Enat)   1995             Primary School   Tabour Kebele
5       Mount Olive          1987             Primary School   HaikDar Kebele
        (Haikdar)
6       Mount Olive          1998             Secondary        Misrak Kebele
        (Menahahira)
                                              school
7       Tabour Mekane        1994             Primary School   Tabour Kebele
        Iyesus
8       B.N.B.               1992             Secondary        Addis Ketem Kebele
                                              School




                                                                                                       49
9         Debreselam           1991         Primary School   Addis Ketema
          Mekane Silassie

10        Haik Dar kalehiwot   1995         Primary School   Haik dar kebele
11        Sunshine             1995         Primary School   Menahariya kebele
12        Higtarani            1990         Primary School   Tabour kebele
13        Daynamic             1994         Primary School   Tabour Kebele
14        New generation       1995         Primary School   Bahil Adarsh
15        Sisilia              1992         Primary School   Menahariya Kebele
16        S.D.C                1991         Primary School   Tabour Kebele
17        Pheliphos            1997         Primary School   Misrak Kebele
18        Hiwot Tesfa          1994         Primary School   Addis Ketema Kebele
19        Beletu               1991         Primary School   Misrak Kebele
20        Mulu Wongel          1998         Primary School   Tabour Kebele
21        Comboni              1969         Senior           Haik dar Kebele
                                            Secondary
                                            School
22        Debub Adventist      1997         Senior           Tabour Kebele
                                            Secondary
                                            School
23        Tabour Acadamic      1996         Senior           Tabour Keble
          Centre
                                            Secondary
                                            School
24        Abyssinia School                  Senior           Addis Ketema Kebele
          of science                        Secondary
                                            school
For instance, new buildings of classrooms, dormitories, sport gymnasium, aesthetic room, laboratories and
hall were built. Even to solve the problem of transportation the college brought nearly ten cars and motor
cycles.


                                      5.10 Awassa Comboni School
Awassa Comboni School was the third school to be established in the city which was located in the south-
eastern part of Awassa , just near the foot of Mount Tabor. The school derived its name from one of the
famous catholic missionaries Abune Danael Comboni who came to Africa in 1875 E.C.


As we mentioned earlier, Before the opening of Comboni School, there were two elementary schools in
Awassa; one governmental and the second established by the Swedish Philadelphia church mission. There
was also the community development training school under the Ministry of community Development and
Social Affairs which is presently renamed Awassa College of Agriculture. But these schools did not fulfill
the demand of the growing number of the then residents of Awassa. Thus the government was looking for
other organizations which could firmly attempt to meet the population‟s demand. After ups and downs of
three years the catholic mission under the sponsorship of the Comboni society opened an elementary school
( which was the 3rd in the town) in 1964 E.C. The school officially began its work from grade 1 st -3rd with
50 students. The opening of the school was appreciated and supported by the local authorities and by the



                                                                                                         50
residents. Then between 1966 E.C.- 1968 E.C, 4th ,5th &6th grades were opened. The school had given
national examination for its 6th graders (25 candidates) for the 1st time in 1968.

The construction of buildings, the establishment of higher grades and recruiting of additional teachers had
become very fast by the end of 1969 E.C. as the result of the pressure from parents and local authorities.
Soon after the Arch bishop of the Catholic Church appealed to the Ministry of Education for permission to
open additional classes and to up grade and open Junior secondary classes after full filling the required
criteria of the Ministry of Education.


As the result, with in a short period of time, a quick response was given allowing the school to begin grades
seven and eight. Along all there conditions, the then school director Abba Joseph Forlani had played very
crucial role in respect of further extension of grade levels.
Since the school is expected to be self supporting, it charges a monthly fee from parents of students.
However, some students have been let to learn for free or with paying lower fee.


                       5.11 Awassa Comboni Senior High School
The opening of the senior high school was a result of a continuous demand and pressure especially of the
parents at annual parent‟s meetings days the then Sidama Regional Education Office allowed the
organization to open a high school. Simultaneously they began constructions and purchasing necessary
equipment for 9th grade.


According to the short term plan of the mission, the new school registered 9th graders for the first time in
1991 E.C. The regional Education office was favorable for the activities of the catholic mission mainly in
respect of advancement in secondary education mainly because of the growing student population of the
town.




                        Year of              Status        Location of the
   Name of the       establishment                        school
     school              in E.C.

Gebeya Dar           1974                Primary School   Haik Dar Sub City
Haik Dar             1955                Primary School   Addis Ketema Sub
                                                          City
Ethiopia Tikdem                          Primary School   Misrak Sub City
Betekhnet                                Primary School   Menahariya        Sub
                                                          City
Tabour primary       1954                Primary School   Bahil   Adarsh Sub
school                                                    City




                                                                                                          51
Ginbi Genet                          Primary School   Ginbi   Genet     Sub
                                                      City
Dato Adahe                           Primary School   Dato Adahe Sub City
Betelhem                1997         Primary School   Mehal ketama Sub
                                                      City
Edget Fana                           Primary School   Addis ketema      Sub
                                                      City
Hogoba                  1997         Primary School   Tabour Sub City
Stadium                 1997         Primary School   Menahariya        Sub
                                                      City
Edget Bandinet          1997         Primary School   Haik Dar Sub City
Addis Zemen             1997         Primary School   Misrak Sub City
Bahil Adarsh            1997         Primary School   Bahil   Adarsh Sub
                                                      City
Misrak Ber              1997         Primary School   Misrak Sub City
Nigat kokeb             1997         Primary School   Bahil Adarash Sub
                                                      City
Nigist fura             1997         Primary School   Tabour Sub City
Alamura Secondary       1998         Secondary        Tabour Sub City
                                     School
Tabour     Secondary    1969         Secondary        Tabour Sub City
School                               School
Addi          Ketama    1988         Secondary        Addis ketema Sub
Secondary Sch.                       School           City
Awassa         Adari    1998         Secondary        Dato Adhae Sub City
Secondary Sch.                       School




                          5.14 Current Educational Development and
                       Distribution of Schools and Institutions in Awassa
Unlike the development in the ex-periods, currently, in the town there has been an immense number of
governmental and non-governmental schools. The most possible answer for this might be the opportunity
that has been created by the administration of the town. Relatively the population of the town and the
nearby provinces have got the chance to educate their children and up grade themselves due to the opening
of different colleges and university in Awassa and above all created better opportunity for the development
of the town.


In general terms, in the way of realizing the national educational policy of the country, the establishment of
different schools with different status is an indispensable action. The campaign to eradicating illiteracy
should only be realized through the medium of opening schools, colleges and universities at the expenses of
both the government and private companies. Here in Awassa in the past two or three years a number of
KGS, primary schools and colleges were planted which could relatively be able to absorb the growing


                                                                                                           52
student population of the town.
The following tables show the distribution of schools in Awassa with their date of establishment and Sub
City.

Since Awassa senior secondary school was the only high school in those days in the town it couldn‟t
accommodate the student population came from the different corners of the town and sub districts. Thus, to
solve this acute problem the opening of Comboni senior high school and beyond this working in
collaboration with non-governmental organization became an indispensable.

Finally Comboni 9th grade was allowed to open and begin its work in the new class rooms found in the new
campus in 1991/92 E.C. and step by step yearly to increase the grade levels up to 12th grade in the long-
term plan. The school follows the government curriculum as do the elementary and junior classes in
addition to teaching moral science designed according to students‟ age and grade levels.

Following the governmental curriculum, the new high school became well-known, accepted and
appreciated by the whole residents of the town. Thus the demand for places to accommodate many
students and for further grade levels became very firm. As the result, the number of class rooms increased
from 8 to 24 and gradually the grade levels were uplifted to grade 12. Comboni senior high school was let
to have its 12th grade candidates to sit ESLCE for the 1st time on 14th October 1994 E.C. and finally almost
all the candidates become successful in the national exam.

                         5.12 The First Kindergarten in Awassa
Awassa Comboni kindergarten was established by one of the sisters who came from Comboni college,
Asmara. In Awassa the first kindergarten school believed to have been founded in the present evangelical
office of the Catholic Church. Different written materials indicate that, the idea for the opening of the
school was suggested by an Eritrean born woman named Jenna Gebremichael.

Sister Jina was one of the prominent members of Comboni graduating College of Asmara. For this end the
catholic Comboni mission organized a committee to asses the general educational demand of the resided
population of the city. After three or four months of intensive observation, the commission passed a
decision for the opening of the school.

The number of students increased between 1964 E.C. & 1972 E.C. This was followed by suggestions after
supervisory report for the building of class rooms in an independent and fenced compound for kindergarten
students and separating them from elementary and junior students.

Gradually, in 1975 E.C. the first and the only KG school was built in Awassa. Being owned by the catholic
church, the KG become administered separately from the primary and the high schools. It was sister Jinna
G/Michael who was appointed to the administrative position and she served from 1972 – 75 E.C.
Then sister Dire Enrich, an Italian who had been trained in nursery schooling abroad, was assigned and had
served from 1976 -1980 E.C.


                                                                                                         53
The available materials indicated that the school showed a significant development after sister Dire Ernich
had become director. She had a good relation with the government offices and parents. As a result, the
number of students increased from 35 to 112 until 1974 E.C. To make the schooling more advanced, the
organization let all its teachers to join summer trainings given to KG tutors and which was arranged by
Ministry of Education.

In addition, the school has followed the curriculum designed by the Ministry of Education and of course,
was teaching moral sciences, too. Although, the language Sidamigna is given as one subject, until now
English and Amharic languages have remained the medium of instruction in the school.

According to different informants up to 1973 E.C. the general fixed school fee had not been clearly known.
As a responsible organization in July 18, 1973, Sidama Zone Education Department had passed a resolution
which could explicitly see the general school fee of non-governmental schools and the separation of
primary and kindergarten schools. Accordingly, since 1973 E.C. for the next two years the school fee
became 35 Ethiopian Birr for a year per a student.



                         5.13 Awassa Junior College of Agriculture
Awassa Junior College of Agriculture, which was the branch of Addis Ababa University was established in
1954 E.C. and started training students since 1969 E.C. in the former community Development training
centre, occupying 24 hectares. It has got additional 425 hectares area of land for growing different
vegetables and crops. At present Hawassa University Main Campus is situated on this land.

At its Initial stage the college trained middle level man power in agriculture - focused fields of studies: that
is, on animal production and protection technology, crop production and protection technology ,
Horticulture crop production and protection technology, rural technology and home economics students
were trained for two years and got diploma.

There were two directions of development plans of the college. The first was improving the educational
system and increasing the number of students; and the 2 nd was issuing first degree and raising the college to
a University level. This plan finally made the college to be upgraded to the university level in 1992.




                                                                                                             54

				
DOCUMENT INFO