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					         Ocean Renewable Energy Technologies

          Walt Musial,
       Principal Engineer,
Offshore Wind Technology Leader
 National Renewable Energy Lab
National Wind Technology Center
        Golden, Colorado

   The Power of the Gulf
  University of Maine Law
      Northport ME
          June 12, 2008
Marine Renewable Energy Sources
       Indigenous to Maine

             Tidal Currents
             River Currents
             Wave Energy
     Offshore Wind in Shallow Water
   Offshore Wind Energy in Deepwater
      Why Marine Renewables?
     28 coastal states use 78% of the electricity in US

 Many Coastal Load Centers Cannot Be Served by Land-
             based Renewable Resources

  Renewable Energy Goals Cannot be Achieved Without
               Offshore Contributions
US Population Concentration                          U.S. Wind Resource

         Graphic Credit: Bruce Bailey AWS Truewind
US Marine Renewable Energy                                                                                                   1.
                                                                                                                                  U.S. electric consumption based on 
Electric Potential Estimates                                                                                           (7)
                                                                                                                                  2005 EIA statistics. 
                                                                                                                                  Class 5 wind or better; depths 
                                                                                                                                  between 30-m and 900-m included; 
                                                                                                                                  60% exclusions; HI and AK not 
                                                                                                                                  included; 0-50nm from shore; 45% 
                       4000                                                                                                       Cap factor; Source: NREL.
                       3500                                                                                                  3.   Class 5 wind or better; depths 

                                                                                                                                  between 0-m and 30-m; included; 
                       3000                                                                                                       60% exclusions; HI and AK not 
                                                                                                                                  included; 0-50nm from shore; 45% 
                       2500                                                                                                       cap factor; Source NREL.
                       2000                                                                                                  4.   15% of incident wave energy; 20% 
                                                                                                                                  conversion losses;  AK and HI 
                       1500                                                                                                       Included; Wave climate 10kW/m or 
                       1000                                                                                                       better; Source EPRI.
                                                                                                                             5.   Estimated from aggregate siting 
                        500                                                                                                       studies; 15% extraction permitted; In 
                                                                                                                                  stream river kinetic estimated by 
                          0                                                                                                       EPRI.. 
                                           (1)            2)                 3)       4)           ( 5)           6)
                                      ic                d(               (          y(                         t(            6.   Estimated from Coriolis Study, 
                                   ctr               in              ind         rg         re
                                                                                               a m
                               e                eW                 eW         ne         St             ur                        Aquantis, and FAU; Miami/Gulf 
                                              or              or           eE          d             nC
                       US              f sh             fsh             av           an           ea                              Stream region only, 57% capacity 
                                     Of              Of                W          al          Oc
                              0- m            ow                              Tid                                                 factor; 10-GW rated capacity.
                          3               al l
                       r>               Sh                                                                                   7.   OTEC, salinity gradient, marine 
          W                                                                                                                       biomass not evaluated.
Two Basic Forms of Marine
  Hydrokinetic Energy
            • Activating force flows in same
              direction for at least a few hours
            • Tidal ranges are larger in
              northern latitudes
            • Tidal, river, and ocean variants
            • Conversion technology is some
              sort of submerged turbine
            • Activating force reverses
              direction every 5 to 20 seconds
            • Waves are larger in the northern
              latitudes and west coasts.
            • Conversion technology can be
              floating or submerged, with a
              wide variety of devices
Tidal Current Turbine Examples
     Marine Current Turbines (axial flow, open rotor)

   • GCK (cross flow, Gorlov helical rotor)
   • Open Hydro (axial flow, open rotor, rim-drive)
   • Lunar Energy (axial flow, shrouded single-rotor)
   • SeaPower (cross flow, Savonius rotor)
   • SMD Hydrovision (axial flow, open rotor)
   • UEK (axial flow, shrouded twin-rotor)
     Verdant Power (axial flow, open rotor)
   • Ocean Renewable Power Company (cross flow)
Wave Energy Devices Are Highly Diverse
                               Floating Attenuator (Pelamis)


    Oscillating Water Column
    Terminator (Oceanlinx )
                                   Floating Overtopping
                                Terminator (Wave Dragon)
  Technology Development Status
                Thousand of concepts and patents on ocean
                      energy conversion technology

scale model testing             hundreds

      Short-term proof of         A Few
                                     a few
       concept tests in
        natural waters

          Long-term full scale      A
          prototypes in natural    Few

                      There are no commercial
                            projects yet
Offshore Wind
               Offshore Wind Benefits
Better wind resources
  Less turbulence – steadier wind
  Higher wind = better energy production
  Higher capacity factors – load matching
Less visual impacts than land-based.
Proximity to load centers
   Lowers transmission constraints
   Serves high cost regions
   Exploits indigenous resources
Avoids land-based size limits
  Shipping – Roadway limits
  Erection – Crane limits
  Larger machines are more economical.
            European Activity Offshore

                     1,135 MW installed

                                                   Sweden     4%

                                     Netherlands                     United Kingdom
                                        12%                               35%

 EU Offshore Wind Targets
2010            5,000 MW                                    Denmark
2015           15,000 MW
2020           40,000 MW
2030          150,000 MW
                    Offshore Technology Status
                                                    •   Initial development and
                                 Talisman Energy:       demonstration stage; 22
                                 Repower 5-MW
                                 Beatrice Fields,
                                                        projects, 1135 MW installed
Vestas 2.0 MW Turbine                               •   Fixed bottom shallow water 0-
Horns Rev, DK
                                                        30m depth
                                                    •   2 – 5 MW upwind configurations
                                                    •   70+ meter tower height on
                                                        monopoles and gravity base
                                                    •   Mature submarine power cable
                                                    •   Existing oil and gas experience
                                                    •   Reliability problems and turbine
                                                        shortages have discouraged
                                                        early boom in development.
GE 3.6 MW Turbine                                   •   Cost are not well established in
Arklow Banks
                        Seimens 2.3 MW Turbines
                                                        the US.
                        Middlegrunden, DK
Offshore Wind Energy Cost Factors

 ↑ Upward Cost Pressures                ↓ Downward Cost Drivers
 ↑ Turbine Supply Shortages               ● Deployment
 ↑   Steel and copper price increases        ↓ Learning Curve Effects
 ↑   Regulatory Uncertainty                  ↓ Mass production
                                             ↓ Infrastructure development
 ↑   Euro/$ Currency Exchange Rates
                                             ↓ Experience lowers uncertainty
 ↑   Risk Uncertainty (public acceptance,
     reliability issues, insurance,       ● Technology Improvements
     unstable policy)                        ↓ Land-based Innovations
 ↑   Increasing fossil prices                ↓ High reliability components
                                             ↓ Multi-megawatt turbines
                                             ↓ Optimized offshore systems
                  US Projects Proposed
           US Offshore Projects
Project                State        MW
Capewind               MA            468
Winergy (plum Island)  NY            10
Southern Company       GA            10
W.E.S.T.               TX            150                                     Hull Municipal
Buzzards Bay           MA            300                                      Buzzards Bay
New Jersey             NJ            300
Hull Municipal         MA            15
                                                                              Cape Wind Associates
Cuyahoga County        OH            20
Delmarva               DE            450                                   LIPA & FPL
Total                               1723
                                                                         New Jersey
                                                      Cuyahoga County   Delaware

No Offshore wind
projects Installed                                                                      Ocean
                                                                   Southern Company
in U.S. yet
                                  W.E.S.T. LLC

                                                 Gulf of Mexico
          Offshore Turbine Suppliers

                        Turbine model &     Date of      Offshore Operating
Turbine Manufacturer
                          rated power     availability       Experience

                                                         Onshore prototype
  Bard Engineering        VM - 5 MW        2008-09
  General Electric       GE – 3.6-MW         2003
     Multibrid          M5000 - 5 MW         2005          Onshore 2005

      Nordex            N90 - 2.5 MW         2006        Offshore Demo 2003

 RePower Systems          5M - 5 MW          2005        Offshore Demo 2006

      Siemens          SWT-2,3 - 2.3 MW      2003           Commercial

      Siemens          SWT-3.6 - 3.6 MW      2005           Commercial

      Vestas             V80 - 2 MW          2000           Commercial

      Vestas             V90 - 3 MW          2004           Commercial
                                                                                 New England
                                                                             Offshore Mean Wind
                                                                                Speed at 90-m

                                          Maine Offshore Wind Potential
                                                                       Distance from Shoreline
                              0–3 nm (state waters)                           3–12 nm                                     12–50 nm
Maine (MW    Wind              Depth Category (m)                        Depth Category (m)                           Depth Category (m)
             Class   0–30       30–60     60–900      > 900       0–30     30–60    60–900     > 900       0–30        30–60    60 - 900   > 900
of wind       4       4,785       2,163       324             0      493     2,104    1,175            0          0          0       0             0
potential)    5       3,663       2,442     1,112             0      657     2,029    3,697            0          0          0       0             0
              6       1,516       2,250     1,487             0      630     3,413   20,928            0          2        348 105,789             0
              7           0           0         0             0        0         0        0            0          0          0      41             0
Water Depths for
United States
                              Water Depth Scale – meters

                           6.4 GW   10.4 GW   133.0 GW        0 GW

                              Maine has abundant
                               deepwater wind
                              Resource Assumptions:
                                 • No exclusions
                                 • Class 5 wind and greater
                                 • 0-50 nautical miles

  Water depth will determine technology requirements
 Land-based    Shallow Water   Transitional Depth   Deepwater Floating
 Technology     Technology        Technology           Technology

              Maine 6.4 GW     Maine 10.4 GW        Maine 133.0 GW

Offshore   Commercial
Technology   0m-30m              30m-60m
Development 430-GW               541-GW
    No exclusions assumed for resource estimates      1533-GW
45-m Depth Offshore Demonstration Project
    Talisman Energy in Beatrice Fields
                                        Photo Courtesy: Talisman Energy

              •   5-MW Rating
              •   61.5-m Blade Length
              •   Worlds Largest Turbine
              •   Two Machines
              •   45-m Water Depths
HyWind Floating Wind Turbine Project
     Spar – Ballast Stabilized
                • Under development by
                  StatoilHydro – Norway
                • Needs 100-m+ depth to
                • Announced a $78MM
                  demonstration project near
                • Partnering with Siemens
                  using their 2.3MW turbine.
                • Costs estimated about
                  where solar is today.
                • Expectations to compete
                  with conventional wind
                  energy long term.
BlueH Floating Wind Turbine Project
Tension Leg Platform – Mooring Line Stabilized

                          • First company to claim
                            in-the-water floating
                            wind turbine status.
                          • Deployed tension leg
                            concept near Italy in
                            late 2007.
                          • Demonstration is
                             – No energy generation.
                             – Gravity anchor not
                               deployed yet.
                             – 80-kw turbine was
                               undersized for platform.
                             – No data collected yet.
  Floating Wind Turbine Projections
• Technology will evolve from fixed bottom offshore
• Floating wind turbine development must be developed as
  a full system with advanced engineering methods.
• Commercial floating wind systems will have optimized
  turbines to address platform motion, stability, weight, etc.
• Demonstration projects are needed to assess the
  technical issues and collect validation data.
• Commercial systems are years away but may be the
  endgame for wind power.
20% U.S. Electricity From Wind by 2030
                                                  54,000 MW from Offshore
  Cumulative Installed Capacity (GW)






                                         2000          2006   2012    2018   2024   2030
Ocean Renewable Energy Summary

 • Over one hundred companies are pursuing
   wave and tidal energy device concepts.
 • No technology divergence yet – technology
   evaluation methods are very immature.
 • No commercial marine energy projects yet.
 • Offshore wind resources are abundant in
   Maine – especially deep water.
 • Shallow water wind will evolve first.
 • Deepwater wind energy will require a
   commitment to develop new technology.
          Thank you

             Walt Musial
          Principal Engineer
National Renewable Energy Laboratory

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