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									4-D Trajectory Operations with
Flight Management Systems


2008 CNS/ATM Conference
Tony Bowie
GE Aviation – Digital Systems
FMS Systems Engineering
The Paradigm Shift
   Past           Today               Future

                               A320




 Procedural       Radar
                  Know the      Trajectory
  Estimate the
                 current and      Know & share
  current and
                  estimate       the current and
  planned a/c                      planned a/c
                 planned a/c
   positions
                  positions         positions
                                                           2
                                               GE – Aviation
                                                    1/18/08
Intent Bus- GE B737 FMS
                                Current A/C State and

• ARINC 702A-1 Trajectory
                                Trajectory Predictions

  Bus
   – Aircraft current-state
     information 2Hz
   – Aircraft 4D trajectory
     predictions (Intent)
      – Each minute or when
        FP changes
      – Full trajectory to
        runway
      – Includes vertical     Dedicated ARINC
        wpts and turns        429 Bus
                                  - As per
                                  ARINC702A-1
                              Also available on
               AOC    ATC     ACARS
                                                       3
                                  - Free text – Aviation
                                            GE
                                                1/18/08
Trajectory-Based Operations
Basis for strategic planning and tactical operations including
separation management.
• Part of operational concept for the Next Generation Air
  Transportation System (NextGen).
• Four-dimensional (4-D) trajectory is the cornerstone of
  Trajectory-Based Operations for improved predictability
• “Open-ended” flight maneuvers (such as vectoring)
  reduce predictability.
• “Closed” trajectory-based maneuvers (such as a lateral
  offset) improve predictability.



                                                                        4
                                                            GE – Aviation
                                                                 1/18/08
 Controlled Time of Arrival
Generated by a Time-Based Metering system to merge traffic from metering
fixes to a runway.
• A key capability of an FMS is to “self-deliver” to a specified waypoint at a
    Required Time of Arrival (RTA).
• The FMS efficiently operates a flight with a user selected Cost Index (CI)
    and a Continuous Descent Approach (CDA). Referred to as Green
    Approach.
• Accurate ETAs need to be downlinked from the aircraft to close the loop
    with ground control.
             Cost Index (CI)                 Continuous Descent
          CI = time cost / fuel cost          Approach (CDA)
        Cost                             Altitude




                                Speed                          Distance

                                                                                      5
                                                                          GE – Aviation
                                                                               1/18/08
Terminal Procedures with Trajectory-
Based Operations
Increased arrival/departure throughput and efficiency.
                                • Increased predictability
                                • Reduced track distances
                                • Reduced voice
                                  communications &
                                  vectoring




   More efficient vertical profiles with reduced fuel consumption
                                                                                6
                                                                    GE – Aviation
                                                                         1/18/08
Approach Procedure with RNP SAAAR
  SAAAR: Special Aircraft and Aircrew Authorization Required.
                                  • Narrower lateral TERPS (e.g.,
                                    RNP-0.3 or less, no secondary)
                                  • Guided turns/Lower RNP on
                                    missed approaches (RF and
                                    RNP-0.3 or less)
                                  • Curved segments anywhere
                                    along the approach (RF legs)
                                  • Reduced obstacle clearance
                                    (Vertical Error Budget)




  Predictable lateral and vertical path. Low flight time variation
      between aircraft when speed constraints are applied.
                                                                             7
                                                                 GE – Aviation
                                                                      1/18/08
Time Control at Metering Fix
Runway landing sequence/spacing is obtained by assigning a
Controlled Time of Arrival at each metering fix.
• Enhanced predictability by using RNP SAAAR approach procedure.
• Fine tuning for runway spacing through speed adjustment only after
  passing metering fix – ground based clearance.
Control Time of Arrival at metering fix by:
• Ground control – Use Center-TRACON Automation System (CTAS) and
  Traffic Management Advisor (TMA) tools to issue RTA at metering fix
  to arriving aircraft.
• Aircraft – Control with speed variation using RTA mode (existing RTA
  capability).
• Ground control – For additional delay, assign lateral offset from
  predetermined start and end points specified on the arrival chart
  (modified lateral offset capability) or lower altitude (modified cruise-
  descent capability).

                                                                                    8
                                                                        GE – Aviation
                                                                             1/18/08
Required Time of Arrival (RTA)
Algorithm is based on speed variation.
• Fixed lateral path, fixed cruise altitude
RTA is enabled for any point in the flight plan.
• Available on 737 aircraft since 1986.
• Demonstrated performance in trials with SAS in 2001.
• Now flying: GE Aviation FMS improved “RTA to Runway”
      2 min                                                                                           2 min
                            Ac                                                                                              Ac
                               tiva                                                                                            tiva
                                    te   La                                                                                         te
                                            te                                                                                           La


                                                                                                                GE Aviation
                                                 Co                                                                                         te   Co
                                                    nt   rol                                                                                        nt   rol

                                                                                   ol    +Tol.                                                                                        +Tol.
                                                                               nt r                                                                                            rol
                                                                            Co




                                                                                                               “RTA to RWY”
                                                                         TA                                                                                               o nt
                                                                     eR                   Tol-3 sec                                                                     AC
                                                                 Lat                                                                                                 RT                Tol-3 sec
         Entered RTA Time                                                                                                                                      Lat e
                                                                 Ear
                                                                     ly R
                                                                                                         Entered RTA Time                                      Ear
                                                                          TA              3-Tol sec                                                                ly R
                                                                                                                                                                       TA              3-Tol sec
                                                                             Con                                                                                          Con
                                                                                  trol                                                                                         trol
                                                                                         -Tol.                                                                                        -Tol.




                                tiva
                                       te E
                                           arl
                                                 yC
                                                   ont
                                                           rol
                                                                                                               Improvement      tiva
                                                                                                                                       te E
                                                                                                                                           a rly
                                                                                                                                                 Co
                                                                                                                                                    ntr
                                                                                                                                                        ol


                             Ac                                                                                              Ac
      -2 min                                                                                          -2 min
               2 hours                                           60xT          3 min                           2 hours                                         60xT         3 min
                   Time to RTA Waypoint, T (sec)                                                                   Time to RTA Waypoint, T (sec)


                                                                                                                                                                                                          9
                                                                                                                                                                                              GE – Aviation
                                                                                                                                                                                                   1/18/08
RTA to the Runway                                                        RTA          Max       Mean       STD
                                                                        Target
Results from SAS trials in 2001
and 2007.                                                               Top of        7 Sec    4.8 Sec    2.7 Sec
                                                                         STAR
• Larger deviation at runway
  due to constrained speed late                                         Runway      21 Sec     12.7 Sec   7.3 Sec
  in descent.                                                            (2001)
                                                                        Runway      14 Sec     7.8 Sec    4.1 Sec
 Typical flight data                                                     (2007)

                             6                                           Latest Arrival Time
     Time Window (Minutes)




                             4

                             2
                                    RTA
                             0
                                  250           200          150         100          50         0
                             -2
                                                                                 Earliest Arrival Time
                             -4         Climb            Cruise FL350          Descent Phase

                             -6
                                                      Distance to RTA Waypoint (NM)

                                                                                                                     10
                                                                                                          GE – Aviation
                                                                                                               1/18/08
Trajectory Reporting
Required to “close the loop” between the aircraft RTA clearance
and the resulting aircraft performance.
ARINC 702A Supplement 1 was defined for early implementation.
• Implemented in 737 FMS with U10.6 and U10.7 software
   – Output Aircraft State and Trajectory Intent on dedicated
     ARINC 429 bus.
   – ACARS downlink of Trajectory Intent as interim datalink.
Flight trials started in October 2005.
• European Commission (EC) supported activity, NUP2+, in
   Sweden.
• RTA contracting to the runway.
• CDA makes use of FMS vertical trajectory predictions to
   preserve capacity.


                                                                         11
                                                              GE – Aviation
                                                                   1/18/08
ACARS Downlink: Stockholm to
Malmo Flight Point Type Turn Direction
 Route: ESSAESMS10
                                   Fly-by waypoint             Left
 ---------starts here-----------
 1,,,N59397E017581.
 1,R,113,N59401E018009,108,090122.             0,L,934,N59302E017443,1279,090456
 C,,,N59376E018019,500,090227.
 0,R,557,N59359E017585,769,090306.
 0,L,934,N59302E017443,1279,090456.
 0,,,N59070E017184,2511,090907.
 0,R,1893,N59044E017155,2604,090932.          Turn Radius
                                                     9.34 NM
 B,,,N58515E016548,3032,091149.
 8,,,N58380E016335,3500,091408.                                Lat / Lon
                                                                N59º30.2’
 0,,,N58366E016312,3500,091423.
                                                                E017º44.3’
                                                                             Altitude
 0,,,N57592E015342,3500,092051.                                              12,790 feet

 0,,,N57388E015041,3500,092420.                                                        Time!
                                                                                       09:04:56
 0,,,N57024E014122,3500,093032.
 0,,,N56455E013489,3500,093323.
 9,,,N56354E013354,3500,093504.
                                                                                                      12
                                                                                           GE – Aviation
                                                                                                1/18/08
First 4D FMS Trajectory Downlink




                                              13
                                   GE – Aviation
                                        1/18/08
  Arrival Management
   LFV Collaborative Information Exchange System
   (experimental implementation)

• Designate flight for
  Green Approach (or
  CDA)
• Send approach to
  aircraft
• Enable request of
  trajectory downlink




                                                              14
                                                   GE – Aviation
                                                        1/18/08
Arrival Management
 Flight details display


• Trajectory
  profile is
  plotted
• Time and
  altitude at
  each point is
  displayed



                                     15
                          GE – Aviation
                               1/18/08
Strategic Communication w/ RTA

Example from live trial
SK005
LLA-ARN
Sept 24, 2007




                                            16
                                 GE – Aviation
                                      1/18/08
       Strategic Communication Description




Lift-Off
           2   Periodic (3min)
               downlink of 4DTs
               enabled



                      1   OFF message
                          including ETA for
                          Arlanda arrival is
                          sent via data link
                                                          17
                                               GE – Aviation
                                                    1/18/08
Climb

            ATC sends Green Approach
        3   ILS26.HMR1V to aircraft. This
            STAR is defined all the way to
            ILS.
            Pilot updates FMS and pushes
            more accurate ETA (10:01:26).


                                                        18
                                             GE – Aviation
                                                  1/18/08
Climb




        4   RTA 10:01:12 (ETA
            - 14) requested by
            ATC and entered
            by crew
                                            19
                                 GE – Aviation
                                      1/18/08
En-Route   5   Periodic 4DT
               Downlinks
               continue every 3
               minutes


                                             20
                                  GE – Aviation
                                       1/18/08
6   Approx 10 min
    prior to T/D,
    AVTECH NowCast   En-Route
    winds uplinked



                                           21
                                GE – Aviation
                                     1/18/08
           7   Just before T/D,
               new RTA 10:02:12
En-Route       (one minute later
               than previous
               RTA) issued by
               ATC for spacing




                                              22
                                   GE – Aviation
                                        1/18/08
Descent




8   Crew begins
    descent at FMS
    computed T/D



                                23
                     GE – Aviation
                          1/18/08
          9   A/C follows FMS-
Descent       computed idle-thrust
              performance path




                                                24
                                     GE – Aviation
                                          1/18/08
FMS adjusts speeds as
necessary to compensate
for actual winds/temps




                                     25
                          GE – Aviation
                               1/18/08
Green Approach
 4DT Downlinks
begins at HMR       HMR /-FL150
 continue every 3
 minutes




                                             26
                                  GE – Aviation
                                       1/18/08
Green Approach
flown in
LNAV/VNAV




                            27
                 GE – Aviation
                      1/18/08
Thrust
remains idle




                          28
               GE – Aviation
                    1/18/08
Until ILS is
intercepted




                          29
               GE – Aviation
                    1/18/08
Actual TOA at
the threshold

10:02:20
(8 seconds late)




                              30
                   GE – Aviation
                        1/18/08
    Example From Live Trial

                                  Reply: RTA
                                RTA Accepted
  In the new downlinked 4DT      unachievable
       messages, the time         Via 4DT downlink
    separation at HMR had       SAS075 confirms GA
increased from 1 to 2 minutes   HAMMAR1V with ETA
                                       06:49
                                RTA Accepted
                                 Via 4DT downlink
                                 SAS2059 confirms
   Controller 06:48:00
  Sends RTA want 180 to         GA HAMMAR1V with
 second separation. Send
     SAS075 and RTA                  ETA 06:50
     RTA 06:47:00 to
   06:51:00 to SAS2059
         SAS075                   Controlling to time
                                 resulted in physical
                                separation of 10NM at
                                         OM

                                                          31
                                               GE – Aviation
                                                    1/18/08
Results
More than 1100 Green Approaches flown to date… (and counting)
resulted in:
• 204 Metric Ton CO2 reduction yearly
• 715 kg of NOx reduction yearly
• 130,000 kg of fuel saved
SAS-Sweden 36,000 Green Approaches per year into Stockholm
alone
• $5.8M fuel reduction plus $4M yield improvement yearly
• 23,000 Metric Ton CO2 reduction yearly
• 79 Metric Ton of NOx reduction yearly
• Noise reduced by 50% (65db exposure area)
SAS and LFV are expanding Green Approaches throughout
domestic Sweden
                                                                     32
                                                          GE – Aviation
                                                               1/18/08
Next Steps
Plans to expand the operations in 2008 to
adjacent regions in “core-Europe”
Determine Concept of Operations for 3 major
airports (LHR, AMS, ARN)
Beginning trials with Qantas / Air Services
Austrailia




                                                         33
                                              GE – Aviation
                                                   1/18/08
Trajectory Reporting –
Intent Bus Definition
ARINC 702A Supplement 3 defines significantly more data
important for air traffic use.
Aircraft State Data is output at 0.5 second rate.
Trajectory Intent is reported:
• Whenever an active flight plan change occurs.
• When a lateral waypoint is passed.
• Whenever there has been a significant change to the
  predicted trajectory.
• When a defined period has elapsed (one minute) since the
  last transmission

                                                                     34
                                                          GE – Aviation
                                                               1/18/08
Trajectory Reporting –
Aircraft State Data
Aircraft Situation:                       Aircraft Performance:
• Present Position – Lat, Lon             • Path deviation – lateral, vertical
• Speed – N/S & E/W velocity,             • RNP/ANP – lateral, vertical
   ground speed                           Aircraft Intention:
• Heading – True, Mag                     • Desired track
• Track – True, track rate                • FMC targets – Altitude, airspeed,
                                             Mach
• Roll angle
                                          • Intent status – active plan, LNAV,
• Vertical velocity – inertial               VNAV engaged, RTA control, etc.
• Wind – speed, direction                 Aircraft Information:
• Altitude and speed (direct              • Flight ID
   link from Air Data Computer)
                                          • Time stamp - UTC

               Note: Italic items were added to Supplement 3.
                                                                                      35
                                                                           GE – Aviation
                                                                                1/18/08
Trajectory Reporting –
Trajectory Intent
Unique labels are used for different flight plan types:
• Active
• Modified
• Secondary
• Data Link
Trajectory is a string of individual path geometry segments consisting of:
• Start point
• Line to point
• Arc to point
Each segment can have any of these characteristics:
       Start of climb   Level-off                   Unnamed fix           Runway

       Top of climb     Crossover altitude          Aircraft projection   Start of descent
       Top of descent   Transition altitude/level   Non-flyable           RTA point
       End of descent   Speed change                Discontinuity         Clearance Altitude Level off

                        Note: Italic items were added to Supplement 3.                                              36
                                                                                                         GE – Aviation
                                                                                                              1/18/08
Trajectory Reporting –
Trajectory Intent (continued)
Each point at the end of a segment contains the following information:
• Point position – lat/lon
• Altitude – predicted and any constraints
• Time – predicted ETA, predicted earliest and latest crossing time if RTA
• Point RNP
• Predicted speed – airspeed or Mach
• Forecast wind – speed and direction
• Point name – if named, lat/lon of reference named point
• Turn radius and turn center lat/lon if arc to point




                   Note: Italic items were added to Supplement 3.                  37
                                                                        GE – Aviation
                                                                             1/18/08
Trajectory Reporting –
Trajectory Intent (continued)
Example of the trajectory downlink (Supp 3):
                                                                               Named
                                                                          Fly-by waypoint
                                             Start of turn


        1            2                          3        4

                                                                              Transition altitude
                                                                  5
        Top of descent        Crossover altitude                      6



   Segment sequence transmission                                          7      End of turn
   1.   Start point – aircraft projection           Turn center
   2.   Line to point – top of descent
   3.   Line to point – crossover altitude
   4.   Line to point
   5.   Arc to point – named point
   6.   Arc to point – transition altitude
   7.   Arc to point


                                                                                                               38
                                                                                                    GE – Aviation
                                                                                                         1/18/08
Transmission Time – VHF ACARS
(character-oriented data)
Trajectory Intent                       Supp 1        Supp 3


• Number of characters                    862          4441
• Transmission time/set                 2.9 sec       14.8 sec

         Notes: Typical 25 point trajectory.
         Transmission is VHF ACARS (2400 bits/sec).



                                                                      39
                                                           GE – Aviation
                                                                1/18/08
Transmission Time – VDL Mode 2
(binary data)
Trajectory Intent                            Supp 1             Supp 3


• Number of 32-bit words                       132       680
• Transmission time/set                     .2-.4 sec .9-2.2 sec

   Notes: Typical 25 point trajectory.
   Transmission bus is VDL Mode 2 (10,000 - 24,000 effective bits/sec).




                                                                                     40
                                                                          GE – Aviation
                                                                               1/18/08
Future needs for world-wide
implementation
Trajectory downlink protocol
• Message protocol for trial was custom built
• Standard for downlink message protocol being defined in VDL
  Mode 2 (ARINC characteristics 637 and 750)
Trajectory downlink content requirements
• ARINC 702A Supplement 3 provides for variable content to
  accommodate different capability levels
• Minimum standard requirements for data content are being
  defined by ICAO Doc 9694 and RTCA SC-214
Performance standard for predictions
• Quality of trajectory predictions (altitude and time) have no
  accuracy requirements
• Compensation for control error tolerance may be needed
  when reporting trajectory early in the flight.
                                                                     41
                                                          GE – Aviation
                                                               1/18/08
Conclusion
Trajectory-Based Operations have proven economic
benefits supported by current FMS capabilities
Expanded data is required per ARINC 702 Supplement 3
Trajectory Intent downlink for world-wide
implementation requires:
• Data link with sufficient transmission band width
• Defined downlink message structure with minimum data
  content definition
• Performance standards for predicted trajectory data
• Ground service tools to interpret the trajectory intent
     Results to date show significant economic incentive for
      expanding Trajectory-Based Operations world-wide
                                                                          42
                                                               GE – Aviation
                                                                    1/18/08
Thank You!
Contacts:
Keith D. Wichman
keith.wichman@ge.com
  +1 616.241.8710 (voice)
Joel K. Klooster
joel.klooster@ge.com
  +1 616.241.75010 (voice)

GE Aviation
 3290 Patterson Ave SE
 Grand Rapids, MI 49512-1991
+1 616.241.8707 (fax)
                                          43
                               GE – Aviation
                                    1/18/08

								
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