After 2008: Where Do We Go from Here? by xld14276

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School of InternatIonal and publIc affaIrS | columbIa unIverSIty | January 2008

                                                           After 2008:
                                                           Where Do We
                                                           Go from Here?
VOLUME XXI No. 1 JaNUary 2008
Published biannually by School of International and Public affairs, Columbia University

  From the                                 T
                                                    his issue of SIPA News focuses on a moment       attacks on New York and Washington produced a
                                                    of transition in the United States and there-    temporary wartime consensus that dissolved when
                                                    fore the world community. The U.S. elec-         its costs under unilateralist leadership became

  Acting Dean                              tions will produce a new administration, including
                                           a new president, vice president, and 3,000 presi-
                                                                                                     clear. On the other hand, the disproportionate
                                                                                                     electoral weight of states with small populations
                                           dential appointees in the executive branch. The           in the traditionalist interior of the country make
                                           elections also seem likely to produce more turnover       it difficult for the U.S. Congress to modernize
                                           than usual in the U.S. Congress. Much less predict-       outdated domestic policy regimes. How far the
                                           able is the direction the new government will take        new administration can move may depend in part
                                           in domestic and international policymaking. What          on its success in moving pieces of the domestic
                                           is certain amid all this upheaval is that the thin line   agenda onto its international agenda. This is most
                                           that once separated foreign and domestic affairs          likely to happen on environmental issues where
                                           will continue to dissolve.                                global warming cannot be faced without global
                                              For much of the past century, the U.S. elector-        cooperation. Many other “domestic” issues are
                                           ate has moved back and forth between unilateral-          simultaneously international: immigration, emerg-
                                           ism and engagement in international affairs. The          ing disease control, consumer product safety,
                                           swing of this pendulum has seldom moved at the            arms trafficking, labor standards, human and civic
                                           same speed and direction as the domestic policy           rights. This issue of SIPA News looks at some of
                                           pendulum swings between traditionalism and                these policy arenas, and at U.S. relations with key
                                           modernism. In recent years, the two have begun            countries, to assess where the United States stands
                                           swinging together. Unilateralism is the preferred         now and the challenges that will face the new
                                           foreign policy of isolationists, many of whom             administration.
                                           view the international arena as a source of moral            SIPA also finds itself in a moment of transi-
                                           as well as physical threats. Traditionalism is the        tion. After ten years of the inspired and effective
                                           preferred domestic policy of many who fear that           leadership of Lisa Anderson, the School has a
                                           change will undermine the spiritual as well as the        strong foundation on which to build its future.
                                           material foundations of their society. Coalitions         And what a future that will be: a new building in
                                           of “the willing” seem better than permanent com-          the Manhattanville campus, academic and financial
                                           mitments to international organizations. Local            independence, an improved curriculum, greater fel-
                                           standards and decisions are best for education,           lowship and financial aid for students, and a grow-
                                           health care, environment, labor, and even civic           ing faculty of the highest quality. SIPA has always
                                           and property rights than national or, worse yet,          been engaged in the world and looking for ways to
                                           international treaties and norms.                         get better. The new plan promises to turn SIPA’s
                                              Isolationism and traditionalism impose heavy           biggest challenges into its greatest strengths.
                                           burdens on U.S. citizens as well as the citizens of
                                           other countries and seldom command electoral              John H. Coatsworth
                                           majorities in the United States. The 2001 terrorist       Acting Dean
                         p.15                  p.24                    p.32                 p.35                 p. 38
                         Global HIV/AIDS       Behind the              Memory and           SIPA Alum            Staying in Touch
p. 2                     Policy after 2008:
                         Opportunity for
                                               Façade: A Look
                                                                       National Identity
                                                                       By Jina Moore
                                                                                            Ambassador Siv
                                                                                            Joins “Romney
                                                                                                                 with Alumni:
                                                                                                                 SIPA’s New Print
Decision 2008
By Robert C. Lieberman
                         New American          into China’s                                 for President”       and Online
                         Leadership            Environmental                                Campaign             Directories
                         By Sawa Nakagawa      Crisis                  InSIdE SIPA          By Nilanjana Pal     By Daniela Coleman

p. 6                                           By Nichole Wong Gomez

The Election and
Health Reform
                         p.18                  p.28                    p.34                 p.36                 p. 38
By Paula Wilson
                         Powering India:                               Faculty Profile:     SIPA’s New           SIPA Alumni
                         A Prototype for       A Challenge for         José Antonio         Director of Alumni   Groups Get Active!
                         Nuclear Energy        the Next                Ocampo               Relations: Daniela
p. 8                     Agreements?
                         By Samanth
                                               President: Free
                                                                       By Matteen Mokalla   Coleman
                                                                                            By Matteen Mokalla   p. 39
Washington and the       Subramanian                                                        and Nilanjana Pal

                                               By Lincoln Ajoku
Environment: How                                                                                                 Donor List FY 07
Today’s Regulations
May Keep the
Next President’s
                         p.21                  p.30                    SIPA Alum
                                                                       Pollock Brings
                         Getting Russia        EU’s New                Strategies from      Ralph O. Hellmold
Hands Tied               Right: The Future                                                  Honored with
By Matt Klasen
                                               Geopolitical            the Campaign Trail
                         of U.S.-Russia        Reality: Do Not         to the Classroom     Alumni Medal
                         Relations             Expect a Pro-           By Rob Garris

p. 12                    By Jackie Carpenter
                                               American Stance
                                               By Eduardo Peris                             p.37
Open Letter to a                               Deprez
                                                                                            SIPA’s Alumni
                                                                                            Council Launches
By Richard W. Bulliet
                                                                                            New Projects
        2008       By Robert C. Lieberman

2 S I PA N E W S
                        y initial reaction on being
                        asked to write about the
                        three most decisive issues
                        in the 2008 U.S. presi-
                        dential campaign was                   Should the United States keep traveling down the
                        that this would not be                           Bush administration’s path of
an easy task. Once you get past Iraq, I thought,
what would there be to say? After all, the 2006                    blundering unilateralism and policy . . . ?
Congressional elections, in which the Democrats
won majorities in both houses of Congress,
was widely interpreted as a referendum on the
Bush administration’s handling (or mishandling,
depending on your point of view) of the invasion
and occupation of Iraq, which most Americans          seemed to be at the forefront of American policy      ill for the Republicans, as voters tend to take out
think has gone terribly wrong. Why should 2008        disputes over the last few years seem, for the time   their economic frustrations on the party of the
be any different, especially given that President     being, to have run their course—Social Security       current administration. But the economic chal-
Bush’s reaction to his party’s electoral defeat was   privatization and immigration reform, for exam-       lenges of 2008 pale in comparison with recent
not to follow the apparent will of the majority of    ple. Another cluster of issues such as abortion,      elections, such as 1980 and 1992, when economic
American voters and move toward withdrawal but        stem cell research, and gay marriage sharply          concerns were paramount.
to extend his already unpopular policy by escalat-    divide the Republican Party’s Christian conserva-          This will nevertheless be a campaign guided
ing the American presence in Iraq?                    tive base from the Democrats’ more liberal and        by deep differences among parties and candidates
    But how, I wondered, to identify the issues       cosmopolitan core, but such issues are hardly dis-    on a series of key issues that stand in for a set of
that will ultimately distinguish the parties and      tinctive to this year’s campaign and seem unlikely    profound differences in approach and orientation
candidates from one another and set the agenda        to play an unusually important role this year. The    toward America’s role in the world and the gov-
for the political season in the year leading up to    economy, too, seems suddenly shaky in the wake        ernment’s role in society: Iraq, health care, and
November 2008? Some of the specific issues that       of the summer’s credit crunch, a trend that bodes     the environment.

                                                                                                                                             S I PA N E W S 3
HEALTH CARE                 Some 47 million Americans lack health insurance,
                    health care costs continue to rise, and the fundamental absurdity of
           America’s patchwork system of health insurance is becoming more apparent by the day.

                                                                       The war in Iraq, of course, still dominates the
                                                                   American political landscape and is likely to do
                                                                   so for the foreseeable future. Despite widespread
                                                                   public skepticism of the administration’s han-
                                                                   dling of the occupation of Iraq and anxiety about
                                                                   the conflict’s endgame, the Republican candi-
                                                                   dates are broadly committed to a continuation
                                                                   of the administration’s policy. The Democratic
                                                                   candidates universally deride the administration’s
                                                                   stubbornness and offer a variety of alternatives
                                                                   ranging from immediate withdrawal to recogni-
                                                                   tion of a more permanent American presence in
                                                                   the region. But the more profound division here
                                                                   is not over the particulars of our Iraq policy but
                                                                   rather over the vision of the American role in
                                                                   the world and the response to the international
                                                                   challenges exposed by the terrorist attacks of
                                                                   September 11, 2001. Should the United States
                                                                   keep traveling down the Bush administration’s
                                                                   path of blundering unilateralism and policy,
                                                                   driven more by ideology and faith in American
                                                                   military power than by careful strategic plan-
                                                                   ning and international partnership? How can and
                                                                   should the United States engage the world? This
                                                                   is the fault line that the war in Iraq has exposed,
                                                                   and bridging it will require more than just a solu-
                                                                   tion in Iraq.
                                                                       Health care, which dominated the politics of
                                                                   the mid-1990s, is back at the center of American
                                                                   domestic politics. Some 47 million Americans
                                                                   lack health insurance, health care costs con-
                                                                   tinue to rise, and the fundamental absurdity of
                                                                   America’s patchwork system of health insurance
                                                                   is becoming more apparent by the day. Every
                                                                   major candidate has offered a policy proposal
                                                                   to cover the uninsured, control costs, and bring
                                                                   some order to the chaos. But a wide gulf sepa-
                                                                   rates Republican proposals that would basically
                                                                   extend the current system of private insurance
                                                                   and Democratic proposals that envision a larger
                                                                   role for the government in ensuring equity and
                                                                   adequacy in the health care system. President
                                                                   Bush’s recent veto of a bill to extend the State
                                                                   Children’s Health Insurance Program is a case in
                                                                   point; while Democrats (and many Republicans)
                                                                   in Congress saw merit in making this successful

4 S I PA N E W S
ENVIRONMENT      Will our leaders be receptive to the scientific understanding of policy issues
                                   or will they resort to alternative means of
                             diagnosing public problems and devising solutions?

government program available to more children,      mental sustainability are moving to the center       scientific understanding of policy issues or will
the president argued that the bill went beyond      of the American political agenda. Here again,        they resort to alternative means of diagnosing
government’s legitimate role in this area. This     the parties and candidates are sharply divided;      public problems and devising solutions? These
dispute is indicative of a broader disagreement     Republicans approach the issue with skepticism       questions will be played out in debates over the
over growing inequality in American society and     and restraint, while Democrats generally advo-       environment in this election, and the answers will
the desirability of government intervention in      cate more active engagement in the search for        have profound and lasting implications not only
the economy to address inequality. In the 1990s,    both local and global solutions to this defining     for the future of public policy but also for the role
even Bill Clinton saw fit to announce that “the     problem of our time. But this issue, too, stands     that policy professionals will play in that future.
era of big government is over”; the 2008 election   in for a larger divide in American politics over
might make that judgment seem dated.                the status of science and the role of systematic         Robert C. Lieberman is chair of the Department of
   Finally, with former vice president Al Gore      knowledge in guiding public policymaking. How        International and Public Affairs and associate professor of
becoming surely the first person ever to win both   will the growing depth and precision of policy       Political Science and Public Affairs.
an Oscar and a Nobel Prize in the same year,        knowledge—about climate change as well as
we can hardly doubt that the threat of global       other issues—shape the next round of decisions
climate change and the challenge of environ-        about policy? Will our leaders be receptive to the

                                                                                                                                               S I PA N E W S 5
                   The Election
                and Health Reform
                                                by Paula Wilson

        he 2008 presidential election is still nearly a year away, but a stepped-       A metaphor commonly used to describe an
        up primary schedule, an abundance of candidates, multiple debates,          effective health system is the image of a three-
                                                                                    legged stool with each leg of the stool represent-
        and the pace and intensity of media coverage have many voters fo-
                                                                                    ing a key aspect of a strong health care system:
cused on the issues right now. One issue at the forefront is the nation’s
                                                                                    access, quality, and cost. The challenge is achiev-
health care system and the possibility of making reforms. Recent polls show         ing all of the goals at one time.
Americans consistently ranking concern for health care among the top three              If we look at the present condition of the
issues. Every candidate has something to say about health care, with some           health care system in the United States, it would
providing fully designed proposals for reforming the system, while others           be fair to say that none of the legs of the stool
                                                                                    is particularly sturdy. With 47 million Americans
simply state their goals without a comprehensive path to achieving them.
                                                                                    lacking health insurance, there is work to be done
This articles looks at the qualities of an effective health care system and then
                                                                                    on assuring access for the uninsured. And while
compares those traits with what the candidates are saying.                          the health care system delivers a great deal of

 6 S I PA N E W S
high quality care, there are many areas needing         None of the Republican candidates have plans          of this new expense by rolling back tax cuts for
improvement. Recent data from the Centers for           that mandate the provision or purchase of health      people making more than $200,000 (Edwards) or
Disease Control reveal a 4.5 percent infection rate     insurance.                                            $250,000 (Clinton and Obama) per year. The bal-
per 100 hospital admissions, resulting in 100,000           There is more cross-party consensus on ap-        ance would be financed from the savings achieved
patient deaths per year. A 2001 report by the In-       proaches to improving the quality of health care      by the reforms described above. Striking a po-
stitute of Medicine indicated that many doctors         and reducing its cost. Many quality reforms are       litical compromise to generate funding for health
fail to routinely practice evidence based medi-         also tools for cost containment between both par-     care reform will be a major challenge facing the
cine. The “cost” leg of the stool is the one perhaps    ties. For example, the use of “pay-for-performance”   candidate who wins in November 2008.
in most need of repair, as it impairs our ability to    reimbursement strategies is posed as either a qual-        The next president will also have to make
achieve better access and improved quality. Data        ity and/or a cost idea by all of the leading can-     critical decisions about implementation issues
for 2005 show that we spent about $2 trillion on        didates. Pay-for-performance provider payment         with all of the plans. Market-based approaches
health care in the United States, or $6,697 per         schemes use financial incentives to improve the       to fix the root problems of escalating costs and
person, representing 16 percent of the Gross Na-        quality of care delivered and in some instances       uneven quality remain untested and are much too
tional Product. This is more than any other indus-      can mean withholding payment for the wrong            optimistic. We are a long way from having the
trialized nation. These costs are directly related to   care. Many candidates propose preventive health       data and resources for consumers to make effec-
the increasing numbers of uninsured and underin-        efforts and incentives to encourage healthy life-     tive decisions about care. And even if those tools
sured Americans.                                        styles as means to better quality and lower costs.    were in place, how does a market-driven system
    Americans may agree that reform is needed,
but there is no consensus when it comes to defin-
ing the solutions. The last effort to reform health     Americans may agree that reform is needed, but there is no consen-
care, led by then First Lady Hillary Clinton, end-
                                                        sus when it comes to defining the solutions. The last effort to reform
ed in failure for many reasons, including compet-
ing visions for health reform.                          health care, led by then First Lady Hillary Clinton, ended in failure
    Of the 16 people currently in the race to be        for many reasons, including competing visions for health reform.
president, seven Democrats and four Republicans
have developed formal plans for health reform;
the others have stated key beliefs or principles re-    Republican candidate Mike Huckabee suggests           contain health costs that result from an aging
garding the future of the health care system.           lowering health insurance premiums for people         population or effective but expensive new medical
    In terms of access there is a clear division be-    who live a healthy life.                              advances? The advocates for insurance mandates
tween the two parties. All of the Democratic can-           Technological tools such as electronic health     to achieve universal access are misleading when
didates aim to achieve universal health insurance       records have the potential to achieve substantial     it comes to paying for the coverage expansions.
coverage. None of the Republican candidates are         savings in health care by reducing redundant pro-     About half of the new costs are dependent on sav-
calling for universal coverage. Instead, they are       cedures and improving the delivery of preventive      ings from health system reforms that take decades
advocating expanding access to health insurance         and chronic care. The major candidates all include    to achieve; the newly insured will drive up new
by making it more affordable for individuals and        plans to enhance the use of technology in health      costs much more quickly than reform savings will
employers through tax deductions and tax credits.       care. Reforms in medical malpractice and in the       be achieved. Additionally, insurance is only one
Republicans also favor a market-based approach          purchasing of prescription drugs are also areas of    part of a strategy to improving the nation’s health.
to health reform. This usually implies creating         consensus for ways to lower costs.                    Research shows that socioeconomic status, edu-
financial incentives to encourage the health con-           Taking a step back, the most striking contrast    cational achievement, and a smaller gap between
sumer to be more conscientious of the services          among the candidates is the degree to which in-       the rich and poor are also determinants of health.
used and where they are purchased.                      dividuals and employers will be subjected to new      Neither party has much to say about these issues.
    The paths the Democrats recommend to                health insurance mandates. The principle of re-           But despite these doubts, it is a time to be op-
achieve universal coverage share several common         quiring everyone to have insurance makes sense        timistic about the potential for health reform. For
concepts. Many of the plans build on components         because, as a society, we do not deny care to those   the first time since 1994, the issue is clearly on
of the Massachusetts model that employs two key         without insurance. This “charity care” is financed    the political agenda and a major part of the public
mandates: a “play or pay” approach that requires        through an inefficient maze of tax-financed sub-      discourse. And that is the first step in making any
employers to provide health insurance to their          sidies to providers and cost shifting to insured      change.
employees or help pay for their insurance and a         patients that discourages preventive services
mandate that requires all people to have health         and earlier diagnosis of serious diseases. Getting        Paula Wilson is an adjunct professor of International
insurance. If the insurance is not available though     all Americans under the health insurance tent is      and Public Affairs and runs her own consulting practice,
an employer or from a public health insurance           the better policy goal, but it comes with substan-    providing management, strategic planning, and other ser-
program such as Medicare or Medicaid, those un-         tial new costs. Estimates range from $90 billion      vices to public, private, and nonprofit organizations.
insured individuals would be required to purchase       to $120 billion in new spending that will be re-
insurance on their own, with lower income people        quired to cover everyone and make the necessary
receiving subsidies for the costs. Hillary Clinton,     investments in technology and quality improve-
Barack Obama, and John Edwards all call for some        ment. The three leading Democrats—Clinton,
variation of individual and employer mandates.          Obama, and Edwards—would finance nearly half

                                                                                                                                                   S I PA N E W S 7
               Washington and

8 S I PA N E W S
the Environment:
How Today’s Regulations May Keep the Next President’s Hands Tied

                                                                                                     By Matt Klasen

                              he environmental realities facing the incoming American
                              president may owe less to broad national trends and more
                              to the minutiae of the previous day’s Federal Register, a
                     daily government publication that prints the regulations of gov-
                     ernment agencies.
                        As the New York Times noted in an article published this
                     September, groundbreaking environmental policy is often made
                     through “midnight regulations” enacted at the end of an out-
                     going president’s term. And though the administrator of the
                     Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and secretary of the
                     interior to be appointed in early 2009 may have their own envi-
                     ronmental priorities, their initial jobs may involve little more than
                     rolling back the last-minute decisions made by those who came
                     before them.

                     President Clinton and his environmental cadre,         office eager to focus on advancing new fossil fuel
                     for one, used their last hours in office to announce   energy legislation, soon found that road building
                     aggressive environmental measures, including           in isolated national forests and arsenic in water
                     ordering the protection of nearly 60 million           supplies had suddenly been thrust to the top of
                     acres of public land from road building and            the agenda.
                     development, and slashing the allowable arsenic             President Bush, aware of the contentious
                     concentration in drinking water to one-fifth of        environmental issues he inherited, will likely
                     its previous level. President Bush, who entered        launch his own last-minute regulations. Yet as

                                                                                                            S I PA N E W S 9
President Bush spoke about climate change at a White House-sponsored conference on global warming, September 28, 2007, at the State Department. Bush called on the world’s
worst polluters to come together to set a goal for reducing the greenhouse gas emissions that are causing the climate to heat up. He didn’t exempt the United States from the list.

Though U.S. participation is vital to effectively                                                                           International Climate Change
                                                                                                                            Three years ago, few would have expected
address climate change, a Kyoto-like climate                                                                                President Bush to spend part of this fall conven-
                                                                                                                            ing his very own climate-change conference in
“coalition of the willing” will likely emerge even                                                                          Washington, D.C. Before the onset of recent
                                                                                                                            heat waves and powerful hurricanes, and while An
if the U.S. remains only a reluctant participant.                                                                           Inconvenient Truth was still just a geeky PowerPoint
                                                                                                                            presentation, President Bush seemed the least
                                                                                                                            likely proponent of even voluntary national
                                                              rushed and arcane as these proposed rules may                 commitments toward climate solutions. Despite
                                                              be, they are likely to reflect a few broad trends             potentially questionable motives, President Bush’s
                                                              that have been building throughout the Bush                   recent gathering of world leaders to discuss
                                                              administration. Above all, the U.S. government’s              climate change indicates the urgency of finding
                                                              next environmental leaders will need to continue              climate solutions to succeed the Kyoto Protocol.
                                                              addressing global climate change, resolving                       Given the current administration’s international
                                                              sweeping jurisdictional issues raised by the U.S.             reputation on climate issues and the difficulty in
                                                              Supreme Court, and determining whether to                     fostering meaningful carbon reductions without
                                                              continue the recent trend toward promoting                    full U.S. support, negotiations for a post-2012
                                                              voluntary programs and partnerships in place of               climate treaty (the year that Kyoto expires) are
                                                              1970s-era top-down environmental regulations.                 unlikely to be finalized by the next president’s

1 0 S I PA N E W S
first day in office. But President Bush has realized         The Supreme Court’s 2006 decision in Rapanos          In all areas of environmental protection—from
that some type of post-Kyoto accord is virtually         v. U.S., which dealt with the federal regulation of   pollution prevention to mineral rights to endan-
inevitable. Though U.S. participation is vital           wetlands, presented a similar policy dilemma. The     gered species protection—the next president
to effectively address climate change, a Kyoto-          Court had to resolve conflicting definitions of       will need to decide whether promoting a non-
like climate “coalition of the willing” will likely      wetlands that are “navigable waters” and “waters      regulatory, market-based approach makes eco-
emerge even if the U.S. remains only a reluctant         of the United States” under the Clean Water           nomic, environmental, and political sense. The
participant.                                             Act. Although this question may seem trivial, the     Bush administration, led by the “MBA president,”
     The next administration will likely continue this   practical effects of the decision are enormous:       has focused on economic efficiency as the basis
global dialogue at least to ensure that the United       Can the government regulate only natural wet-         of nearly all its environmental initiatives. From
States has a forum to share its climate views. If a      lands and streams that directly connect to larger     the EPA’s Clean Air Mercury Rule to the admin-
Democratic candidate—or John McCain—wins                 bodies of water? Or, on the other hand, can the       istration’s aborted Clear Skies Act, the economic
the 2008 election, U.S. engagement will increase         government regulate drainage ditches or isolated      impacts of proposed environmental policies were
by several orders of magnitude.                          wetlands in people’s backyards?                       assessed on a near-equal basis with the promised
     Despite the likelihood that Democrats will              In a 5–4 decision, the Court took a compro-       environmental benefits. The next president will
still control Congress after 2008, the next presi-       mise position, leaning in favor of a broad defini-    have the ability to continue, reverse, or modify
dent may face the same challenge that President          tion of “wetlands.” As in Massachusetts v. EPA, the   this recent trend toward strict economic evalua-
Clinton faced: convincing a skeptical Congress           government has proposed new regulations to            tions of environmental policy.
that cooling the climate won’t irreparably               implement the decision, endorsing a somewhat              As we move ahead, we see that the original
harm the American economy. With reluctant                limited view of federal authority. The Bush           idealistic goals of 1970s-era environmental laws
Democrats—such as Congressman John Dingell               administration now must deal with the implica-        are nearly impossible to achieve, and that the
(D-MI), the chairman of the House Committee              tions of these Supreme Court decisions, but final     new challenges we face from global warming,
on Energy and Commerce—still in charge of                implementation of the Court’s decisions will lie      biodiversity loss, and energy security will require
key Congressional committees, seeking legisla-           with the future administration’s policymakers.        bold new solutions. We know very little about
tive implementation of any climate accord may                                                                  the hasty “midnight regulations” that will sit on
occupy a sizeable chunk of the next president’s          Voluntary or Regulatory                               our next president’s newly installed Oval Office
first term.                                                                                                    desk in January 2009. But by recognizing these
                                                         Approaches?                                           general trends in the domestic environmental
                                                         Most American environmental laws at the federal
The Supreme Court                                                                                              landscape, we begin to glimpse a clearer pan-
                                                         level have been around for quite a while. Laws
It is rare that the Supreme Court alters the envi-                                                             orama of the domestic environmental challenges
                                                         regulating mining rights (1872) and national
ronmental landscape, but it managed to do so                                                                   that lie ahead.
                                                         parks (1906) are more than 100 years old, while
twice within the past two years. In April 2007,
                                                         the broad frameworks for air, water, and land
the Court decided in Massachusetts v. EPA that                                                                    Matt Klasen is a 2007 graduate of SIPA’s MPA pro-
                                                         pollution control were developed more than
the Clean Air Act gives the EPA the authority                                                                  gram in Environmental Science and Policy.
                                                         25 years ago. These laws have been largely
to regulate carbon dioxide emissions as a “pol-
                                                         successful at eliminating the easy, “first-
lutant.” By opposing the Bush administration’s
                                                         generation” environmental concerns facing the
claims to the contrary, the Court ensured that
                                                         country, such as preserving pristine national park
climate change has become a domestic regulatory
                                                         lands, preventing urban rivers from catching fire,
priority regardless of U.S. participation in Kyoto
                                                         and keeping the Los Angeles skyline clear on hot
or its successors.
                                                         summer days.
    In response, the EPA has reluctantly taken
                                                             In the 21st century, new environmental
on the task of determining whether and how to
                                                         policies must address more complicated issues.
expand its own regulatory authority on carbon
                                                         Unlike earlier challenges, current environmental
dioxide and will announce its decision within
                                                         problems are not easily solved through
months. But regardless of the precise regulatory
                                                         straightforward command-and-control regulation.
remedies that are selected, these policy deter-
                                                         Beginning with the 1990 Clean Air Act, the United
minations will inevitably be contentious and
                                                         States has experimented with tradable emissions
spark a new round of litigation. Responding to
                                                         permits, which have thus far transformed our
these challenges will be a key task for the next
                                                         policy paradigm and currently supplement many
president and the administration’s environmental
                                                         traditional regulatory programs.

                                                                                                                                               S I PA N E W S 1 1
   January 21, 2009

   open letter to a
   democratIc preSIdent
   by rIchard W. bullIet

1 2 S I PA N E W S
congratulatIonS on your InauguratIon. may history
                                                                                            Begin immediately the relocation of com-
                                                                                            bat units to bases outside the major cities of
remember your term in office as the greatest political                                      Iraq as a first step toward the withdrawal of
                                                                                      ground forces from the country. Announce that
turnaround in american history. (If you were a republican                             combat operations will henceforth be restricted
                                                                                      to fighting against those who attack American
taking office, you would be stuck with an eight-year legacy                           troops, supply lines, or physical assets. Open ne-
                                                                                      gotiations with the Iraqi government about the
and not have the freedom to follow the advice I am pre-                               possibility of leaving a small number of combat
                                                                                      units in the country for a fixed and limited period
suming to offer.)                                                                     to interdict the infiltration of foreign fighters and,
                                                                                      in joint operations with the Iraqi army, combat
                                                                                      groups that both the United States and the Iraqi
                                                                                      government agree are primarily composed of for-
noW to Iraq. regardless of what you have said until now                               eign terrorists.

in your quest for the presidency, it is time to look at con-
                                                                                           Withdraw three combat brigades every four
                                                                                           months. Pack up and send home ordinance,
crete policies. Since your predecessor chose to stay the                                   vehicles, and other movable equipment at a
                                                                                      rate commensurate with the rate of withdrawal.
course in Iraq down to the end of his administration, you                             Discuss with the Iraqi government the optimum

have an immediate opportunity to show the people who                                  disposition of immovable base assets, including
                                                                                      destruction as an option. Publicize this policy as

elected you, and the world, that you have thought through                             a process with interim target dates but with no ir-
                                                                                      reversible completion date. Stress that the steady
the Iraq dilemma and are prepared to take our country                                 dismantling of bases is the best indicator of our
                                                                                      intention to withdraw completely.
in a new direction. With that in mind, I offer the following
                                                                                            Redeploy most of the withdrawn brigades
eleven suggestions as to how to conceive and implement that                                 outside the Middle East region. It is impor-
                                                                                            tant that the withdrawal be seen not as a
new direction:                                                                        pause in an inexorable American plan to shape by
                                                                                      force the destiny of the Muslim world, but as a

                                                                                      signal that a period of minimally veiled American
                                     Compounding one botched war in Iraq with
                                                                                      imperialism is at an end. This signal is as impor-
                                     a second one in Iran would sink your presi-
                                                                                      tant for improving America’s standing in the eyes
                                     dency before it starts. President Ahmadine-
                                                                                      of people outside the Muslim world as it is for
                               jad of the Islamic Republic of Iran will be up for
                                                                                      those within.
                               reelection in seven months (August 2009). The

                               Iranian people must be given an unfettered oppor-
                                                                                            Continue to train the Iraqi army and negoti-
                               tunity to retire him to private life and elect some-
                                                                                            ate suitable levels of armament and logistic
                               one of more liberal temperament. His unpopular-
                                                                                            capability. Since internal disorder may in-
                               ity in Iran already points in that direction. Hence,
                                                                                      crease as American forces withdraw, make it clear
                               the United States should do nothing that would
                                                                                      that the United States has no intention of arming
                               enhance his prospects of reelection. Diplomacy
                                                                                      one side in a civil war. In particular, Sunni groups
                               must replace saber rattling, and the “axis of evil”
                                                                                      that have worked with Americans to improve se-
                               rhetoric must be retired. Many American lawmak-
                                                                                      curity in areas poorly controlled by the govern-
                               ers believe that democracy should be encouraged
                                                                                      ment should not feel that we are leaving them to
                               and that Iran is in need of regime change. So
                                                                                      be slaughtered by overwhelming firepower in the
                               let us do what we can to give the Iranians a
                                                                                      hands of the Iraqi army. The Iraqi army should
                               chance to change leaders through their own elec-
                                                                                      not be given, or trained to use, tanks, armored
                               toral system.

                                                                                                                       S I PA N E W S 1 3
personnel carriers, heavy artillery, surface-to-air
missiles, or other major weapons systems. The
                                                        the fine line that must be trod is between assuring ameri-
Iraqi air force should be limited to light planes
and helicopters designed for reconnaissance and
                                                        cans that their continued concern with groups like al-
transport purposes only.                                qaeda and the taliban, and with domestic security, will be

6                                                       given high priority without infringing on the constitution.
      It is possible that a credible Iraq withdrawal
      plan will help break the logjam that prevents
      the factions within the Iraqi government          the rest of the world must be reassured that the nightmare
from finding common ground. Announcing that
American patience with political stalemate is not       of neoconservative imperialism and runaway presidential
inexhaustible, but never saying what the conse-
quences of exhausting that patience would be, has       power is over.
certainly had the opposite effect. A solid biparti-
san agenda in Washington can help as well. The
last administration called on the Iraqi parliamen-     logical benefits of withdrawing American ground        used to underwrite needed domestic programs,
tary majority to respect and conciliate the minor-     forces. Iraq and its neighbors—Iran, Saudi Arabia,     there should also be a commitment to repairing
ity. But the Republicans in Washington took the        Syria, Jordan, and Turkey—should be encouraged         the war damage we have caused in Iraq and Af-
opposite position vis-à-vis the Democrats. The         to negotiate an Iraqi airspace agreement by which      ghanistan. If Iraq becomes secure and stable af-
administration further wanted Iraq’s oil wealth        the signatories would agree not to overfly Iraq        ter our withdrawal, it can rebuild on its own. But
to be shared for the benefit of all Iraqis. But at     with warplanes, or stage air attacks on Iraqi ter-     Afghanistan deserves urgent attention, both to
home it showered favors on rich Americans at the       ritory, for the duration of the agreement. NATO        establish effective government authority and to
expense of ordinary families. Finally, the admin-      or the United Nations should be asked to supply        restore economic viability.
istration wanted to keep Iraq united. But its poli-    personnel to man radar sites in Iraqi territory and
cies repeatedly exacerbated Red State–Blue State       a squadron of warplanes to escort any interlop-        Since you have four years in which to make a case
divisions in the interest of maintaining power. It     ing aircraft out of Iraq. Negotiating this sort of     for your reelection, not everything needs to be
is time to end the hypocrisy of asking others to       agreement could offer an opportunity for regional      done at once. Though fixing an early and irrevers-
uphold democratic values that we ourselves flout.      cooperation and trust building and interpose an        ible date for the complete withdrawal of combat
                                                       inviolable airspace between potential future ad-       forces from Iraq would please those of your sup-

      If civil disorder intensifies in the wake of a   versaries, such as Iran and Saudi Arabia, or Iran      porters who voted for you explicitly to bring this
      staged American withdrawal of ground forc-       and Israel.                                            nightmare to an end, a botched withdrawal could
      es, the United States should continue to re-                                                            give comfort to your political enemies. What is

spect the elected government, urge that elections                  Change the tone of security policy         important is to make clear that a process of with-
be held on schedule, and participate in election                   within the United States. Though it        drawal is in place, and that that process will con-
monitoring to assure the Iraqi people that we con-                 can easily be demonstrated that the war    tinue regardless of the Iraqi government’s success
tinue to care about their political process. How-      in Iraq has not made America more secure, many         or failure in solving its factional problems within
ever, American military forces should refrain from     Americans believe the contrary because they have       parliament and on the ground. The fine line that
intervening in combat between rival factions. The      heard it preached from the White House so many         must be trod is between assuring Americans that
Lebanon civil war demonstrated that intervention       times. As President Bill Clinton has said, security    their continued concern with groups like al-Qae-
either bloodies the nose of the intervening par-       worries at the dawn of the 21st century do not         da and the Taliban, and with domestic security,
ties, e.g., Israel and the United States, or dooms     seem nearly as great as those that, through war or     will be given high priority without infringing on
that successful intervener, e.g., Syria, to endless    slaughter, took more than 100 million lives during     the Constitution. The rest of the world must be
and debilitating military occupation.                  the 20th century. Yet Americans live in fear that      reassured that the nightmare of neoconservative
                                                       a repeat of 9/11 might imperil them personally,        imperialism and runaway presidential power is

      Greatly expand the program to offer resi-        and their fears have been regularly stoked by un-      over.
      dence in the United States to Iraqis whose       scrupulous politicians. It is time to scale down the
      willingness to work for the United States in     fear and at the same time take reasonable steps at     Sincerely yours,
Iraq, or for American contractors, has put them        home, such as improving shipping container in-
                                                                                                              Richard W. Bulliet
and their families in danger. Offer humanitarian       spection and chemical plant safeguards, to show
aid and, when Iraqi domestic security permits,         that security is not being ignored. Iraq must be       Professor of History
repatriation aid to the refugees from the war we       delinked from the “war on terror,” and resort to       Columbia University
inflicted on Iraq.                                     that terrible phrase should be quickly ended.

9                                                      11
     Explore the idea of a regional agreement                  A broad policy toward the “peace divi-
     to demilitarize Iraqi airspace. Continuing                dend” earned by the tapering off of
     indefinitely to maintain air supremacy over               the war in Iraq should be put in place.
Iraq could undermine the political and psycho-         Though part of the “peace dividend” should be

1 4 S I PA N E W S
 Global HIV/AIDS Policy
      after 2008:
    Opportunity for
New American Leadership
       By Sawa Nakagawa

                          S I PA N E W S 1 5
          A billboard asking Ugandans to abstain from sex until marriage
          is displayed on the road in May 2005 in Kampala, Uganda.

                          ver the past few years, while the controversial                                      (PEPFAR), a five-year, $15 billion program to
                                                                                                               combat the disease around the world. Despite the
                          “war on terror” received much attention from                                         initial expectation that PEPFAR would function as
                                                                                                               a multinational undertaking, it became a vehicle
                          the U.S. government, another global war—the                                          for carrying out HIV/AIDS programs based on
                                                                                                               American values rather than local needs. PEPFAR
                          battle against HIV/AIDS—has suffered from a                                          focused on prevention of HIV infection through
                          lack of sufficient funding and effective policies.                                   abstinence and behavior modification for youth,
                                                                                                               while ensuring that “the key behavioral messages
With more than 40 million people living with HIV/AIDS around the                                               of abstinence, faithfulnesses, and partner reduc-
                                                                                                               tion are not confounded.” As the U.S. Five-Year
world, the U.S.’s morality-based prevention approach has failed                                                Global HIV/AIDS Strategy in 2004 indicates,
                                                                                                               PEPFAR recognizes condoms as an instrument
to address the roots of the pandemic. This presents on-going                                                   for “people who engage in risky behavior . . .
                                                                                                               includ[ing] prostitutes, sexually active discordant
challenges but also an opportunity for the post-2008 U.S. admin-
                                                                                                               couples, [and] substance abusers,” and not for the
istration to take the lead in promoting evidence-based HIV/AIDS                                                general population. For FY 2007, 33 percent of the
                                                                                                               money allocated to all HIV prevention programs
prevention programs tailored to each country’s needs.                                                          went to “Abstinence, Be Faithful” activities.
                                                                                                                   The problem with this morality-based
                                                                                                               approach is three-fold: it fails to incorporate
                                                         Dictating the Global Agenda                           scientific research regarding effective HIV pre-
                                                         According to a 2004 U.S. presidential election        vention strategies; it disregards the local cultural
                                                         poll, 22 percent of the voters cited “moral values”   context that significantly influences the HIV epi-
                                                         as their main concern for choosing a president.       demic; and it prevents dissemination of accurate
                                                         Under the Bush administration, America’s “moral       information such as the usage of condoms as a
                                                         values” have not only set the tone for U.S. domes-    highly effective prevention method. A recent sur-
                                                         tic policies but have also dictated the agenda for    vey among faith-based leaders in Uganda found
                                                         the rest of the world.                                that 80 percent of them believed that AIDS was
                                                             In 2003, President Bush launched the              “God’s punishment” and showed that abstinence-
                                                         President’s Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief            only campaigns were increasing the stigma.

1 6 S I PA N E W S
Despite the initial expectation that PEPFAR would function as a multi-national
undertaking, it became a vehicle for carrying out HIV/AIDS programs
based on American values rather than local needs. PEPFAR focused
on prevention of HIV infection through abstinence and behavior
modification for youth . . . The next U.S. administration must make
combating HIV/AIDS one of the key issues. It is critical that the United States
leads the way for other countries and international organizations to scale up
their efforts to respond to the HIV/AIDS crisis.

Fighting for Funding in South Africa                     that the Global Fund’s board had bowed to             bating HIV/AIDS one of the key issues. It is criti-
The influence of the U.S. administration’s focus         international political trends. America’s morality-   cal that the United States leads the way for other
on moral values has gone beyond PEPFAR and               based approach had undermined a successfully          countries and international organizations to scale
impacted the prevention approach and funding             run local HIV/AIDS initiative.                        up their efforts to respond to the HIV/AIDS cri-
allocation for other NGOs.                                                                                     sis. The key to success includes integrating sexual
     Africa is home to more than 25 million of the 40    Warning against Losing the Battle                     and reproductive health services with HIV/AIDS
million people living with HIV/AIDS worldwide.           Dr. Anthony Fauci, director of the U.S. National      programs; expanding access to cheaper generic
In South Africa, 12 percent of the population, or more   Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases and a    antiretroviral drugs; and creating a locally-fo-
than 5 million people, is infected with HIV. About       top advisor to President Bush on HIV/AIDS, said       cused approach. “You can’t get around teenagers
40 percent of South Africa’s population is under         at a conference in July that the world was “losing    having sex. There are so many behavioral, nor-
the age of 15, and about 50 percent of HIV infec-        its fight against AIDS. We need to make available     mative, and even cultural issues that go hand in
tion is estimated to occur before the age of 20.         to the people throughout the world the preven-        hand with it,” said one of the former employees of
     In December 2005, the Global Fund to Fight          tion methods that are proven technologies.”           loveLife, based in Johannesburg. The end of the
HIV/AIDS, Tuberculosis, and Malaria terminated                                                                 Bush administration represents an opportunity to
its funding of loveLife, South Africa’s largest HIV      Seeking a New Paradigm                                revise programs that view AIDS as a moral issue
prevention program targeted for youth.                   Criticism against PEPFAR is beginning to arise        and promote effective and productive prevention
     In a statement, the Global Fund board found         within the U.S. government. In July, the chairs of    programs that suit each country’s needs.
that loveLife was “deemed to not have sufficiently       two committees in the House of Representatives
addressed weaknesses in its implementation” of           opened a probe into the effectiveness of PEPFAR’s         Sawa Nakagawa expects to receive an MIA/MBA joint
its often controversial youth-targeted HIV/AIDS          “abstinence-only” policy. “[A] recently completed     degree in 2009.
campaign. This allegation was a surprise, as there       impact evaluation that the Administration com-
was increasing evidence of diminished infection          missioned suggests that U.S.-funded ‘abstinence
rates among the youth population at the time. A          and be faithful’ programs are failing to meet the
technical review panel appointed by the Global           needs of sexually active youth,” wrote Henry
Fund board had just reviewed a revised proposal          Waxman (D-CA) and Tom Lantos (D-CA). On
from loveLife and subsequently recommended               June 22, 2007, the U.S. Congress passed mea-
that the Global Fund board should fund the               sures aimed at easing ideologically driven restric-
revised proposal. Many people speculated that            tions on global HIV-prevention funding. These
the Global Fund’s decision was made on political         represent a shift to a new stage of HIV/AIDS
grounds, reflecting “U.S.-led right wing ideol-          prevention policy for the United States.
ogy.” Lovelife ’s CEO, David Harrison, claimed              The next U.S. administration must make com-

                                                                                                                                               S I PA N E W S 1 7
1 8 S I PA N E W S

                    by Samanth Subramanian

                n September 18, 1957, Dr. Homi Bhabha, the nuclear
                physicist who ushered India into the atomic age, partici-
                pated in a conference at Columbia University. Later that
                day, in an interview with the New York Times, he spoke of
India’s pressing need for nuclear energy. Fifty years on, India and the
United States are building an accord that will address exactly that need,
giving India access to civilian nuclear technology and supplies of fuel.
   In both countries, however, new governments will soon be elected.
In a year and a half, just as the new American president is getting accli-
mated to the Oval Office, India will be preparing for a general elec-
tion. This past summer, there was even talk of an earlier election, as the
Congress Party, the dominant member of the ruling coalition, consid-
ered a popular vote of confidence on the nuclear deal. Either way, there
will soon be new leadership on both sides of the Indo-U.S. negotiating
table, both warily sizing up the centerpiece: the nuclear deal.

                                                                       S I PA N E W S 1 9
    There is no doubt that India needs the
energy. Its economy, one of the fastest grow-
ing in the world, will only become thirstier for
power, as will its population of 1.1 billion. The
International Energy Agency estimates that
India’s dependence on imported oil will grow
from a present 70 percent to 91.6 percent by
the year 2020. Coal and oil reserves everywhere
are rapidly running out, and further growth by
China and India will only put greater pressure
on those resources. Were all of India to depend
only on burning fossil fuels for the next few
decades, greenhouse gas emissions would multi-
ply at a truly devastating rate.
    Naturally, India is pegging its future on the
atom. Nuclear power generates only 3 percent of
the country’s electricity at the moment, but India
hopes to triple that by 2011–12 and to draw at
least a quarter of its power from nuclear plants
by 2050. To do this, Indian nuclear scientists
are convinced of the necessity, and have been
among the most vocal supporters, of the 123
Agreement, which opens vital doors to imported        Indian leftist activists shout slogans and hold placards as they take part in a protest in New Delhi, September 5, 2007,
fuel and technology. (Section 123 of the United       against a massive joint naval exercise, which kicked off September 4 in the Bay of Bengal and involved U.S. warships and
                                                      a controversial nuclear deal with the United States. The international exercises faced resistance from anti-U.S. communist
States Atomic Energy Act of 1954, titled              allies of India's ruling Congress party, who denounced them as proof of “India's growing subservience to the United States.”
“Cooperation with Other Nations,” establishes
an agreement for cooperation as a prerequisite
for nuclear deals between the United States and       and sulfur dioxide in the atmosphere. But the                   sis on transparency and the democratic process,
any other nation. Such an agreement is called a       123 Agreement with India could also form a                      and less on the outright cessation of its nuclear
“123 Agreement.”)                                     paradigm for new nuclear power conventions,                     activities.
    Critics of the deal in India, both in the         ones that reflect the hard ground realities about                   That sort of evolution of flexible standards
Opposition as well as among the Communist             emerging economies and their energy needs.                      promises to become increasingly important.
Party—a key member of the government—fear                 India’s case is an instructive one. It has a                Unless there are startling new discoveries of
a quid pro quo: a subordination of India’s foreign    60-year track record of being emphatic about its                fossil fuel reserves or alternative energy sources,
policy to U.S. interests in return for energy         democracy, and it has been responsible enough                   nuclear power seems to be the most realistic next
security. They point to India’s vote against Iran     to voluntarily control its indigenous nuclear                   step. The game thus has to change—away from
at a meeting of the International Atomic Energy       technology. As a Foreign Policy op-ed pointed                   one that is determined by the traditional big boys
Agency (IAEA) last year as the first instance of a    out last year, in 1978 India even spurned Libya’s               of the playground and toward one that is shaped
loss of independence. The 123 Agreement’s life        offer to pay off its $15 billion foreign debt in                by consensus and an international acceptance of
depends too much on America’s continued coop-         return for nuclear weapons. Within the frame-                   standards. A working 123 Agreement between
eration, they argue; clauses that give America        work of this deal, India is willing to negotiate                India and the United States could well be the first
the right to kill the agreement and demand a          specific safeguards with the IAEA, to ensure that               step in the right direction.
return of any transferred equipment are tanta-        plants remain secure. “When I judge that agree-
mount to a finger kept on the trigger, ready to       ment, I judge it [by asking] ‘does it enhance safe-                 Samanth Subramanian (MIA ‘07) concentrated in
pull it if India does not concede to American         ty?’ ” Mohammed ElBaradei, director-general of                  International Media and Communications.
wishes.                                               the IAEA, said in 2006. “And the answer is yes,
    This is a legitimate concern, but with a little   because India is going to build so many reactors,
acquiescence on America’s part, it can be negoti-     and I’d like to make sure that they will get the
ated. The United States has much to gain by           highest level of advanced technology.”
modeling India’s 123 Agreement along the lines            These are signs of a country coming of age,
of its considerably less restrictive accord with      signs of a maturity and responsibility that can
China and persuading its congress of the deal’s       serve as templates as the international com-
benefits. It implies, most obviously, less compe-     munity faces nascent civilian nuclear energy
tition in the purchase of fossil fuels, economic      programs around the world. In the case of Iran,
profits from the sales of nuclear technology, as      for instance, a similar template might involve
well as the advantages of less carbon monoxide        greater involvement by the IAEA, more empha-

2 0 S I PA N E W S
gettIng ruSSIa rIght:
the future of u.S.-ruSSIa relatIonS By Jackie carpenter

              here are sins of omission as well as commission in foreign policy, and they can be equally dangerous,
              each in their own quiet way. the bush administration is guilty of both. at this point, few people debate
              that its conscious foreign policy decisions, rooted in misguided theories, have led to catastrophic
              results in Iraq and the greater middle east.
  however, it has been the administration’s inattention and its failure to take action that have caused dangerous
storms to gather in other parts of the globe. chief among these worries is the recent precipitous decline in the rela-
tions of the united States with russia. president putin’s angry harangue in munich last february against american
power and unilateral policies demonstrated just how deep the rift with russia has grown in bush’s second term. for
a number of important reasons, repairing this relationship needs to be a top priority of the next u.S. president.

                                                                                                            S I PA N E W S 2 1
                                                      Left: A girl holds a placard that reads “Putin! Don’t
                                                      prevent us from joining NATO and WTO” during picket-
                                                      ing at the Russian embassy in Kiev in December 2005.
                                                      Right: Supporters of Ukraine’s pro-Western presidential
                                                      candidate Viktor Yushchenko rally in Kiev’s Central
                                                      Square December 3, 2004.

        t IS Wrong to aSSume that ruSSIa doeS not have SIg-
        nIfIcant poWer JuSt becauSe We In the unIted StateS
        no longer fear her. In thIS poSt–cold War World,
 poWer IS not neceSSarIly meaSured In mIlItary termS,
 even When It comeS to our former cold War foe.

    Although the Cold War already seems like a        the chief importer of their goods. For Moscow             have been warmer. Putin appeared to be embrac-
distant memory, a protracted acrimonious rela-        this economic dependency means political lever-           ing a policy of spirited cooperation with the West,
tionship with Russia still has the potential to       age. Countries in the region are well aware that          which led an effusive Bush to declare that he
gravely undermine world security and progress.        they can expect mysterious commercial bans on             had looked into Putin’s soul and apparently liked
America’s poor relations with Russia already          their most crucial exports if they run afoul of           what he saw there. Putin also was the first inter-
endanger the U.S.’s long-term energy security         Moscow. Last year Georgia and Moldova suffered            national leader to call the White House and offer
and economic health, while impeding the devel-        through long bans on their wine after embracing           unqualified support after September 11, 2001.
opment of democracy across a great swath of the       Westward-looking foreign policies.                        And even though Russia opposed the 2003 inva-
world. Over the last few years, Russia’s receptive-       Secondly, Russia not only holds the larg-             sion of Iraq, Putin stood in the background and
ness to policies of the reform-minded, Westward-      est natural gas reserves in the world, but it also        let France and Germany engage in the verbal
looking governments of countries like Ukraine         has significant or controlling interest in nearly         crossfire.
and Georgia, for instance, has been hindered by       every oil and gas pipeline across Central Asia.               What has really soured relations between
the cool temperature of our diplomatic relations.     This is due to the political dexterity and vision         Russia and the United States is the one issue
The more Russia sees the West as a threat, the        of President Putin, who has managed to sew up             that Russia is more sensitive about than any
more it thwarts the ambitions of its former repub-    control of Central Asian energy while the United          other: the retention of its interests in former
lics to enter the EU or NATO. For this reason,        States has been preoccupied with Iraq. Just this          Soviet Union countries. In 2002, 2003, and
if our current antagonism with Russia continues       past May he acquired yet another coveted feather          2004, a series of “color” revolutions swept
unchecked, the consequences will be especially        in his cap—an agreement with Kazakhstan                   across Kyrgyzstan, Georgia, and Ukraine, respec-
severe for the economic and democratic futures        and Turkmenistan to construct the Pre-Caspian             tively, in which the public revolted against
of smaller countries in Central Europe and            Pipeline, which will facilitate the export of             Moscow-backed power brokers in national elec-
Central Asia that find themselves stuck in the        Turkmen gas to Europe via Russia. This crucially          tions. To some this appeared to be merely the
middle of a tug-of-war.                               undercuts the U.S.-initiated Trans-Caspian pipe-          forces of democracy in action, but to the Russian
    It is wrong to assume that Russia does            line, which would have transported Turkmen gas            elite it was the work of Western NGOs and intelli-
not have significant power just because we in         to the West through Turkey but has languished             gence services that were using an allegedly dem-
the United States no longer fear her. In this         for years due to lack of resolve. This recent vic-        ocratic framework to undermine Russia’s influ-
post–Cold War world, power is not necessarily         tory only confirms what has long been known:              ence that remained from its superpower days.
measured in military terms, even when it comes        Russia is a top global energy player, perhaps sec-            Since the 2004 Orange Revolution in
to our former Cold War foe. First of all, Russia      ond only to Saudi Arabia in influence.                    Ukraine, especially, U.S. calls for democratic and
wields unquestionable political and economic              The key to repairing our crucial relationship         civil liberty reforms in Russia have been inter-
might in Eurasia, simply because of the size of       with Russia lies in accurately diagnosing when            preted by the Russian elite as diplomatic double-
its market. Former Soviet republics from Ukraine      and why it veered off track. When Bush took               speak geared toward undermining its influence in
to Turkmenistan still rely heavily on Russia as       office in 2001, relations with Russia could not           its “near abroad.” Putin’s rhetoric in response to

2 2 S I PA N E W S
Western criticism of his government has become
increasingly hostile and sarcastic, but this has not
jeopardized his standing with ordinary Russians                      he other good neWS When contemplatIng neW dIplo-
at all. They still give him a whopping 80 percent
approval rating, thanks to the rise in their indi-                   macy WIth ruSSIa IS that SymbolIc geStureS, WhIch
vidual incomes across the board and the improved
economic stability of the country.                                   do not coSt much, go a long Way. above anythIng
    In this climate, every interaction between the
United States and Central Asia or Eastern Europe
                                                       elSe, ruSSIa’S elIte covetS Some of the InternatIonal preS-
provokes a dangerous response from Russia.
The uproar in January over proposed missile
                                                       tIge and Influence It loSt 17 yearS ago.
defense sites in Poland and the Czech Republic
is a recent case in point, all the more disturbing
because these countries’ new status as members         Georgia breathing room to diversify their econo-       difficult issues like internal economic and demo-
of the EU and NATO did not cause Russia to tem-        mies and, with U.S. encouragement, build neces-        cratic reform can be broached.
per its threats. For countries outside those pro-      sary institutions.                                         The other good news when contemplating
tective umbrellas, such as Georgia and Moldova,            The Russian elections this coming March will       new diplomacy with Russia is that symbolic ges-
every exchange with the West is fraught with even      present the next American president with a poten-      tures, which do not cost much, go a long way.
more peril.                                            tially significant opportunity. Although Putin will    Above anything else, Russia’s elite covets some
    A more effective diplomatic path with Russia       most likely become prime minister, it is now cer-      of the international prestige and influence it lost
would allay its fears about the intentions of the      tain that he is vacating the post of president. This   17 years ago. If the United States just gives it
United States in Eurasia and temper U.S. criti-        December he endorsed Dmitri Medvedev as his            some of the attention and deference it desires
cisms of its civil society, at least for now. Until    successor, which practically guarantees the young      on the world stage, it could find that, by the end
perceptions in Russia about U.S. motives               Gazprom chairman the job. Medvedev is a solid          of the next president’s tenure, Russia has been
change, these criticisms cannot be heard in a          Putin loyalist, to be sure, but unlike Putin he is     transformed into a powerful ally that responds to,
productive way and will only worsen the situa-         not an alumnus of the Cold War security services.      rather than balks at, our advice and influence.
tion. Furthermore, the hopes for the new leaders       According to various sources, he also possesses
swept into office during the color revolutions         a more free-market, Western-oriented outlook.              Jackie Carpenter (MIA ’08) is concentrating
have faded, largely due to the absence of institu-     Chances are good that Medvedev will do his part        in International Media and Communications and
tions in their countries that could have supported     to find common ground on issues such as energy         pursuing a regional certificate from the Harriman
reform. A warming of relations with Russia would       security and stalled arms reduction treaties. After    Institute in former Soviet Union countries.
give nascent democracies like Ukraine and              a foundation of trust and cooperation is laid, more

                                                                                                                                              S I PA N E W S 2 3
Shanxi Province, February 2007. Poster on the wall
inside the Ma ji Liang Mi-ne (coal mine number 10).

2 4 S I PA N E W S
Behind The
 a look inTo China’s
 environmenTal Crisis
 by Nichole Wong Gomez

       he next American president will be elected    sible. Many obstacles lie in China’s path toward
       to office less than three months after        greater economic prosperity and sociopolitical
       China’s splashy debutante party: the 2008     stability, but its pressing environmental crisis
Beijing Olympics. In preparation for the Games,      may be the key threat to its development into
China has been submitting itself to unprec-          a bona fide world power. Pan Yue, a vice min-
edented scrutiny under the world’s microscope.       ister of China’s State Environmental Protection
As a result, an opportunity has emerged for U.S.     Administration, cautioned in 2005 that “The
foreign policymakers to engage China for mutual      [economic] miracle will end soon because the
benefit.                                             environment can no longer keep pace.” Far from
    In a 2005 speech to the National Committee       being pessimistic, the facts lead straight to this
on U.S.-China relations, then Deputy Secretary       conclusion.
of State Robert Zoellick called on China to              Of the world’s 20 most polluted cities, 16 are
“work with us to sustain the international sys-      in China. Seventy percent of China’s energy is
tem that has enabled its success.” Although this     supplied by coal, contributing to disease-causing
has yet to come to fruition, China is clearly        levels of air pollution as well as acid rain, which
eager to gain the world’s respect. According to      falls on up to a third of China’s agricultural
the Xinhua News Agency, China is pursuing a          land. A severe water shortage is a leading cause
foreign policy of “peace and development to          of death among children under five years of
bring harmony, security, and prosperity to all.”     age, according to the World Bank. Pollution,
In recent years China has engaged in a massive       untreated waste, fertilizers, and pesticides con-
diplomatic charm offensive, entering what some       taminate up to 75 percent of the ground and
observers have called “a golden age” of diplomacy.   river water that is available throughout the
    During this much-heralded Chinese ascen-         country. Furthermore, rapid desertification and
dancy, the United States will have an oppor-         land degradation, combined with acute soil con-
tunity to hold China to its ingratiating words.      tamination, seriously diminish crop yields and
The administration will have vested interests in     biodiversity.
helping China attain as smooth a rise as pos-            If environmental degradation continues at this

                                                                                    S I PA N E W S 2 5
if environmental          pace, the population’s skyrocketing demands for
                          the most basic essentials will not be sustainable
                                                                               boldfaced bribery to wreak environmental havoc
                                                                               with impunity.
degradation continues     much longer. What’s more, these negative effects
                          are rapidly spreading to the rest of the world.
                                                                                     In a political culture long entrenched with
                                                                               cronyism and corruption, ambitious environmen-
at this pace, the popu-   China has already surpassed the United States as
                          the world’s largest emitter of carbon dioxide, a
                                                                               tal regulations and targets issued in Beijing have
                                                                               little relevance to daily business conduct on the
lation’s skyrocketing     primary greenhouse gas that contributes to glob-
                          al climate change, according to a 2007 report
                                                                               ground. Beijing’s five-year plan released in 2005
                                                                               called for drastic reductions in pollution, water
demands for the most      from the Netherlands Environmental Assessment        consumption, and energy inefficiency. Instead of
                          Agency. According to studies done by the U.S.        meeting these targeted reductions, pollution and
basic essentials will     Environmental Protection Agency, a staggering        consumption rates have actually increased at an
                          25–40 percent of the world’s mercury emissions,      alarming rate.
not be sustainable        which cause birth defects and developmental               The crux of China’s environmental dilemma
                          problems, come from China, as do a significant       lies in dysfunctional local enforcement. While
much longer.              proportion of polluting particulates found in U.S.   Beijing’s pronouncements are well intentioned,
                          air and water.                                       local officials and businesses are too often short-
                              Asia, Africa, and Latin America feel the         sighted and intractable in their noncompliance.
                          effects of China’s bottomless appetite for natural   Fines and legal punishment for violating envi-
                          resources as well. Chinese multinational corpora-    ronmental regulations often amount to less than
                          tions (MNCs) engage in mining, energy drilling,      the cost of implementing the necessary measures
                          and illegal logging in countries throughout these    and upgrades. No matter how ambitious Beijing
                          continents, often establishing supportive rela-      may be in tackling these issues, the present sys-
                          tionships with regimes of worldwide disrepute        tem is set up for failure.
                          such as Sudan, Zimbabwe, and Angola. Despite              Before the United States and China can
                          its professed foreign policy of noninterference,     move toward an environmental rapprochement
                          Beijing does not hesitate to prop up oppres-         and pave the way for a successful international
                          sive regimes with cash and weapons where             treaty, the United States must get its own house
                          expediency dictates. Just as troubling is China’s    in order. The next administration will be hard
                          rapacious disregard for its partner countries’       pressed to prod China to overhaul its environ-
                          environmental policies, as in the case of illegal    mental policy as long as the American govern-
                          logging in the shrinking forests of Myanmar and      ment continues its own self-serving environ-
                          Cambodia, where Chinese MNCs engage in               mental policy. The administration must form a

2 6 S I PA N E W S
Left: Shanghai in the smog at sunset. Middle: Linfen, China, is one of the most polluted cities in the world. Coal production and the presence of coal burning power plants are the
main sources of pollution in this city. Right: A Chinese workers clears away rubbish from a typically polluted river in Beijing, April 2007. Water supplies for about 150,000 people in
southwest China may have been contaminated after high levels of heavy metals were discovered in a local river, the state press reported. The incident is the latest to highlight major
water problems in China, where around 300 million people do not have access to clean water, according to previously released official figures.

cohesive national policy on climate change and                collaboration toward attainable goals.                         incentives to American multinational corpora-
environmental preservation that includes a com-                   A key factor fueling American reticence                    tions to follow in Wal-Mart’s wake and collabo-
mitment to concrete carbon emissions reduc-                   toward the Kyoto Protocol was China’s exemp-                   rate with their partner factories and suppliers in
tions, whether a cap-and-trade system similar                 tion from the agreement’s mandatory carbon                     China to attain greater energy efficiency and
to the one upheld by the Kyoto Protocol, or a                 emissions caps. But without active U.S. par-                   pollution reduction targets attached to financial
carbon taxation program.                                      ticipation in a binding global contract, China                 rewards. When Chinese businesses are con-
    Beijing clearly realizes that resolving these             cannot be expected to agree to an internation-                 vinced that improving environmental practices
environmental crises is imperative to its growth              ally mandated emissions cap, since a cap would                 and making their operations transparent to the
as a global economic powerhouse and its desire                undoubtedly undermine its economic expansion.                  public are good for business, there will be a
to become a “responsible stakeholder” on the                  SIPA Adjunct Professor Daniel Rosen agrees                     much greater chance of widespread compliance.
world stage. What the United States must real-                on the importance of U.S. participation in the                     Most importantly, the United States must
ize, however, is that China is not Beijing. It is a           process. “The U.S. can help China with its envi-               hold itself to the same standards of environmen-
vast, fragmented country with disparate inter-                ronmental challenge by stepping up and declar-                 tal prudence it demands from China. In negotia-
ests under a largely decentralized government.                ing its own commitments to deal with carbon                    tions for a post-Kyoto Protocol climate regime,
Truly paving the way for progress would require               emissions and global warming. With that, China                 the United States must put forth standards and
transparency and accountability at every level                could move to embrace changes more quickly                     practices it is willing to fully commit to, and
of government, as well as an empowered justice                itself, and this in turn would open up further                 ones that China (and other developing nations)
system, and a thriving media and civil society                opportunities for U.S. technical and possibly                  will realistically accept without being let off the
able to hold authorities to their word. But it is             financial assistance in a virtuous spiral upward.”             hook.
precisely this kind of bottom-up reform that                      The Bush administration, often beholden                        The next U.S. president must not let the
strikes at the heart of the Communist Party’s                 to the interests of the private sector, has shied              lesson of Bush’s mistake—his slowness to
fears of democratization.                                     away from implementing emissions programs                      acknowledge and act on the threatening realities
    It is essential to U.S. and international inter-          perceived as economically inconvenient. The                    of climate change and environmental degrada-
ests that the next U.S. president call on China to            next administration must realize that the envi-                tion—go to waste. He or she should leverage
adopt environmental practices. The U.S. admin-                ronment is no longer an issue to be politicized.               the moral outrage and global urgency fueled by
istrations under Presidents Clinton and Bush                      Even, Wal-Mart, one of the world’s largest                 Bush’s lassitude to catalyze accelerated action,
famously declined to ratify the Kyoto Protocol,               multinational corporations, is emerging as a                   redoubled effort, and increased international
setting a difficult precedent for international cli-          potential leader in the greening of China. Wal-                cooperation to begin the repairs our planet so
mate change negotiations. The next administra-                Mart is asking for the regular measurement and                 badly needs.
tion must capitalize on the new round of nego-                management of greenhouse gas emissions from
tiations to establish a post-Kyoto environmental              its suppliers, many of which are based in China.                   Nichole Wong Gomez (MIA ‘08) is concentrating in
policy regime that encourages maximum global                      Additionally, the administration can offer                 International Media and Communications.

                                                                                                                                                                  S I PA N E W S 2 7
A Challenge for the Next
President: Free Trade
What the uphill struggle to pass a free trade
accord in Costa Rica can teach the next president.
By Lincoln Ajoku

 Undoubtedly, the next president of the United           in October. By ratifying the agreement, Costa             On October 7, more than 1.5 million Costa
 States will struggle to advance a free trade agen-      Rica joined Guatemala, El Salvador, Nicaragua,         Ricans went to the polls to decide on CAFTA. The
 da. Several Democratic presidential candidates          Honduras, and the Dominican Republic in main-          final outcome was 51.6 percent in favor and 48.4
 have criticized the North American Free Trade           taining duty-free status on nearly 80 percent of       percent against, according to the electoral tribunal.
 Agreement (NAFTA) and other free trade agree-           their products exported to the United States. Costa    This close vote reflected many of the views that I
 ments. Republicans, when they were in control           Rica joined these nations in eliminating tariffs       observed during a visit to Costa Rica last August. I
 of Congress, failed to extend the president’s           on U.S. exports of manufactured and agricultural       spoke with several Costa Ricans about the CAFTA
 “fast-track” authority, which required Congress         goods.                                                 referendum and their impressions of the United
 to approve or reject trade deals negotiated by the         This region of 47 million people consumed           States. Opinions were diverse and passionate.
 president without amendments. The new president         an estimated $20 billion in U.S. goods in 2006.           Roylan Alvarez Barrantes, a civil engineer from
 will have to take into account the fault lines that     Currently, the United States enjoys a trade surplus    Liberia, a city in the northwest, where the local
 have emerged on trade, not only on the domestic         with Costa Rica: in 2006, exports to the Central       economy is booming due to European and American
 level, but on the international level as well.          American nation totaled $4.6 billion, while imports    tourists and transplants, held a positive view of the
    In Latin America, there is concern that large        stood at $3.2 billion.                                 United States and CAFTA. Though he planned to
 U.S. corporations will use their economic might            Just days before the referendum, the Bush           vote for the agreement, he worried about the qual-
 to eliminate local competitors, limit national sov-     administration warned that if voters rejected          ity of the campaign. “Unions have a lot of power in
 ereignty, and flood their markets with cheap,           CAFTA, the United States would not renegotiate         this country—they say ‘no’ to [CAFTA], they block
 subsidized U.S. agricultural products that will over-   the trade agreement. It also said Costa Rica could     roads. The government tells you to ‘vote yes, this is
 whelm local agriculture and foster unemployment.        not count on duty-free access to U.S. markets          the solution,’ but not why,” he said.
 These fears have contributed in part to the failure     without CAFTA. Supporters cited this interjection         Uriel Cortes Siles, a manager at Instituto
 of the Free Trade Area of the Americas (FTAA),          by Washington as proof that Costa Rica could           Costarricense de Electricidad (ICE), the state-
 a proposal to eliminate tariffs and trade barriers      not afford to reject the agreement. Opponents          owned telecommunications and power company,
 throughout the Western hemisphere. In addition,         faulted the Bush administration for meddling in        held the view that CAFTA is deeply flawed: “[It]
 U.S. efforts to promote trade have raised the ire of    their country’s affairs. Meanwhile, Democrats,         is for the politicians and businessmen—it is not
 Cuban leader Fidel Castro and Venezuelan leader         including House Speaker Nancy Pelosi and Senate        for the people . . . I feel it goes against the laws of
 Hugo Chavez, who have voiced strong opposition to       Majority Leader Harry Reid, refuted the Bush           Costa Rica,” he said.
 free trade agreements crafted by Washington.            administration’s assertions, arguing that Costa Rica      ICE holds a monopoly in the power and telecom-
    One country that offers a view of the oppor-         would still enjoy access to U.S. markets through       munications sectors, which would end if CAFTA
 tunities and the pitfalls of free trade is Costa        the Caribbean Basin Initiative, which currently        were approved. Cortes felt private companies would
 Rica, where the population voted in favor of the        provides 24 beneficiary countries with duty-free       not have an incentive to provide telecommunica-
 Central American Free Trade Agreement (CAFTA)           access to the U.S. market for most goods.              tion or electric services to poor and rural parts

 2 8 S I PA N E W S
of the country, as ICE does: “We have managed          iffs for their exports to the United States if Costa    Left: Costa Rican coffee harvesters.
to provide electricity to 90 to 95 percent of the      Rica rejected CAFTA.
                                                                                                               Right: President Bush, with (left to right) Amb. Guillermo Castillo
population, even in [distant] areas, at a low cost.”      The next American president should recog-            Villacorta of Guatemala, Special Envoy for Honduras Norman
Cortes and other union employees of state-owned        nize the divisions free trade brings, particularly      Garcia, Sen. Norm Coleman, (R-MN), Rep. Clay Shaw (R-FL),
companies were determined to defeat the agree-         abroad. He or she cannot easily dismiss concerns        and Sen. Richard Lugar (R-IN), signs into law the Central
                                                                                                               America Free Trade Agreement, August 2, 2005.
ment at the ballot box.                                some opponents have about agricultural products
   Marjorie Garita Sanchez, a teacher in the Orosi     or stringent intellectual property requirements,
Valley, a center of coffee production, was critical    provisions that nearly led to CAFTA’s defeat. The
of Costa Rica’s politicians and worried about the      United States should encourage democratic debate        these perceptions, if he or she seeks to promote a
effects of globalization. She was concerned mostly     in other countries about these accords and refrain      free trade agenda.
about U.S. intentions: “The U.S. is a large, eco-      from meddling so as not to create the impression            While it is clear that Costa Rica has voted in
nomically powerful country that needs to create        that the United States is bullying these countries      favor of free trade, what is less clear is whether
strategies to maintain its strength in the world,”     to accept free trade.                                   its leadership will be able to unite a country that
she reasoned. She believed that NAFTA had not             Costa Rica, a traditionally strong ally of the       has been deeply divided by this referendum. In
brought the benefits of free trade it promised.        United States, has opened up to trade, is develop-      determining its economic future, the country, to its
   Despite these reservations, she decided to          ing rapidly, and has the highest per capita income      credit, was able to display to the world its strong
support CAFTA. “I would like to vote no . . . but      among its Central American peers. Its struggle to       democratic credentials.
I will vote yes. While I don’t agree with many         pass CAFTA should be of great concern to the next           Despite the polarizing campaigns, some such
points of free trade, I believe Costa Rica doesn’t     U.S. president. Further, bilateral free trade agree-    as Roylan Alvarez felt that the important thing was
have an option,” she said. Rejecting CAFTA would       ments cannot substitute for the Doha Round of           that Costa Ricans had the opportunity to voice their
be a stinging rejection of the United States by a      trade talks or the Free Trade Area of the Americas      opinions about free trade at the polls.
nation that has long been considered a close ally      plan, both of which are stalled due to deep divi-           “It’s not perfect, but we are a democracy after
and whose democratic traditions and stability are      sions between developing and developed nations.         all,” he noted.
admired by American officials.                            SIPA Professor Thomas Trebat, executive direc-
   Computer engineer Carlos Quiros worried about       tor of the Institute of Latin American Studies,             Lincoln Ajoku (MIA ’08) is concentrating in
Costa Rica’s future without CAFTA: “We have two        noted that views of free trade agreements in Latin      International Economic Policy.
options: export goods and services or export people    America were often skeptical of the United States.
to the United States. The second option will occur     “A perception exists among a large part of the pop-
if we don’t have [CAFTA].”                             ulation that [free trade] is a losing game and serves
   Indeed, on August 14, several large companies       the interests of the U.S.,” Trebat said. America’s
threatened to leave the country, fearing higher tar-   next president will most certainly have to deal with

                                                                                                                                                        S I PA N E W S 2 9
 eu’S neW geopolItIcal realIty:
 do not expect a pro-amerIcan Stance
                             By Eduardo Peris Deprez

3 0 S I PA N E W S
         n the course of the past two years, Europe                                                             other things, identify themselves with a common
         has seen major changes in leadership, with                                                             European foreign and defense policy. Sarkozy’s
         new heads of states coming into power in                                                               vision of a unified Europe may be compromised
         three of its most important countries—Ger-                                                             by the possible accession of Turkey into the
         many, France, and the United Kingdom. In                                                               European Union. Accepting Turkey into the EU is
         November 2005, Angela Merkel took office                                                               currently unpopular with many European citizens,
as the first female chancellor of Germany, while in                                                             who are afraid of the challenges the Union could
2007 Nicolas Sarkozy became president of France                                                                 face in absorbing a majority Muslim nation—one
and Gordon Brown prime minister of the United                                                                   that would be the most populous of the EU’s
Kingdom. Both Sarkozy and Merkel are more                                                                       members. American foreign policymakers, long
openly pro-American than their predecessors;                                                                    hoping for Turkey’s accession, can also expect
nevertheless, they are held accountable to voters                                                               Merkel to be sympathetic to Sarkozy’s views.
who were very proud of the strong anti-imperialist                                                                  Echoes of Cold War problems continue to
stances of previous leaders such as Jacques                                                                     trouble the European powers and will inform
                                                      From left to right: Germany’s chancellor Angela Merkel,
Chirac and Gerhard Schröder. The next U.S. presi-                                                               U.S.-EU-Russian relations. Specifically, how
                                                      France’s president Nicolas Sarkozy, and Britain’s prime
dent can expect an improvement in transatlantic       minister Gordon Brown chat prior a working session        Europe deals with Russia will be a clear sign of its
relations and a more pro-American rhetoric but        during the second day of a European Union summit,         cohesion and strength and should be closely fol-
                                                      October 19, 2007, in Lisbon.
should remain skeptical about how these more                                                                    lowed by American policymakers. Angela Merkel,
conciliatory words will translate into actions.                                                                 though born in the former East Germany and who
    Sarkozy, by recently spending his vacations in    that she will voice her own opinions and is not           speaks Russian, is more reserved in her approach
the United States and addressing a joint session      afraid to confront the Bush administration on             toward Russia than was former chancellor Gerhard
of Congress, sent a strong signal that the tide is    such controversial issues. Furthermore, she heads         Schröder, who now sits on the supervising board
shifting when it comes to transatlantic relations.    a coalition that consists of many members of the          of Gazprom, Russia’s energy giant. Germany’s
His comments expressing gratitude for America’s       Social Democratic Party who hold key positions            once strong partnership with Russia has been
engagement in World War II and intention to           in the German government. Traditionally less pro-         adversely affected by Russia’s joint military
have France resume its full role in NATO clearly      American, they also might block any major foreign         maneuvers with China and its continued support
convey a message of friendship and cooperation.       policy changes.                                           of the Serbian side in the Kosovo crisis.
Although Sarkozy may be categorized as pro-               As for the United Kingdom, unlike Tony Blair,             Russian involvement with the major conflicts
American, he is, above all, a Gaullist committed      Gordon Brown is better known as a technocrat              in the Middle East will also be crucial. Many
to la grandeur de la France, and it remains to        than a charismatic leader and is less inclined to         European leaders think these issues can only be
be seen whether this new relationship, comically      be swayed by President Bush’s aggressive rheto-           solved with the full participation of regional pow-
dubbed hamburger diplomacy, will bring the            ric. Although he has limited experience in foreign        ers such as Iran and Syria and are contingent on
changes Americans are expecting.                      affairs, during his recent trip to Camp David,            a speedy resolution to the Palestinian-Israeli con-
    Most importantly, Sarkozy is championing a        he made it quite clear that he would determine            flict. For this to happen, other important matters
prodigious amount of change within France. As         his own foreign policy. The United Kingdom’s              need to be resolved, such as finding a solution
a result, he cannot afford to burn his political      principle commitment in the war against terror-           to the missile defense folly over Eastern Europe
capital by being too overtly pro-American. Under      ism is taking place in Afghanistan, not Iraq. To          that divides Europe and antagonizes Russia. Given
Sarkozy, France will continue to promote its own      avoid any doubt, under Brown’s leadership, the            the EU’s constitutional fiasco and the comments
priorities in international relations, particularly   United Kingdom withdrew its military forces from          made by Donald Rumsfeld on the divide between
in Africa and the Middle East, where—especially       Southern Iraq and has signaled that a complete            the “new and old Europe,” European governments
since the embarrassing Suez Canal incident of         withdrawal is imminent.                                   have become extremely wary of anything that
1956—its influence has not been systematically            With respect to European internal affairs, the        might further disunite them, especially if it is ini-
aligned to U.S. policy. In order to understand        major change resulting from the new leadership            tiated from the other side of the Atlantic.
this, one simply needs to compare the role of the     could be a united Franco-German front pushing                 Therefore, although the European Union is now
United Kingdom and France, both former colo-          for reforming the European Union itself. During           rhetorically much closer to its American friend, its
nial powers in that region, in responding to the      his presidential campaign, Sarkozy promised that          internal realities and the regrettable international
American-led invasion of Iraq. Tony Blair affirmed    he would “un-‘bloc’ institutional Europe, to work         reputation the United States has garnered among
his position as Bush’s staunchest ally, ulti-         on a more simplified treaty.” His visit to Berlin         the European public make it hard for these new
mately jeopardizing his own political career, while   on the day he was inaugurated and his partner-            pro-American leaders to realize major favorable
Jacques Chirac was unequivocal in his condemna-       ship with Merkel served as an impetus for the 27          shifts toward the United States. The next U.S.
tion of the war, refusing both military and moral     EU members to work toward a simplified treaty             president will have to take into account the politi-
support. It remains to be seen what Tony Blair        instead of a European constitution—a move that            cal realities confronting European leaders when
will accomplish in his new role as mediator in the    could lead to renewed progress in the European            assessing the strengths of U.S.-European ties.
Middle East; his past actions do not make him a       integration process.                                      Realpolitik is a European concept after all.
favorite partner in parts of the Muslim world.            Sarkozy has made it clear that he wants a
    Angela Merkel is similarly keen for better        “political Europe.” By this he means a Europe                Eduardo Peris Deprez (MIA ’08) is concentrat-
cooperation with the United States. However, her      that plays a greater role on the grand chessboard         ing in International Security Policy.
open criticism of Guantánamo has made it clear        of global politics; a Europe whose citizens, among

                                                                                                                                                S I PA N E W S 3 1
By Jina Moore

                     wo days after NATO acciden-           The challenge this poses for the next presi-      bombing or the 2001 collision of a U.S. spy plane
                     tally bombed China’s embassy      dent will come in different forms. One is the         and a Chinese aircraft 65 miles from Chinese
                     in Belgrade in 1999, throngs      obvious division historical disputes can create       waters. “Historic memory provides a frame or a
                     of government-organized pro-      between American allies: South Korean and             lens that leaders or people use for interpreting
                     testers—university students and   Chinese demands for justice for Japanese human        information, to understand the crisis situation,”
                     faculty, state-owned company      rights violations during World War II will likely     he says, “and it limits—or creates—options for
employees, priests and ministers, even Tibetan         complicate America’s agenda in East Asia. These       policy when state leaders face a crisis.”
monks—marched outside the U.S. embassy in              tensions between allies can be exacerbated by              The memories may be powerful, but they are
Beijing, chanting “Down with American imperialism!”    the U.S. Congress itself, which often adopts the      not entirely precise. “When I talk about the hundred
    That the Chinese government was angry              rhetoric of moral rectitude in resolutions support-   years of humiliation, it’s mainly Japan or Britain or
seemed understandable. But what Americans              ing demands for apologies.                            Russia,” Wang adds. That hasn’t stopped the
might glibly brush off as “ancient history” is not         Some tensions in East Asia require a longer       Chinese from viewing moments of crisis in Sino-
just a Chinese preoccupation. In Turkey and            historical lens. Western attacks on Chinese sov-      U.S. relations through the lens of that memory, in
Armenia, Korea and Japan, India and Pakistan,          ereign territory, which so influenced Chinese         which America has played a very small role.
and elsewhere, the past can be as viciously con-       reactions to the Belgrade bombings in 1999,                Collective memories, unlike history, suffer
tentious as the present—and a potential spoiler        reach back more than 160 years to the Opium           little for their imprecision. Since the introduction
for America’s global agenda. As America’s next         Wars, which began when Chinese administrators         of the concept by the French sociologist Maurice
president shapes foreign policy, he or she will        imposed a ban on imports of opium smuggled in         Halbwachs in the 1920s, collective memory has
increasingly have to face a powerful variable:         by the British. Unwilling to part with substantial    often been contrasted with history. If history is
history that is not ours.                              profits from the illicit sale of opium, the British   understood as a verifiable record of past events,
    A quick survey of global hot spots shows that      retaliated by sending gunboats to attack China’s      collective memory is about how that past defines
historical memory is a principal actor on the          coastal cities. This eventually led to two wars       group identities today. Even after they are record-
world stage: India’s communal violence and the         between China and the West, resulting in hefty        ed, “[e]vents are constantly being reshaped and
legacy of Kashmir; Cambodia’s bitter feelings          Chinese concessions, most notably to the British,     reconstructed,” writes Valerie Rosoux, a research
toward Vietnam; Burundi’s recurring cycles of          the loss of Hong Kong.                                fellow at the Belgian Fund for Scientific Research
ethnic slaughter; and, of course, Rwanda, Bosnia,          The Chinese remember these wars and the           and one of the first scholars to tackle the role
and Kosovo—to name but a few. The bloody               events that followed as “the hundred years of         of memory in international relations. “It should
ethnic conflicts of the 1990s are all the proof we     humiliation,” says Zheng Wang, a professor of         come as no surprise that, in the context of official
should need that unacknowledged histories of           international relations at Seton Hall University.     memory, the past is often considered a malleable
marginalization and oppression don’t fade away.        These were years “when China was weak and             tool rather than an immutable narrative.”
In fact, those memories often get passed down          Western powers took advantage of that.” It’s a             This means that collective memories can
through generations—and as they are perpetu-           long memory, Wang says, one revived especially        compete, especially when national interests do,
ated, they ossify.                                     in cases of emergency or crisis, like the embassy     and can be exploited. The ongoing dispute

3 2 S I PA N E W S
Left: Japanese women hold portraits of Chinese, Philippine, South Korean, and Taiwanese former “comfort women” who were sex slaves for Japanese soldiers during World War II,
at a protest held in front of the Japanese parliament in Tokyo, June 2007. About 150 people took part in the protest demanding compensation by the Japanese government. Center:
People walk to pay their respect at a hilltop memorial in the Armenian capital Yerevan, April 2007. Armenians marked the 92nd anniversary of the killing of hundreds of thousands
of their compatriots under the Ottoman Empire, an event recognized as genocide by many countries but a flashpoint in relations between Turkey and the West. Right: Japan’s Chuo
University students look at display of pictures of Korean “comfort women” at the Historical Museum of Sexual Slavery by the Japanese Military in Gwangju, south of Seoul. Calls for
Japan’s apology for these so-called “comfort women” flared anew after Japanese Prime Minister Shinzo Abe said in March 2007 that there was no proof that the women were coerced
into prostitution.

between Turkey and Armenia over the massacre                 . . . I don’t think the Turks are bluffing,” Secretary of    who thinks Americans are uniquely forward look-
of Armenians in 1915 is an example. Armenia                  Defense Robert Gates said at a press conference              ing. But if the proverbial American fixation on
claims the massacres of the Christian Armenian               in mid-October. “I think they see implications in            the future fails to make our policymakers sensitive
minority in Turkey were genocide; Turkey insists             terms of reparations and perhaps even borders.”              to the relevance of history, that other American
the roundup of Armenians was a justifiable defense           Gates said that 70 percent of U.S. air cargo and             truism—isolationism—seems to circumscribe
against a suspicious population during war, and              roughly a third of fuel headed for Iraq go through           action. What, after all, can an American presi-
that the deaths that resulted, often from starva-            a single Turkish town, giving the historical debate,         dent do to make the Japanese apologize to South
tion, were unfortunate—but not intentional.                  in his words, “real consequences.”                           Korea for its institutionalization of sexual slavery
    The dispute is again center stage in Washington,               Such pragmatic considerations don’t surprise           during World War II or to make the Turks and
D.C., where a resolution to acknowledge the                  theorists; one function of official narratives, after        Armenians approach reconciliation?
genocide is raised on the House or Senate floor              all, is the selection of those elements of his-                  Barkan thinks the president has tools that, so
every few years. In July, The New Republic reported          tory that, in Rosoux’s words, “will be highlighted           far, haven’t been employed. Sometimes dialogue
that the Turkish government has paid a single                in keeping with the objectives being pursued.”               between opposing sides has been successful: in
lobbying firm $13 million since 2000, in part                But this can make for strange bedfellows: Abe                1997, after seven years of meetings between
to help defeat these resolutions. That didn’t                Foxman, head of the Anti-Defamation League,                  Czech and German historians, the two countries
stop the House Foreign Affairs Committee this                made headlines for refusing to acknowledge the               signed a document affirming the suffering of
October from passing a resolution calling the                Armenian genocide, prompting some observers to               Czechs during the Nazi occupation and of
killings “genocide.” The measure hasn’t yet seen             argue that Turkey’s status as Israel’s only Muslim           Germans expelled from the country after the war.
a floor vote, but Turkey responded by recalling              ally trumped Jewish groups’ allegiance to “bearing               The goal, Barkan says, is to tackle difficult
its ambassador for 11 days. Its head of armed                witness” to genocide.                                        history before it becomes an international rela-
forces warned in the Turkish media of worsening                    The valence of history in foreign affairs is           tions crisis point. That might mean engaging
military relations with the U.S.—on the same day             something most American diplomats have so                    the U.S. Institute of Peace in identifying and
that Turkey fired shots across its border with Iraq,         far failed to appreciate, says Elazar Barkan, the            tracking historical disputes or directly supporting
hitting villages in already contentious Kurdistan.           director of SIPA’s Human Rights Program and a                civil society groups that help counter destructive
    The arbiter in these situations may be a kind            co-founder of the Institute for Historical Justice           nationalistic narratives. “The point is to build
of realpolitik. When it looked like a resolution             and Reconciliation (IHJR), a nonprofit group                 a constituency that can counter propaganda,
recognizing genocide might pass in Congress in               that promotes dialogue between historians and                to have material that has a different rhetorical
2000, Turkey threatened to cancel military con-              officials on opposing sides of historical memo-              register that can be used to strengthen conflict
tracts worth billions. A year later, when the French         ries. “History is not being taught in most policy            resolution. That has to be prepared, and it’s a long
parliament passed a similar resolution, Turkey               schools,” he says. “The IHJR receives a lot of               and difficult process.”
barred French companies even from bidding on                 support when people hear about it, but in most
such contracts. “Based on the Turks’ reaction                cases, it’s a new approach.”                                     Jina Moore (MIA ‘08) is pursuing a dual degree with
when the French parliament passed a resolution                     It’s a blind spot that doesn’t surprise Wang,          the Columbia Graduate School of Journalism.

                                                                                                                                                             S I PA N E W S 3 3

 faculty profile: José antonio ocampo By Matteen Mokalla

                            a                                                       “If you cannot explain an
                                   fter finishing an important conference call
                                   and then a quick call to his wife, SIPA’s
                                   newest professor of professional practice of
                            international and public affairs, the Colombian
                                                                                     economic problem with
                            born economist José Antonio Ocampo, took time            words, then you don’t under-
                            out of his busy schedule to sit down for a quick
                            interview with SIPA News.                                stand the issue . . . a head of
                                Surrounded by walls of books in his spacious
                            13th floor office, he notes that “these books            state won’t understand your
                            aren’t even close to a third of my total library.”
                            Ocampo wants to be clear that he is very happy           theorem; the mathematics is
                            that he has returned to academia. “I liked to joke
                            with my friends that it was either Colombia or
                                                                                     useless for that purpose.”
                                For the Yale educated economist, his path
                            to SIPA had several notable milestones. Much                Ocampo feels that today he comes to the acad-
                            like his other professorial colleagues, Ocampo’s        emy with more to offer than just his impressive
                            impressive CV reflects the unique practical experi-     academic credentials. “My teaching has definitely
                            ences that SIPA professors often possess.               been influenced by my professional experiences.”
                                With stints at Colombia’s Central Bank,                 Take, for example, his attitude on explaining
                            Ministry of Planning, as well as time spent as          economic concepts. Although he loves training
                            Colombia’s minister of finance and public credit,       math-oriented students, Ocampo also demands
                            along with his work as chairman of the board of         that they be able to explain complex economic
                            Banco Cafetero (Coffee Bank) and Caja de Crédito        problems in layman’s terms. “If you cannot explain
                            Agrario, Industrial y Minero (Agrarian Bank) in         an economic problem with words, then you don’t
                            Colombia, Ocampo could easily have made his way         understand the issue.” And more importantly: “A
                            into the private sector. Instead, he continued his      head of state won’t understand your theorem; the
                            career in public service.                               mathematics is useless for that purpose.”
                                Although he is the author of several acclaimed          When not in the classroom or writing books,
                            books and countless academic papers, it was his         Ocampo can often be found exchanging ideas with
                            impressive work as United Nations undersecretary-       other SIPA faculty, including Acting Dean and
                            general for economic and social affairs that caught     Latin America scholar John H. Coatsworth. Thanks
                            the attention of SIPA.                                  to his appointment to the Committee on Global
                                It was in that role that Ocampo, a former           Thought, Ocampo has also managed to strike up
                            Cambridge professor and visiting fellow at both         an interdisciplinary friendship with the noted phi-
                            Yale and Oxford, tirelessly argued for state respon-    losopher and Columbia professor Akeel Bilgrami.
                            sibility to help alleviate the dire conditions of the       Happily married and the father of three chil-
                            world’s poor in developing nations.                     dren, Ocampo is pleased to have the opportunity
                                At SIPA Ocampo has been teaching macroeco-          to teach at SIPA, since the school provides an
                            nomic policy and development and has had the            opportunity that nearly no other world class univer-
                            opportunity to reach out to future policymakers         sity can offer, New York City life. “My wife works
                            who will undoubtedly be charged with finding solu-      here and my kids just love it here.”
                            tions to the world’s pressing economic matters.
                            Ocampo tells SIPA News that what immediately               Matteen Mokalla (MIA ’08), SIPA News
                            impressed him was the diversity of his students as      co-editor, is concentrating in the Middle East.
                            well as their myriad interests: “It’s like the UN of
                            schools,” Ocampo says. “My students at SIPA are
                            interested in many different economic issues, not
                            just Colombian issues.”

 3 4 S I PA N E W S
                                                                                                                                               INSIDE           S I PA

SIpa alum pollock brings Strategies from the campaign trail to
the classroom By Rob Garris

                                        hen Jef           55 talented staffers, has offices in five locations,   current employees) as well as successful candi-
                                        Pollock           and counts among its clients such success-             dates such as Edison, N.J., mayor Jun Choi.
                                        (MPA ’97)         ful political leaders as presidential candidate           In addition, his home life has kept him close
                                was named one of          John Edwards, the governors of New York (Eliot         to SIPA, too; he lives near Morningside Heights
                                Crain’s New York          Spitzer), Iowa (Chet Culver), and West Virginia        with his wife Deborah Brown, 4-year-old daughter
                                Business’ “Forty          (Joe Manchin), and New York State Attorney             Eden, and 1-year-old son Jesse. Despite the
                                Under Forty” in           General Andrew Cuomo. Pollock also works with          demands on his time in the year before national
                                2007, he had been         numerous members of Congress such as the only          elections, he can be seen strolling along the
                                a high profile and        two sisters ever elected to the House of Rep-          same blocks on Broadway that he frequented
                                influential political     resentatives, Loretta and Linda Sanchez (CA),          while still a student.
                                consultant for de-        Carolyn McCarthy (NY), Kirsten Gillibrand (NY),            “SIPA was a wonderful environment in which to
cades. As a 12-year-old, he gave a speech to his          Iraq veteran Patrick Murphy (PA), John Hall (NY),      hone my skills in quantitative methods. But it was
local congressman who then said he would read             and many others. The combination of skill with         also a place to meet people who loved combining
it on the floor of Congress. Before he was 18, he         data and political savvy has turned Jef into the       politics and public policy like me. Having taught
had founded a chapter of Young Democrats at his           perfect strategy consultant. He can make recom-        at SIPA for more than a decade, I can say, without
staunchly conservative high school and taken a            mendations for his clients and back them up with       a doubt, that we have some of the smartest, tal-
semester off from school in order to work for Con-        hard data and logical arguments.                       ented, and driven students in the country. And I’m
gressman Charles Rangel, who is now a client.                Pollock’s work has kept him close to SIPA,          proud to be able to help put some of those minds
   While at SIPA, Pollock helped found a market-          where he teaches a course on campaign man-             to work electing and consulting to make sure that
ing research company, Global Strategy Group,              agement—a course he has taught for 11 straight         our electoral system is as vibrant as ever.”
a business that has now grown into one of the             years. He is proud to have been the instructor to
country’s leading political and business strategy         numerous people who have now entered the politi-          Rob Garris is associate dean for External
consultancies. Pollock’s firm employs more than           cal consulting arena (including many former and        Relations and Communications at SIPA.

SIpa alum ambassador Siv Joins “romney for president” campaign
By Nilanjana Pal

                            mbassador Sichan Siv          HIV/AIDS, economic issues, food crises, humani-            In addition to his three presidential appoint-
                            (MIA ’81) recently joined     tarian disasters, human rights, and refugees.          ments, Ambassador Siv has had a distinguished
                            the “Romney for Presi-            A native of Cambodia, Ambassador Siv escaped       career in the private sector, encompassing refugee
                      dent” campaign as the na-           forced labor camps in 1976 and was resettled as        resettlement and educational exchanges, as well
                      tional chair of “Asian Pacific      a refugee in Wallingford, Connecticut. He became       as financial management and investment banking.
                      Americans for Mitt.” He will        interested in the U.S. political process while         He is the author of Golden Bones, which will be
                      also provide Governor Romney        watching television coverage of the Democratic         published in the spring of 2008. It recounts his
                      with important policy counsel       and Republican national conventions in the             journey from Cambodia, where he escaped Khmer
                      in the areas of international re-   summer of 1976. In 1988, he volunteered for            Rouge labor camps, to the White House and the
lations, Asian issues and UN reform. Ambassador           the Bush campaign to better understand presi-          United Nations.
Siv has a distinguished career in public service,         dential elections. On February 13, 1989, exactly
recently serving as the 28th ambassador to the UN         13 years after he began his escape through the             Nilanjana Pal (MIA ’08), SIPA News co-editor,
Economic and Social Council (2001) and repre-             jungles of northwest Cambodia, Ambassador Siv          is concentrating in International Security Policy.
senting U.S. interests in the UN General Assembly         became the first American of Asian ancestry to be
and Security Council (2001–2006). In his last             appointed a deputy assistant to the president of
role, his responsibilities included children, health,     the United States, under George H. W. Bush.

                                                                                                                                                S I PA N E W S 3 5

 SIpa’s new director of alumni relations: daniela coleman
 By Matteen Mokalla and Nilanjana Pal

                                         ow does an institution like SIPA keep               world, a laborious task that Coleman has passed
                                         14,000 plus alumni from more than 150 dif-          with flying colors.
                                         ferent countries updated on SIPA affairs and            She had quite a few challenges to deal with
                                  informed of all the SIPA services that alumni are          early on. Within only a few months, Coleman has
                                  entitled to receive after graduation? First, it can        managed to revamp SIPA’s alumni database so
                                  put out magazines like SIPA News, and, secondly,           that a SIPA alumnus from Zimbabwe can look for
                                  it can hire someone like Daniela Coleman to be its         a fellow alumnus for travel advice, a job, or even
                                  director of alumni relations.                              a drink, before he travels to Thailand. When news
                                      Hailing from Forest Hills, Queens, the native          broke that the controversial president of Iran,
                                  New Yorker holds degrees from the University of            Mahmoud Ahmadinejad, was to appear on campus,
                                  Virginia in foreign affairs and Italian literature and a   Coleman had to listen to the concerns of the SIPA
                                  master’s degree in European policy and administra-         alumni community both in support of and against
                                  tion from the College of Europe based in Belgium.          his appearance. Talk about baptism by fire.
                                  Coleman, a dual citizen of the United States and               Still, Coleman says that she enjoys connecting
                                  Italy, was accustomed from an early age to moving          with alumni domestically and abroad and hearing
                                  effortlessly between the two countries and, with her       about their interesting lives and fascinating
                                  language skills, fit right in to graduate school in        professions. Working to revive the Alumni Directory
                                  Europe. It was while studying policymaking in              after a break of 12 years and spearheading efforts
                                  Bruges, Belgium, that she came to the realization          to redesign the online database have given her
                                  that she was more American than she had                    ample time to get to know the post-SIPA life of our
                                  previously imagined. Coleman recalls that it was           alumni.
                                  a unique time to be studying in Europe against                 A tennis fan and an avid jogger, Coleman hopes
                                  the backdrop of the United States’ decision to go          to complete the New York City marathon sometime
                                  to war in Iraq.                                            in the near future. In the meantime, when she
                                      Coleman brings with her a variety of work              is not at SIPA, Coleman works as a volunteer for
                                  experiences: she has worked in corporate                   Recording for the Blind & Dyslexic, an organization
                                  communications in public affairs, in broadcast-            that converts textbooks into audio format to serve
                                  ing, and has handled communications for the                students who are visually impaired or dyslexic.
                                  American Chamber of Commerce to the EU in                      When the investigative team at SIPA News real-
                                  Brussels, prior to making her way to Columbia              ly dug deep into Coleman’s past, it found out that
                                  in May 2007.                                               Coleman has a continuing passion for community
                                      Fluent in French and Italian, Coleman can be           theater. Starring in various theatrical productions
                                  found from time to time traveling to reconnect with        during her lobbyist days in Brussels, Coleman told
                                  SIPA alumni in Paris or in DC. A bulk of her work          this publication that “it was really fun speaking in
                                  does keep her in New York City, though, managing           a Southern twang. I miss theater and I can’t wait
                                  relationships with our mobile alumni around the            to get involved in it again here in New York.”

                                    “ClaSS noteS” now online
                                    “Class Notes” will be back in print in the spring issue of SIPA News. In the meantime, they
                                    are now virtual! To view recent marriage announcements, births, job promotions, moves, etc.
                                    of your fellow alumni, please visit the “Alumni Notes” section of the Alumni Directory at
                           Stay connected with more than 14,000 alumni in 153
                                    countries. (If you are having trouble accessing the Class Notes, please contact the Office of
                                    Alumni Relations by e-mail at

 3 6 S I PA N E W S
                                                                                                                                         INSIDE         S I PA

ralph o. hellmold honored with alumni medal

                                                            IPA alumnus Ralph O. Hellmold, IF ’63, MIA     ening development and fund-raising programs.
                                                            ’64, was among the recipients of Columbia’s    Hellmold has mentored students and assisted
                                                            2007 Alumni Medals. Each year the Univer-      them with career development and placement.
                                                      sity bestows ten Alumni Medals for diligent work     He has demonstrated his personal generosity in
                                                      on behalf of Alma Mater. The 2007 recipients         ways both tangible and intangible, through time,
                                                      were officially announced at the Commencement        financial support, and strategic acumen. Hellmold
                                                      Ceremony on May 16 and honored at a dinner on        has served as both co-chair of the Development
                                                      November 3 in conjunction with the Columbia          Committee and as chair of SIPA’s Annual Fund
                                                      Alumni Association (CAA) Assembly Leadership         and has pioneered many successful initiatives that
                                                      Conference.                                          continue to benefit the School today.
                                                          Currently the chairman of Hellmold & Co.,            Hellmold is the fourth SIPA alumnus/a to be
                                                      LLC, a financial advisory firm, Ralph Hellmold has   awarded the Columbia Alumni Medal since its in-
                                                      been a member of SIPA’s alumni community for         ception, marking a growing tradition of leadership
                                                      more than 40 years. A dedicated advocate of the      and service among SIPA’s alumni. Other awardees
                                                      School and the University, he has served on SIPA’s   include John Grammer (MIA ’63), Susan Gitelson
                                                      Advisory Board since 1990, significantly strength-   (MIA ’66), and Katharine Archibald (MIA ’83).

SIpa’s alumni council launches new projects

      IPA’s 60th anniversary celebrations brought     Relations on matching budgetary priorities to the    committee to coordinate logistical and consulta-
      hundreds of alumni back to Morningside          goals of the Council. The Alumni Council held its    tive support for a daylong event, featuring alumni
      Heights. For many of them, it was their first   third meeting on November 30, 2007.                  panels and a reception.
time on campus in decades. Lisa Anderson, then            Work is well under way on the Council’s              The Council has also identified a need to fo-
dean, felt that it was essential to build on the      projects for the 2007–2008 academic year. The        cus on development opportunities for the School
renewed energy and enthusiasm of alumni who           Council organized a reception to welcome acting      and to explore career service projects for alumni.
participated in the 60th anniversary celebrations     dean John H. Coatsworth, which gave alumni at        As Council take shape, the Office of Alumni Rela-
and created the Alumni Council. The Council’s         large a chance to meet and talk with the new         tions will inform alumni of volunteer opportuni-
goals are to build and foster relations between the   dean. The reception, held on September 25,           ties. It is hoped that alumni who volunteer on
School and its alumni, to promote active alumni       2007, at the Columbia Club, was attended by          Council projects will be appointed to the Council
involvement and financial support, to encourage       more than 200 SIPA alumni.                           as current members step down. Moreover, alumni
interaction among alumni, and to promote recogni-         The Council also has a leadership role in the    who wish to suggest additional events or areas
tion of SIPA as a leading school of global public     upcoming 30th anniversary celebration of the         of interest should e-mail SIPA’s Office of Alumni
policy. The inaugural meeting of the SIPA Alumni      MPA degree program, scheduled for February           Relations at
Council was held on June 19, 2007.                    16, 2008. Council members Aaron Graham and
    Under the chairmanship of Roger Baumann           John McGrath, working with the SIPA student as-
(MIA ’85), the Council is serving in an advisory      sociation presidents, have formed a core planning
capacity for the dean of the School and assisting
in prioritizing the needs of the entire SIPA alumni
community. Other council members include
Kirsten Frivold (EMPA ’03), Aaron Graham (MPA          mPa 30th anniverSary Celebration
’04), John Grammer (MIA ’63), Allison Cooke            A 30th anniversary celebration of the creation of the MPA degree program will be held on Saturday,
Kellogg (IF ’72, MIA ’73), John McGrath (MIA
                                                       February 16, 2008, at Columbia University. The daylong event for SIPA alumni will feature faculty
’80), Martin Petrella (PEPM ’04), Bill Rigler
                                                       and alumni panel discussions, followed by a reception with a keynote speaker. Print invitations were
(MIA ’04), and Basil Smikle Jr. (MPA ’96). At the
September 25 meeting, Bill Rigler was named            sent to alumni in early December. For the most up-to-date information on the event, including regis-
treasurer of the Council for the 2008–2009 aca-        tration, please visit our Alumni News and Events Webpage at
demic year and will advise the Office of Alumni

                                                                                                                                          S I PA N E W S 3 7

 Staying in touch with alumni: SIpa’s new print and online directories
 By Daniela Coleman

       IPA alumni serve as an invaluable resource       customized for SIPA and synchronized with the         School will also be launching a new SIPA Alumni
       for each other, for currently enrolled stu-      University-wide online directory. It consists of      Print Directory in February 2008. The volume
       dents, and for the faculty of the School,        more than 14,000 SIPA graduates living in 153         promises to be a comprehensive reference work,
 providing a wealth of knowledge and expertise in       countries around the world. Alumni searching this     bound into a classic, library-quality edition. SIPA
 their respective fields. Finding out where they are    database will be able to access information about     is also working with Harris Connect to produce the
 or what they have been up to after graduation is       fellow graduates who have agreed to share their       complete and up-to-date volume for the School’s
 not always easy, since they pursue such remark-        information. The system also has new features, al-    14,000 alumni worldwide. The directory will be
 ably mobile careers.                                   lowing alumni to post photographs, submit online      sorted into four easy-to-use sections. To make
     As part of its efforts to improve relations with   class notes (see the article on “‘Class Notes’ Now    networking with other alumni easy, it will include
 alumni, the SIPA Office of Alumni Relations has        Online” on p. 36), and join focused alumni dis-       residence and business information, as well as
 undertaken two major projects for the 2007–2008        cussion groups arranged by cities, SIPA programs,     e-mail addresses.
 academic year: the launch of a new online interac-     and concentrations. Alumni will also be able to           If you would like to order your copy of the print
 tive database and the production of a SIPA Alumni      update their current directory listings (including    directory, please call Harris Connect directly (EST)
 Print Directory.                                       both contact and professional information), as        at 1-800-877-6554 (domestic callers) or send an
     After a yearlong preparation process, the          well as search for and contact colleagues around      e-mail to
 new improved online Global Connection Alumni           the world. If you have not had a chance to explore
 Directory was launched in September. Partnering        the new online directory, please visit it at www.        Daniela Coleman is director of Alumni
 with Harris Connect, a leading alumni directory                           Relations at SIPA.
 publisher, the enhanced online database has been           In conjunction with the online directory, the

 SIpa alumni groups get active!

       IPA alumni domestically and around the           July 20, thanks to the organizing efforts of Cap-         SIPA alumni, working with the Columbia Club
       world have been busy this year reconnecting.     tain Dan McSweeney (MIA ’07), graduates from          of London, organized a book launch on November
       In New York City, more than 200 SIPA alumni      Columbia University, including SIPA alumni, met       19 for SIPA alumna (and New York-London resi-
 met with acting dean John H. Coatsworth at a           for lunch at the U.S. Embassy in Baghdad to share     dent) Dr. Isabelle Rohr for her book The Spanish
 welcome reception on September 25. Happy Hour          their experiences in Iraq.                            Right and the Jews, 1898–1945: Antisemitism
 events were held for NYC SIPA alumni on June 20,           On September 27, SIPA alumni in Mexico            and Opportunism. SIPA alumni in the London area
 October 18, and December 6. On October 9, SIPA         City met over breakfast with Dr. Georgina Kessel,     are encouraged to contact the Columbia Club of
 professor Richard Robb discussed “Understand-          Mexico’s secretary of energy, to discuss the energy   London for a list of SIPA-based events at https://
 ing the Credit Crisis” with alumni at the Colum-       sector in Mexico.                           
 bia Club. The NYC ISP Network held a dinner                As part of the Columbia Alumni Association’s          Alumni can also stay in touch with each other
 discussion on October 16 with James D. Schmitt,        European presence, a three-day event was held in      virtually. As part of the new SIPA online database,
 senior vice president of strategic development at      Paris beginning on September 28. The activities       alumni are encouraged to join discussion and chat
 ArmorGroup.                                            included a private reception for more than 100        groups to stay informed of events in their areas.
     Alumni in Washington, D.C., have also been         registered SIPA alumni at the Institut du Monde       (Please visit the Web site at www.alumniconnec-
 busy with their own share of Happy Hour events         Arabe, thanks to the organizing efforts of Christo- and click on discussion groups.)
 this past year (June 27, September 26, and             pher Mesnooh (MIA ’86). Professor Rodolfo de la           If you are planning a SIPA event in your area,
 December 19). Moreover, no SIPA alumni reunion         Garza represented the School at the well-attended     let Alumni Relations know about it. Send us a note
 in DC could be complete without a visit to the         event, along with Nicholas B. Dirks, vice president   at or post a note on www.
 White House (September 8), where more than 40          for arts and sciences. (For more information on
 SIPA alumni gathered.                                  events in Paris, please visit http://alumniclubs.
     SIPA alumni abroad have also been active. On

 3 8 S I PA N E W S
                                                                                                                                         DONOR LIST                S I PA

donor list fy 07
Listed below are the more than 1,500 individuals and organizations who contributed    $5,000–$9,999                               Maureen R. Berman, MIA ’73
to SIPA and the Regional Institutes between July 1, 2006, and June 30, 2007.          Charles Smith Adams Jr., MIA II ’83 and     Robin L. Berry, MIA ’78
                                                                                         Georgia Serevetas Adams, MIA ’83         Joan Copithorne Bowen, MIA ’67
“CERT” followed by year = graduate with certificate from a Regional Institute         American International Group, Inc.          Mr. and Mrs. Robert Bradford
“IF” ” followed by year = graduate from International Fellows Program                 Serge Bellanger/Credit Industriel et        Daniel & Estrellita Brodsky
“MIA” ” followed by year = graduate with a Master in International Affairs               Commercial                               Eric David Cantor, MIA ’05
“MPA” ” followed by year = graduate with a Master in Public Administration            Bernard & Irene Schwartz Foundation, Inc.   Linda K. Carlisle, MPA ’81
                                                                                      The Blakemore Foundation                    Robert Meade Chilstrom, MIA ’69,
                                                                                      Kim Christopher Bradley, MIA ’83               CERT ’73
                                                                                      Marcia Beth Burkey, MIA ’88                 Leo M.F. Chirovsky
$1,000,000 and above                         Shevchenko Scientific Society, Inc.      Pamela Hawkins Casaudoumecq,                Christie’s
Foundation for the Center for Energy         Elizabeth K. Valkenier, CERT ’51            MIA ’89                                  Richard Wayne Coffman, CERT ’84
James, MIA ’77, and Sandra, MIA ’76‚                                                  Sydney J. Coleman                           Maureen A. Cogan
   Leitner                                   $10,000–$24,999                          FWA of New York Educational Fund            Stephen F. Cohen, CERT ’69/The JKW
                                             Wilder K. Abbott, MIA ’61                Susie Gharib, MIA ’74 /Nazem Family            Foundation
$250,000–$999,000                            Amy Levine Abrams, MIA ’81/Amy and          Foundation                               Peter D. Ehrenhaft, MIA ’57/Sanford C.
Booz Allen Hamilton, Inc.                       David Abrams Foundation               Goldman, Sachs & Company                       Bernstein & Co. LLC
                                             Alan B. Slifka Foundation, Inc.          Icahn Charitable Foundation                 R. Anthony Elson, IF ’64, MIA ’65
$100,000–$249,999                            Alavi Foundation                         Barclays Bank of New York, PLC              Kashiyo C. Enokido, MIA ’78
Laszlo Z. Bito                               Roger R. Baumann, IF ’84, MIA ’85        The Leonard & Evelyn Lauder                 Mehdi Fakharzadeh
Patricia M. Cloherty, MIA ’68                Blinken Foundation, Inc.                    Foundation                               Ivy Lindstrom Fredericks, MIA ’98
The Ford Foundation                          Bolsa De Mercadorias & Futuros—BM&F      Dennis Y. Loh                               Laurence Todd Freed, MIA ’94
The Freeman Foundation                       George Hollendorfer, MIA ’01/CIBC        Moody’s Foundation                          Roy Furman
The German Marshall Fund of the U.S.            World Markets Corporation             Steve Radakovich                            Zev Furst, MIA ’91/The Furst Foundation,
International AIDS Vaccine Initiative        Citigroup Inc.                           William Rayner                                 Inc.
W. K. Kellogg Foundation                     Consulate General, Republic of Poland    Samuel R. Sharp, MPA ’99                    Robert Garrett
The Henry Luce Foundation, Inc.              Credit Suisse First Boston LLC           Joan and C. Michael Spero                   Susan Aurelia Gitelson, MIA ’66
Pierre Omidyar/Peninsula Community           David Cameron Cuthell Jr., MIA ’90       Marianne Spiegel                            Global Impact
   Foundation                                Juan Navarro/Exxel Group Inc.            Joel D. Tauber                              Anthony C. Gooch, MIA ’05
Polish & Slavic Federal Credit Union         ExxonMobil Foundation                    UBS Warburg AG                              Erin S Gore, MPA ’97
Smith Richardson Foundation, Inc.            Ken Hakuta                               Weatherhead Foundation                      Joseph E. Gore
Arnold Saltzman/Saltzman                     James Harmon/The Harmon Foundation       Melinda Wolfe                               John A. Grammer Jr., MIA ’63
   Foundation, Inc.                          The Hauser Foundation, Inc.                                                          Edgar C. Harrell, CERT ’72
Toyota Motor Corporation                     HSBC Bank USA                            $2,500–$4,999                               Hon. John G. Heimann
                                             Institute of International Education     Dean Lisa S. Anderson, CERT ’76             Peter Alexander Hofmann, MIA ’86/
$50,000–$99,999                              IBM International Foundation             Timothy Leboutillier Bishop, MIA ’94           United Way of the Capital Area, Inc.
Belfast Unemployed Resources Centre          International Women’s Health Coalition   Carolyn M. Buck-Luce/Ernst & Young          Donald Loyd Holley, Esq., MIA ’59
John Birkelund/The Birkelund Fund            Anuradha T. Jayanti                         Foundation                               Douglas R. Hunter, MIA ’73
The Dietrich W. Botstiber Foundation         James E. Jordan, MIA ’71                 Carnegie Corporation of New York            James S. Marcus Foundation
Carnegie Corporation of New York             John L. Vogelstein Charitable Trust      Amy Blagg Chao, MIA ’99                     Deborah Lee James, MIA’81
Encyclopaedia Iranica Foundation             Sidney & Robert Katzman Foundation       Christian Deseglise, MIA ’90                John Loeb Jr. Foundation
Akbar Ghahary                                The Korea Foundation                     John William Dickey, MIA ’92                Elizabeth Karageorgevic
Jay L. Mortimer/Mary W. Harriman             The Kosciuszko Foundation, Inc.          Ernst & Young Foundation                    George S. Kaufman
   Foundation                                Dominique Levy/L & M Arts, LLC           Kathryn Wasserman Davis/Foundation          Lindenbaum Family Charitable Trust
A. Michael Hoffman, IF ’69, MIA ’73          Peter Neill Marber, MIA ’87                 for the Study of National Civic and      Alex Machaskee
Ploughshares Fund                            McLaughlin Family Foundation                International Affairs                    Eric Rogan Mason, MIA ’95
Ukrainian Studies Fund, Inc.                 Christopher J. Mesnooh, Esq., MIA ’86    Andrew Gray                                 Merrill Lynch & Co. Foundation, Inc.
Lionel Pincus/The Wooden Nickel              David B. Ottaway, IF ’63                 William Weirong Jin, MIA ’93                David C. Miller Jr.
   Foundation                                Polish Army Veterans Association         Lila J. Kalinich, MD                        Mahnaz Moinian
                                             John H. Porter, MIA ’83, CERT ’83        Claudette M. Mayer, MIA’76, IF’76           Gert Wilhelm Munthe, MIA ’90
$25,000–$49,999                              Julie Lynn Rasmussen, MIA ’90, IF ’90    PricewaterhouseCoopers LLP                  John D. and Alexandra C. Nichols
Nina Ansary                                  Maurice R. Samuels, MIA ’83              Marc Tabah, MIA ’87                         Mark David O’Keefe, MIA ’95
Amb. Donald M. Blinken                       Saudi Arabian Oil Company                Targoff Family Foundation                   Scott Alan Otteman, MIA ’89/Lawrence
Bridgeway Charitable Foundation              1199 SEIU United Healthcare              UBS                                            M. Gelb Foundation, Inc.
The Debs Foundation                          The Shelley & Donald Rubin Fdn., Inc.    Alexander Mark Gorup, MD/Unity              Jon S. Pearl, MD
Ralph O. Hellmold, IF ’63, MIA ’64           Gen. Brent Scowcroft, PhD (Ret.)            Healthcare, LLC                          Louis Polk/Lion’s Pride Foundation
Zachary Eli Karabell                         Malcolm J. Stewart, IF ’78, MIA ’79      The Whitehead Foundation, Inc.              Ernie Pomerantz
John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur           The Isdell Foundation                                                                Peter Powers Pulkkinen, MIA ’04
   Foundation                                Paul Wayne Thurman                       $1,000–$2,499                               Milan Puskar
Stiftung Open Society Institute ZUG          Paul E. Tierney Jr./The Tierney Family   Betty W. Adams, MPA ’04                     Clyde E. Rankin III, Esq., IF ’74
Arthur Ross Foundation, Inc.                    Foundation Inc.                       Anonymous                                   Harland A. Riker Jr.
Jeffrey Schmidt, IF ’79, CERT ’79/Jeffrey    Michael Tusiani/Poten & Partners, Inc.   Bank of America Foundation                  Sheila Robbins/Fidelity Charitable Gift
   L. Schmidt Fellowship                     The Tinker Foundation Inc.               Arlene Renee Barilec, MIA ’84                  Fund
James D. Seymour, CERT ’61                   Lan Yang, MIA ’96                        Rasta Behrang, MIA ’06                      Daniel & Joanna S. Rose Fund, Inc.

                                                                                                                                                     S I PA N E W S 3 9
DONOR LIST              SI PA

                                                                                       Matthew Goldstein/Research Foundation     Hajime Takeuchi, MIA ’91
                                                                                           of CUNY                               Tiffany & Company
                                                                                       Radmila Gorup                             Miroslav M. Todorovich
                                                                                       William W. Gridley                        Violet Todorovich
                                                                                       Peter L. Harnik, MIA ’75                  TSM Global Consultants LLC
                                                                                       Neal H. Harwood, MIA ’61                  Wachovia Foundation
                                                                                       Gale Hayman                               Desa Tomasevic Wakeman
                                                                                       Darlene Anderson Howell, MIA ’85          John Waterbury
                                                                                       Eva Cristina Jedruch                      Byung-Kon Yoo, MIA ’92
                                                                                       Horace P. Jen, MIA ’93, CERT ’93          Michael J. Zagurek Jr., MIA ’79
                                                                                       Suzanne Nora & David G. Johnson
                                                                                           Foundation                            $250–$499
                                                                                       Andrea Lynn Johnson, MIA ’89              Saman K. Adamiyatt, MIA ’81, CERT ’83
                                                                                       Ben O. Jone, MIA ’67                      Alex Aleksich
                                                                                       Robert K. Kaplan, MIA ’83                 Isabelle Jacqueline Aussourd, MIA ’02
                                                                                       Elizabeth Lynn Katkin, Esq., MIA ’92,     Suzana Bacvanovic
                                                                                           IF ’92                                Branislava Balac
                                                                                       Kekst & Company, Inc.                     Helen Delich Bentley
                                                                                       Joachim W. Kratz, MIA ’58                 Salwa Berberi, MIA ’86
                                                                                       Veljko Kustrov                            M. Vladimir Bibic
                                                                                       L.O. G. LLC                               Melanie June Bixby, MIA ’91
                                                                                       Jens Ingolf Landwehr, MIA ’99             Thomas H. Boast, MIA ’72
                                                                                       Isabelle Leeds                            The Brzezinski Family Foundation
                                                                                       Laurence C. Leeds Jr.                     Allen L. Byrum, MIA ’72
                                                                                       Noel Levine                               Michael A. Cairl, IF ’77, MIA ’78
                                                                                       Jirawat Sophon Lewprasert, MIA ’84        Joan O. Camins, IF ’73
                                                                                       Dallas D. Lloyd, MIA ’58                  Melinda Paige Canno-Velez
                                                                                       Wendy Anne Lofgren, MIA ’97               Mary W. Carpenter, MIA ’51
                                                                                       Argelio A. Maldonado, IF ’72/Schwab       Michael Tatu Castlen, MPA ’93
                                                                                           Fund for Charitable Giving            Shoma Chatterjee, MIA ’01
                                                                                       Laura Losciale Malha, MIA ’00             Adam Cherson, MPA ’06
                                                                                       Lisa Minda Markowitz, MIA ’88, CERT ’88   Dale Christensen Jr., MIA ’71
                                                                                       Dobrosav Matiasevic                       Anna M. Cienciala
                                                                                       Bruce McNamer                             Matthew Robert Claeson, MIA ’01
                                                                                       Sherwood G. Moe, MIA ’48                  Ellen Miriam Cohen, MPA ’03
                                                                                       Jonathan R. Moller                        Glenn L. Colville, MIA ’75
                                                                                       Samina Muhith, MIA ’97                    Consulate General of the Republic of
 Mary A.H. Rumsey Foundation                 Patrick Kenehan Archambault, MIA ’99      Catherine Mulder, MIA ’81                    Serbia
 Tadeusz Rybkiewicz                          Iris R. Argento, CERT ’67                 Noboru Nakajima, MIA ’00                  Chancellor John J. Costonis, IF ’64
 Vuslat Sabanci, MIA ’96                     Srdan Babovic                             Matthew Nimetz                            Douglas S. Cramer Jr.
 Joseph E. & Norma G. Saul Foundation Inc.   Donald P. Banas                           Gordana V. Novakovic                      James W. Crystal
 Kirk P. Schubert, MIA ’82                   Jillian Barron, Esq., MIA ’88             Milica Obradovic, MIA ’07, CERT ’07       Alexander M. Dake, MIA ’86
 Charles Schwab Corporation Foundation       The Bernhill Fund/Catherine Cahill        Jennifer Hirsh Overton, MPA ’93           Marc P. Desautels, MIA ’66
 Karen Scowcroft, Esq., MIA ’84, IF ’84      Bialkin Family Foundation, Inc.           Pamela Pantzer                            Deutsche Bank Americas Foundation
 Thomas H. Shrager, MIA ’84                  Kenneth Lawrence Blacklow, MPA ’93        Carol Jean Patterson, MIA ’76, CERT ’76   Marcelo Gabriel Di Rosa, MIA ’89
 Daniel Stephen Simon                        Patrick Francis Bohan                     Ann S. Phillips                           Michael DiGrappa, MPA ’86
 Christopher William Smart, CERT ’89         Milica Zankovic Bookman                   Joseph Edmund Pigott, MIA ’91             Hon. David N. Dinkins
 Elizabeth Stern, MIA ’89                    David C. Chaffetz, MIA ’80, IF ’80        Polish Student Organization of New York   Goran M. Djuknic
 Emanuel Stern, MPA ’90                      Yung-Woo Chun, MIA ’94, IF ’94            Henrietta B. Pons, MIA ’64                Maria C. Perunic Djurasovic
 Matthew M. Stevenson, MIA ’78, IF ’78       Joanna A. Clark                           Marilyn Popovich                          Milenko Djurasovic
 Tammy S. Fine, MPA ’94/Delaware             Ivana Cvejic                              Dushica Babich Protic                     Maja Dragic, Esq.
    Community Foundation                     Mirela Djordjevic                         Pulaski Association                       Charles F. Dunbar, MIA ’61
 Barbara Tober                               Dow Jones & Company, Inc.                 John H. A. Quitter, IF ’67                Thomas John Durkin, MIA ’87, CERT ’87
 Mana Nabeshima Tokoi, MIA ’91               The Eberstadt-Kuffner Fund, Inc.          Marjorie Ann Ransom, CERT ’62             Lili-An Elkins, MPA ’94
 The Tokyo Foundation                        Richard Fabricant, Esq.                   Peter M. Robinson, MIA ’79, IF ’79        Wilson P. Favre-Delerue, MIA ’05
 David James Tsui, MPA ’01                   Alexander P. Federbush                    Elizabeth Rothkopf, MIA ’99/Jewish        Aurelius Fernandez, MIA ’59
 Yuko Usami, MIA ’77                         Robert Mark Finkel, MIA ’88                   Community Federation of Cleveland     Maria Perich Filler
 James C. Veneau, MIA ’96                    Louise R. Firestone, MIA ’79              Robert B. Roven, MD                       Maria A. Fisher, MIA ’81
 Jeanette S. Wagner                          Stephen J. Friedman                       Daiji Sadamori, MIA ’74, CERT ’76         Larry S. Gage, Esq., IF ’71
 Zofia J. Werchun                            Grace Frisone, MIA ’76                    George David Schwab/Fidelity Charitable   Pamela Susan Garrud, MIA ’83
 Clifton R. Wharton Jr.                      Kirsten Alysum Frivold, MPA ’03               Gift Fund                             Frances X. Gates
 Frank C. Wong, MIA ’82                      Maiya K. Furgason, MIA ’95                Franz W. Sichel Foundation                Brian Houng Gee, MIA ’04
 Jerry Chan Yoon, MIA ’01                    Amb. Ibrahim A. Gambari                   Henrietta Haultain Sherwin, MIA ’88       Sol Glasner, MIA ’76, CERT ’76
 Arthur M. Yoshinami, MIA ’80                Eric Michael Garcetti, MIA ’95/The Roth   Vera L. Silverman                         Esther Goldsmith, MIA ’96
                                                 Family Foundation                     Petar Simic                               Milena Gomez
 $500–$999                                   Bruce Gelb, MD                            Edward Byron Smith Jr., MIA ’70           Toni K. Goodale
 Austin Chinegwu Amalu, MIA ’81              Gary W. Glick, CERT ’72                   Christian R. Sonne, MIA ’62, CERT ’62     John M. Gorup
 Mary M. Angelini, MIA ’00                   Michael Alan Goldstein, MIA ’84           Paul & Daisy Soros Foundation             Allan I. Grafman/Allmedia Ventures, Inc.

 4 0 S I PA N E W S
                                                                                                                                        DONOR LIST                S I PA

Maureen-Elizabeth Hagen, MA, MIA ’83,     John M. Reid, MIA ’64                      Elena M. Alvarez, MPA ’84                   Genevieve R. Besser, MIA ’86
   CERT ’83                               Robert D. Reischauer, MIA ’66              Veronica Lucia Alvarez, MPA ’07             Wendy Lee Kutlow Best, MPA ’87
Bruce Kirkwood Harris, MIA ’92            Jeremy Neal Reiskin, MIA ’87               Tatiana Alves, MIA ’06                      Maria Luisa Betancur, MIA ’07
Miguel Angel Hernandez, MIA ’01           Rietveld Architects LLP                    Eleonora V. Ambrosetti, MIA ’79             Richard K. Betts
Timothy K. Hnateyko                       Galen B. Ritchie, IF ’61                   Kristin E. Anderson, MPA ’04                Cynthia Haupt Betz
Donna R. Hochberger                       Liz Robbins                                Col. Michael Patrick Anderson, MIA ’89      Jennifer Anne Beubis, MIA ’95
Irena Melania Holiat                      Susan Rockefeller, MPA ’98/MGS & RRS       Amir A. Angha                               Pieter Anton Bierkens, MIA ’92
William G. Hu, MIA ’85                       Charitable Trust                        John C. Angle, PhD, IF ’69                  Peter James Biesada, MIA ’86
Constance L. Hunter, MIA ’94              William A. Root, MIA ’48, CERT ’48         Kelly Reynolds Annarella, MIA ’92           Carmen Binder, MIA ’01
Edward Van K. Jaycox, MIA ’64, CERT ’64   Susan A. S. Rosthal, MIA ’71               Toshihide Aotake, MPA ’07                   Alison A. Binkowski
Susan John, MIA ’92                       Salvatore V. Sampino, MIA ’83              Maria Eugenia Apergis, MIA ’07              David Lawrence Birnbaum, MIA ’98
Allison C. Kellogg, IF ’72, MIA ’73       Christine E. Samurovich                    Bethany Allyson Aquilina                    Vlado Bjelopetrovich
Jessie McClintock Kelly, MIA ’07          Ernst J. Schrader, MIA ’65                 Spiridon Ardavanis, MIA ’07                 Kenneth Herbert Blackman, MIA ’00
Mona T. Khalidi                           Prof. Harold B. Segel                      Olavi Arens, CERT ’69                       BlackRock, Inc.
Dale Knezevich/Pacific Ridge              Martin M. Selak                            Philip S. Arnold, IF ’65                    Joseph Abraham Blady, MIA ’03
   Medical, Inc.                          Mervyn W. Adams Seldon, CERT ’64           Madhu Aryal, MPA ’05                        John Langdon Blakeney, MIA ’06
Branka Koljenshich-Rifai                  Barnet Sherman, MPA ’82                    Sarah S. Ashton, MIA ’93                    David Samuel Blakeslee
Dushan Kosovich, MD, PC                   Ida Sinkevic                               Mulan De Quetteville Ashwin, MIA ’93        Cole Blasier, CERT ’50
Carlo Luigi Kostka, IF ’83, MIA ’84       Richard Quentin Slinn III, MIA ’91         Elizabeth Athey, MIA ’71                    Kevin Peter Block, MIA ’91
Miodrag Kukrika, MD                       Jan Solomon, CERT ’75                      Patrick Sylvestre Augustin, MPA ’07         Lisa Zucrow Block, MPA ’81
Andre D. Lehmann, MIA ’73, CERT ’73       Charles H. Srodes, MD, IF ’65              Paul Francis Augustine, MPA ’05             Julius R. Blocker, MIA ’56
John D. Long, CERT ’79                    Stephen Stempler                           Donald E. Austin, Esq.                      Eron Gilbert Bloomgarden, MPA ’04
Ralph Luna                                Bosiljka Stevanovic                        Elena Avesani, MIA ’07                      Tammy Sue Blossom, MPA ’96
Carolyn Jane Luxemburg, Esq., MIA ’93     Militza Stevanovic, MD                     Sika Awoonor, MIA ’99                       Cristina E. Boado
Charles F. MacCormack, IF ’64, MIA ’65    Stuart M. Johnson Foundation               Pamela Maria Ayuso, MIA ’07                 Lylyana Jelka Bogdanovich, MPA ’07
Mirjana Majstorovic                       K. Raina Stuart, MIA ’73                   Janny Bae, MIA ’01                          Holly Bernson Bogin, MIA ’88
Sonia P. Maltezou, MIA ’70                Tara Jayne Sullivan, MPA ’86               Abhinav Bahl                                Carolyn B. Boldiston, MPA ’89
Ann E. March, MIA ’99                     George Swierbutowicz                       Kristi K. Bahrenburg, MIA ’93, CERT ’93     Theodore Francis Bongiovanni III,
Raul Kazimierz Martynek, MIA ’93          Yuriko Tada, MIA ’95                       Joseph R. Balach                               MPA ’03
Robert Thomas Maruca Jr., MPA ’96         Tirajeh Tehranchian                        Leonard J. Baldyga, MIA ’62                 Andrea R. Bonime-Blanc, CERT ’81, IF ’84
John B. McGrath, MIA ’80, IF ’80,         Demetrios Tzoannos                         Shai Bandner                                Caroline Aurore Bookhout, MIA ’98
   CERT ’81                               Ralph W. Usinger, MIA ’73                  Lauralea Ellen Banks                        Sara Elise Borden, MPA ’95
Nina Elise McLemore                       Joseph L. Vidich, MIA ’80                  Stephen J. Banta, MIA ’76                   Stanley P. Borowiec
Stephen Carlos Mercado, MIA ’88,          Alexander P. Vucelic                       David Seth Baran, MIA ’87                   David Weldon Boswell, MPA ’07
   CERT ’88                               Wells Fargo Foundation                     M. Zdzislaw Baran                           Pierre Bournaki, MIA ’86
Oscar Meshkati/Sina Printing, Inc.        Xenia V. Wilkinson                         Adam M. Barcan, MIA ’07                     Dwight A. Bowler, MIA ’79
MetLife Foundation                        Juliet Wurr, MIA ’89, IF ’89               Christoph Barchewitz, MPA ’07               W. Donald Bowles, CERT ’52
Jeffrey Peter Metzler, MPA ’99            Milo Yelesiyevich                          Elissa Goldman Bard, MPA ’96                Paul D. Boyd, IF ’63
Andrew J. Meyers, MIA ’87/AJ Advisers     Rachel Yona Zenner, MPA ’98                William B. Barfield, Esq., IF ’66           Aurelien Antoine Boyer, MIA ’07
   LLC                                                                               Nicholas Adam Barnard, MIA ’04              Milosh S. Bozanich
John S. Micgiel, MIA ’77                  $1–$249                                    Aimee Elise Keli’i Barnes, MPA ’07          Michael C. Brainerd, CERT ’68
Microsoft Corporation                     Pamela Aall, MIA ’77, CERT ’77             Wayne M. Barnstone, MIA ’79                 Franka Barbara Braun
Zorka Milich                              Colin Jeffrey Aaron, MIA ’84               Desiree A. Baron                            Alessandra Bravi
Nenad Milinkovic                          Lia Abady, MIA ’01                         Laurie D. Barrueta, MIA ’94                 Marc Brillon, MIA ’85, IF ’85
David W. Miller                           Katherine Metres Abbadi, MIA ’97, IF ’97   Christopher William Barry, MIA ’99          Wanda Brodzka, MD
Mark Christopher Miller, MIA ’91          Berdine I. Abler, MIA ’76                  Sylvester T. Barwinski                      Jon T. Brooks, IF ’79
Marilyn Mitchell, PhD                     Kaori Adachi, MIA ’99                      Rukiye Zeynep Basak, MPA ’05                Donald P. Brown
MJA Asset Management LLC                  Maria Marcos Adler, MIA ’01                Kate Alyssa Bashford                        Judith Meyers Brown, IF ’71
David W. Munves, MIA ’80, IF ’80          William J. Adler Jr., MIA ’80              Caroline Baudinet-Stumpf, MIA ’96, IF ’96   June Blanchard Brown, MIA ’72
Stephen R. Nelson                         Jo Anne Chernev Adlerstein, Esq., IF ’75   Paul Bauer, MIA ’96                         Karen H. Brown, MIA ’85
Djordje S. Nesic                          Danica Adzemovic                           Samuel Martin Baumann, MIA ’07              Keith Dawayne Brown, MIA ’89
Mila L. Nolan                             Gordana Adzic                              Matthais Georg Baumberger, MIA ’05          Thomas F. Brown, IF ’65
Thomas F. O’Connor Jr., MIA ’76           Shruti Aggarwal, MPA ’06                   Kevin Alan Baumert, MIA ’98                 Cecile R. Brunswick, MIA ’54
Mary Agnes O’Donnell, MIA ’95             Christiana H. Aguiar, MIA ’89              Walter J. Bayer II, Esq., MIA ’67           Gabrielle S. Brussel, MIA ’88
Avo Erik Ora, MIA ’98, IF ’98             Sue Aimee Aguilar                          Edward J. Bayone, MIA ’79                   Richard F. Brzozowski
Ruth G. Ornelas, IF ’80, MIA ’81          Patricia Marie Aguilo, MPA ’07             Charlotte L. Beahan, CERT ’69               Marisa J. Buchanan, MPA ’07
Enrique Ortega, MPA ’06                   Hyun Jung Ahn                              Edmund Beard, MIA ’68                       Carol Holmes Buck, MIA ’69, CERT ’69/
Pacific Fruit, Inc.                       Ming Ai                                    Alison Anne Bedula, MIA ’86                    Xenna Corporation
Richard B. Palmer, MIA ’55                Hatice Akkaya Karayol                      Kenton H. Beerman, MIA ’05                  Beverley Jeanine Buford, MPA ’86
Permanent Mission of Serbia to the        David E. Albright, CERT ’71                Paul Graham Beers, MIA ’83                  Sonia Virginie Bujas, MIA ’92, CERT ’92
   United Nations                         William W. Alfeld, MIA ’51                 Julie A. Beglin, MPA ’97                    Kalyani Rammohan Bulfer, MPA ’07
Eden Prather Perry, MIA ’01               Patrice L. Allen-Gifford, MIA ’81          Shirley S. Behar                            Katherine A. Bullinger Koops, MIA ’94
M. Vlada Petric                           Toni Sharisse Allen-Osbourne, MPA ’05      Eldar Beisimbekov                           Wisit Bunyaritthipong
Rick E. Pierchalski                       Erasto B. Almeida Jr., MIA ’06             Nancy Hays Bendiner, IF ’72                 Gordon Marshall Burck, MIA ’86/EAI
Jefrey Ian Pollock, MPA ’97               Andrew E. Alpine, Esq., MIA ’68            Yvette E. Benedek, MIA ’81                     Corporation
Milos Prica                               Robert J. Alpino, MIA ’85                  Joshua Howat Berger, MIA ’07                Marcia M. Burdette, CERT ’71
Milovan T. Rakic                          Stephen Altheim, IF ’69                    Chris Bernhardt                             Paul H. Byers, IF ’67
David C. Ralph, MIA ’67                   Isabel Alvarez Norma, MPA ’07              Thomas Paul Bernstein, CERT ’66             Cyrus C. Cady

                                                                                                                                                    S I PA N E W S 4 1
DONOR LIST            SI PA

 Gerald A. Cady, MIA ’76                 Constellation Energy Group                Christianna Casey Dove, MIA ’06             Hugh Corning Fraser, MPA ’95/
 Kristen Klemme Cady-Sawyer, MPA ’06        Foundation, Inc.                       Anne J. Dowd, MIA ’82, IF ’82                  Community Foundation of Greater
 Joanne T. Caha, CERT ’78                Consulate General of Serbia and           Christine Marian Doyle, MIA ’92                Memphis
 Hollis Ottilia Calhoun, MPA ’07            Montenegro                             Ruth I. Dreessen, MIA ’80                   April L. Frederick, MIA ’07
 Lee A. Calhoun, MPA ’07                 Daniel Aaron Cook, MIA ’06                Christin Marie Driscoll, MPA ’92            Lossie M. Freeman
 Scott Stewart Cameron                   Richard Cooper, Esq., IF ’85              Bruce H. Drossman, MIA ’82, IF ’82,         Scarlett Lopez Freeman
 Hannah K. R. Campbell, MPA ’05          Jane Corbett, MPA ’93                         CERT ’82                                Amy Esther Friedman, MIA ’92
 Robin C. Campbell, Esq., IF ’76         Daniel Joseph Costello, MPA ’01           Grant M. Duers                              Abigail Crosbie Frost, MIA ’07
 Capt. Jeffrey L. Canfield, MIA ’82,     Steven Roy Costner, MIA ’88               Tonina Dumic                                Bartley R. Frueh, MD, IF ’63
    CERT ’82                             JoAnn T. Crawford                         Cecilia Elizabeth Dunn, MPA ’93             Bruno B. Frydman, MIA ’80
 Janet Canver                            Helen Cregger, MPA ’92                    Hilary Dunst, MIA ’93                       Kathryn Lynne Furano, MPA ’90
 Michael Mustafa Carim, MPA ’07          Erich Cripton                             Maxim Manuel Duprat, MIA ’98                Richard Albert Fye, MPA ’03
 Stephen D. Carls                        Robert S. Critchell, III, MIA ’70         Noor-un-nisa Durrani                        Shannon L. Gaffney
 Victor Caroddo                          Carroll Michelle Cryer, MIA ’97           Edward K. Dzielenski                        Ryszard Gajewski
 Donald L. Carpenter, CERT ’54           Mark D. Cupkovic                          Michael Ignaz Eberstadt, MPA ’98            Jacoba J.M. Galazka
 Jacqueline Joann Carpenter              Karen J. Curtin, MIA ’78, IF ’78          Joanne Edgar, MIA ’68                       Colleen D. Galbraith
 Wenndy Carrasco                         Brooke Dufresne Cutler                    Roberta M. Edge, MPA ’79                    Maria Salome Galib-Bras, Esq., MIA ’88,
 Valenice Castronovo, MIA ’80            Alicja Czaplinski                         Edison International                           CERT ’88
 Nancy G. Cattell, CERT ’49              Stanley J. Czerwinski                     Edit Ltd.                                   Michael William Galligan, Esq., IF ’83,
 Jorge Alberto Cervantes                 Andrian Roman Dacy, CERT ’94, MIA ’95     Judith Ann Edstrom, MIA ’72, IF ’72            MIA ’84
 John A. Cetner, MD                      Theodore Albert D’Afflisio, MIA ’71       Steven Jeffrey Ehrlich                      Sridhar Ganesan, MIA ’96
 Gustavo Cerello Chacra, MIA ’07         Leanna Ali Dakik, MPA ’07                 John Ehrman, MIA ’83                        Asif Iqbal E. Gangat
 Donald Chahbazpour, MPA ’00             Rajiv Pankaj Dalal, MIA ’06               Douglas J. Eisenfelder, IF ’63              Sharmeen Gangat
 Mario A. Chamorro, MIA ’07              Sandeep Dalal, MIA ’91                    Adaku Ugonma Ejiogu, MPA ’06                Gannett Foundation, Inc.
 Emily Chan, MPA ’07                     Laura Jean Damask, MPA ’83                Isaac Manfred Elfstrom, MIA ’07             Agatha Ann Garcia-Wright, MPA ’89
 Hai-Chiao Chang, MPA ’07                Karl I. Danga, IF ’71, MIA ’72            Tayeb Yehya El-Hibri                        Vera V. Garczynski
 Charalambos Leonidas Charalambides,     Jadwiga I. Daniec                         Leo Michael Elison, CERT ’51                Shelly Louise Gardeniers, MIA ’96
    MPA ’07                              Lucas Dansie                              Sari J. Ellovich, MIA ‘75                   C. Robert Garris
 Carlyle Nixon Chaudruc, MIA ’98         Probal DasGupta, MIA ’07                  Mayada El-Zoghbi, MIA ‘94, CERT ‘94         Tamara R. Garrison, MPA ’03
 Peter Chelkowski                        Philippe Dauba-Pantanacce, MIA ’07        Chinonso Tochukwu Emehelu                   Toby Trister Gati, CERT ’70, MIA ’72
 Winifred Debbie Chen, MPA ’07           Joel Davidow, Esq., IF ’63                Rida Eng, MIA ‘00                           Stephen Bernt Gaull, MIA ’88, CERT ’88
 Debra S. Cheng, MIA ’91                 Thomas Philip Davis, MPA ’85              Dayna English                               Joseph G. Gavin III, MIA ’70
 Ada Chirapaisarnkul, MIA ’07            Milena Sanchez De Boado                   Gordon Epstein, IF ‘75, MIA ‘77, CERT ‘78   Jeffrey Franklin Gay, MIA ’04
 Muzaffar A. Chishti, MIA ’81            Ivania de la Cruz Orozco                  Sharon E. Epstein, MIA ‘71, IF ‘71          Clara Irene Gaztelu, MPA ’07
 Ahreum Cho, MIA ’07                     Margaret C. De Lorme Sollitto, MIA ’94    Dara Erck, MIA ‘03                          GE Foundation
 William Woosuk Choi, MIA ’97            Jay Douglas Dean, Esq., IF ’85, MIA ’88   Cornelia Mai Ercklentz                      Eric Neil Gebbie, MIA ’01
 Ishwara Chrein, MIA ’03                 Jonathan Dean                             Kenneth Paul Erickson, IF ‘64, CERT ‘70     Russell W. Geekie, MIA ’01
 M. Jadwiga Chrusciel                    Goran Debelnogich                         Jacqueline Escobar, MPA ‘07                 Frederick H. Gerlach, MIA ’63,
 Wellington Pao-Chun Chu, MIA ’87,       Toni Elizabeth Dechario, MIA ’07          Jeffrey P. Escoffier, MIA ‘66                  CERT ’63
    CERT ’87                             Anthony Deckoff, MIA ’07                  M. Shinkichi Eto                            Elizabeth Champlin Geske, MIA ’87
 Jeff Geefen Chyu, MIA ’83               Margery Suckle Deibler, IF ’81            David Andres Falconi, MPA ‘07               Daniel J. Gettings, MIA ’96
 William Ciaccio, MPA ’79                John Melone Deidrick, MIA ’85             Joseph Edward Fallon, MIA ‘80               Omar M. Gharzeddine, MIA ’95
 Jamie Lynn Ciesla, MIA ’03              Michael Samir Demian, MIA ’03             Islam Galal Farghaly                        Christine Wrona Giallongo, MIA ’90,
 Eugene Ciszewski                        Diane Leslie Demmler, MIA ’87             Stephen Francis Farrell, MPA ‘07               CERT ’90
 Marc Claret de Fleurieu, MIA ’02        Jennifer Lynn DeRosa, MPA ’05             Mehrdad Farzaneh                            Susan C. Gigli, MIA ’87
 Jefferson Clarke, MPA ’07               Elinor M. Despalatovic, CERT ’59          Brent Herman Feigenbaum, MIA ‘84            Kimberly Elizabeth Gilbert Sykes
 Peter James Clayton, MPA ’90            Mauren Devolder, MIA ’07                  Almudena Fernandez                          Joseph Michael Gilbride
 Mary L. Clement                         Carolyn P. Dewing-Hommes, MIA ’86,        Melissa A. Fernandez, MIA ‘99               Margaret S. Gillerman, IF ’78, MIA ’79
 The Coca-Cola Foundation                   CERT ’86                               Vincent A. Ferraro, MIA ‘73, IF ‘73         Alessandro Girola
 Ludmilla Maria Coccia                   Lt. Col. Gary Francis Di Gesu, MIA ’89    Leesa S. Fields, MIA ‘82                    Thomas E. Glaisyer, MIA ’06
 Laurie L. N. Cochran, MIA ’79           Raphael A. Diaz, MIA ’63                  James Patrick Finan, MIA ‘07                Meredith Glass, MIA ’83
 Lillian Mihailovic Coello               Daniel Dicker                             Yakov Finkelshteyn, MIA ‘03                 Adam Spencer Glatzer, MPA ’07
 Daniel Moshe Cohen, MIA ’04             Sherwood E. Dickerman, CERT ’63           Charles H. Finnie, MIA ‘84                  John J. Gmerek
 Graham Charles Cohen, MIA ’91           Richard Albert Dikeman, MPA ’99           Alexandra Daves Fiorillo, MIA ‘07           Birgit Gocht
 Jonathan Alan Cohen, MIA ’99            Maria Christina Dikeos, MIA ’92           Ralph T. Fisher Jr., CERT ‘50               David H. Goldberg, MIA ’82
 Larry Rodney Colburn, MIA ’90           Robert Laurence Direnzo, MPA ’94          Howard Barrett Flanders Jr., Esq., IF ‘62   Ira E. Goldberg, MIA ’75
 Scott D. Colby, CERT ’69                Carissa Anna Garcia Dizon                 H. Joseph Flatau Jr., Esq., MIA ’61         Allan Goldfarb, Esq., MIA ’79
 Vasanta Andrew Collins, MIA ’07         Dimitrije Djordjevic                      Ines Flax                                   Lisa G. Goldschmidt, MPA ’04
 Dale S. Collinson, Esq., IF ’62         Tomislav Stevo Djurdjevich                Nikolai Flexner, MIA ’05                    Judith Joy Goldstein, MIA ’79
 P. Vasquez Colmenares Guzman, MPA ’87   Stephen D. Docter, MIA ’60                James Fonda, MPA ‘07                        Ian Matthew Goldsweig, MIA ’07
 Elise M. Colomer Grimaldi               Cynthia M. Dodd, IF ’77                   David Stewart Fondiller, MIA ’92            Andrea Golfari
 Susan E. Condon, MIA ’70, IF ’70,       Daniel Doktori, MIA ’07                   Irene O. L. Fong                            Edward Daniel Gometz, MIA ’01
    CERT ’70                             Kerry Anne Dolan, MIA ’92                 Anne Ford, MIA ’05                          Isabel Molina Gonzalez, MPA ’07
 Prof. Stephen Conn, IF ’66, MIA ’68     Lucia Adele Domville, MIA ’96             Laura Ellen Forlano, MIA ’01                Stanislaw J. Goray
 Marybeth Connolly, MIA ’01              Carr L. Donald, MIA ’55                   Jennifer Ruth Fortner, MPA ’07              Gordon & Pikarski Chartered
 Amy Elizabeth Conrad, MIA ’03,          Melissa Sawin Donohue, MIA ’93            Nicole Eugenia Foster                       Amaya Gorostiaga
    CERT ’03                             Marianne Donovan                          Catherine Starin Foster-Anderson, MPA ’04   Janusz Gregory Gorzynski, MD
 Maureen Considine, MIA ’86              Arthur R. Dornheim, MIA ’48               David Christopher Francis                   Erika Nicole Gottfried, MIA ’07

 4 2 S I PA N E W S
                                                                                                                                    DONOR LIST                 S I PA

                                                                                   Michael P. Hirsh, MIA ’90                Elisa A. Kapell, IF ’79, MIA ’80, CERT ’80
                                                                                   Waichi Ho, MPA ’07                       Kaplan Educational Centers
                                                                                   James Peter Holtje, MIA ’90              Vikram Kapur, MIA ’93
                                                                                   Michael A. Holubar, MIA ’77              Laura J. Kasa, MPA ’00
                                                                                   Nicole Janine Holzapfel, MIA ’94         Lloyd R. Kass, MPA ’98
                                                                                   Home of the Alliance, Inc.               Farida Kassin, MPA ’07
                                                                                   Joon Seok Hong, MIA ’05                  Madina Kassymbayeva
                                                                                   Anthony H. Horan, MD, IF ’63             Lilian Kastner, MIA ’06
                                                                                   Edit Horvath, MPA ’07                    Clara Katingo Quintanilla, MIA ’82/
                                                                                   Pamela A. Houghtaling, MIA ’74,             Katingo Investments, Inc.
                                                                                       CERT ’76                             Ayuko Kato
                                                                                   Yehia Saad Houry, MIA ’07                Iori Kato, MIA ’03
                                                                                   Katherine Hale Hovde, MIA ’89            Makoto Kato, MIA ’97
                                                                                   Allison Jane Howard, MIA ’07             Tomoo Kato
                                                                                   William D. Howells, MIA ’60, CERT ’60    Eliana Katsiaouni, MIA ’07
                                                                                   Jade Huang                               Sara Rachael Kaufman, MPA ’07
                                                                                   Sarah Beth Huber, MIA ’06                Peggy Ockkyung Kauh, MPA ’01
                                                                                   Robert Kingsley Hull, Esq., MIA ’78,     Gail H. Kedrus, CERT ’81
                                                                                       CERT ’78                             Spurgeon M. Keeny Jr.
                                                                                   John Vincent Hummer, MPA ’88             Ioannis Achilleas Kefalogiannis, MIA ’07
                                                                                   Mi-Ae Hur, MIA ’00                       Norman Edsel Kelker
                                                                                   Gregory Todd Hutton, MIA ’00             Kristina Louisa Margriet Kempkey
                                                                                   Thomas J. Hyra Jr., IF ’76, MIA ’77      Paul F. Kendall
                                                                                   John David Ifcher, MPA ’93               Cary Kennedy, MPA ’93
                                                                                   Yoko Ikeda, MIA ’98                      Julia Metzger Kennedy, MIA ’92
                                                                                   Nuray Nazli Inal                         Stephen Patrick Keppel, MIA ‘07
                                                                                   Ignacio Inda Arriaga, MIA ’06            John J. Kerr Jr., Esq., IF ’76
                                                                                   Farhod Inogambaev, MIA ’07               Lydia W. Kesich, CERT ’52
                                                                                   Helen Drew Isenberg, MIA ’54             Allan R. Kessler, MIA ’82
                                                                                   Anna Grace Isgro, MIA ’77                Sybil Bess Kessler, MIA ’97
                                                                                   Ishita Islam                             Maureen A. Khadder, MIA ’73, CERT ’73
                                                                                   Istituto per le Opere di Religione       Farrukh Iqbal Khan, Esq.
Francis Lincoln Grahlfs Jr., PhD,         Katherine Olivia Hardy, MIA ’97          Eri Iwata, MIA ’07                       Hina Khan
   CERT ’55                               Lucy Gemma Hargreaves, MPA ’07           Irene B. Jacey                           John F. Khanlian, MIA ’69
Jennifer Youtz Grams, MPA ’99             David H. Harris, MIA ‘85, IF ’85         Kathryn Marie Jackson, MIA ’88           Michele Llona Wray Khateri, MIA ’97
Christian Grane, MIA ’01                  Jeremy William Harris, MIA ’95           Roy Christopher Jackson, MPA ’90         Bahman Kia, CERT ’80
Paige Ellen Mahon Granger                 Prof. C. Lowell Harriss                  The Melvin & Rosalind Jacobs Family      Kathleen Jo Kiebler
Carolyn B. Green, MIA ’63                 Helene Genevieve Harroff-Tavel               Foundation                           Bomsinae Kim, MIA ’05
Risa Jill Greendlinger, MPA ’91           Pamela Hart                              Maria Irene Jacobson, MIA ’60            Misun Kim, MIA ’04
Clark D. Griffith, MIA ’00, CERT ’00      Laura Suzanne Harwood, MPA ’92           Dara Stacey Jaffee, MPA ’95              Steven Jae Kim, MPA ’07
Mary Goldthwaite Griffiths, MIA ’84       Patricia M. Haslach, MIA ’81, CERT ’81   Meena Jagannath, MIA ’07                 Sue J. Kim, MPA ’06
Carole A. Grunberg, MIA ’78               Karim Cherif Hassouna, MIA ’05           Carissa L. Janis, MPA ’89                Koichi Kimura
Guy B. Gugliotta, MIA ’73                 Yasuko Hata Kato, MIA ’87                Bernd Gunnar Janzen, MIA ’92, CERT ’92   Natasha Suzanne Kindergan, MIA ’04
Gaurav Gujral, MPA ’07                    Teresa Misty Hathaway, MIA ’89           Carolina Jaramillo, MPA ’07              Brigitte Lehner Kingsbury, MIA ’89
Sadhna Gupta, MPA ’04                     Kathryn F. Hauser, MIA ‘79, CERT ’79     Su’ad Ali Jarbawi, MIA ’07               Nancy K. Kintner-Meyer, MIA ’89
Christopher E. Gurkovic                   Gary Edward Hayes, MIA ‘81, CERT ’81     Edwige Jean, MIA ’02                     James Henry Kipers Jr., MIA ’02
Anna Lissa Gutierrez                      Maureen Hays-Mitchell, MIA ’83,          Jong Hyun Jeon                           Nina Kishore, MPA ’07
Daniel A. Gutterman                          CERT ’83                              Andrew T. Jhun, MPA ’04                  Stian Kjeksrud, MIA ’07
Jorge de Jesus Guttlein, Esq., MIA ’79/   Susan L. Hazard                          The Johnson Family Foundation            Pamela Ziemba Kladzyk
   Jorge Guttlein & Associates            Rex S. Heinke, Esq., IF ’74              Mary Tyler Johnson, MPA ’ ’04            Jean L. Klein
Veroljub Gvozdenovic                      Hertha W. Heiss, CERT ’51                Sonia P. Johnson, MIA ’48                Robert Scott Klein, MIA ’98
Zlatinca Gvozdenovic                      Rachel Heller-Scott, MPA ’01             Donald Ross Johnston, MIA ’94            Stephen H. Klitzman
Henry J. Gwiazda II                       Judith Gail Hellerstein, MPA ’94         Jacques Lloyd Jones, Esq., IF ’69        Judith L. Kloner, MPA ’98
Jonathan Sullivan Gyurko, MPA ’00         Marina A. Henriquez, MPA ’01             Richard B. Jones, MIA ’80                Paulo Francisco Kluber
Lillian Joycelyn Habeich/Lilyun, LLC      Rick T. Henson, MPA ’07                  Stanleigh H. Jones Jr., CERT ’58         Andrew Jerome Koch, MIA ’07
Michele Anke Haberland, MPA ’04           Joshua Rob Hepola, MIA ’00               Maria M. Jonsdottir, MIA ’06             Eugene Robert Koch
Brian Gerald Hackett, MIA ’01             Daniel L. Herman, MIA ’82                Nadine F. Joseph, MIA ’73                Arpine Kocharyan
Linda Haddad                              Nicholas B. Herman, IF ’70               Walter E. Judge Jr., MIA ’85, IF ’85     Harajeshwar Singh Kohli, MIA ’03,
Amir Hadziomeragic, MIA ’01               Richard Hermanowski                      Professor Mark Juergensmeyer, IF ’64        CERT ’03
Alyssa Hagen                              Kenneth N. Hershman                      David E. Junker, MIA ’76                 Eugene V. Kokot, Esq., IF ’73
Craig Acton Halbmaier, MIA ’07            Garry W. Hesser, IF ’64                  Christopher P. Jurkiewicz                Anthony M. Kolankiewicz, MIA ’99
Brandon James Hall, MIA ’07               Warren E. Hewitt, Esq., MIA ’50          Peter H. Juviler, CERT ’54               Annette Phyllis Kondo, IF ’86
Melissa Sue Hall, MIA ’07                 Elizabeth Seal Higgs, MIA ’96            Velika Kabakchieva, MPA ’07              Jaime Tackett Koppel, MPA ’07
Craig Philip Hallgren, MIA ’86            Ronald S. Hikel, MIA ’63                 Patrick Mfumu Kabasele, MIA ’07          Andrzej Korbonski
Willa Zakin Hallowell                     John F. Hildebrand, IF ’66               Sharon Kahn-Bernstein, MPA ’97           William Korey, CERT ’48
Amb. Mark G. Hambley, MIA ’71             Miriam E. Hill, MPA ’99                  Madeleine Green Kalb, CERT ’59           Slawomir A. Korzan
Kay L. Hancock                            William E. Hiller, Esq., IF ’76          Kamil Kaluza, MPA ’06                    Victor Koshkin-Youritzin, IF ’65
Dina C. Hanna, MIA ’06                    Michele F. Hird, MIA ’77                 Alexander Gerard Kamp, MIA ’07           Rudolph Kosiba

                                                                                                                                                S I PA N E W S 4 3
DONOR LIST                SI PA

                                                                           Timothy Leland, IF ’61                  Julianne M. Markow, MIA ’88
                                                                           Philip J. Lemanski, MPA ’86             Sylvain David Marpeau-Roussel, MPA ’07
                                                                           Diane C. Lemelman, MIA ’79              Edward Adger Marshall, MIA ’03
                                                                           Julie Ann Lenehan, MIA ’97              Zachary Blake Marshall, MIA ’91, IF ’91
                                                                           Amanda V. Leness, MIA ’93               Michael G. Martinson, MIA ’70
                                                                           Suzanna Lengyel                         Michael Masanovich
                                                                           Jennifer Olissa Leshnower, MPA ’07      Jocelyn Maskow, MPA ’88
                                                                           Amanda Rose L’Esperance, MIA ’07        Yasuyuki Matsui
                                                                           Joshua Gregory Levine, MIA ’00          Marc Oliver Matthiensen, MIA ’95
                                                                           Nadine Netter Levy, MIA ’70             Anneliese Farrell Mauch, MIA ’93,
                                                                           James John Lewellis, MIA ’04               CERT ’93
                                                                           Elizabeth Mary Leyne, MIA’04            Toby E. Mayman, MIA ’65
                                                                           David Yifong Li                         Elizabeth Wairimu Mbau
                                                                           Arthur Dominique Liacre, MIA ’04        Joseph J. McBrien, MIA ’77
                                                                           Amy Lile, MPA ’05                       Sissel Wivestad McCarthy, MIA ’92
                                                                           John F. Lippmann, MIA ’49               Cary Palmer McClelland, MIA ’07
                                                                           Samuel J. Lipsky, MIA ’73               Amanda Waring McClenahan, MPA ’02
                                                                           Amy Kay Lipton, MIA ’88                 Robert O. McClintock, IF ’63
                                                                           Megan Rose Lipton, MIA ’01              Alexander Ian McCloskey, MPA ’05
                                                                           John Joseph Lis, MIA ‘96, IF ’96,       Kathryn L. McCormack, MIA ’95
                                                                              CERT ’96                             John McDiarmid Jr., MIA ’68
                                                                           Richard J. Lis                          Neil E. McDonell, Esq., IF ’83
                                                                           Chelsee Lisbon                          Brian C. McDonnell, MPA ’80
                                                                           Christine P. Liu, MPA ’07               Mary Byrne McDonnell, MIA ’77
                                                                           Glenda S. Liu, MIA ’77, CERT ’78        Alan B. McDougall, MPA ’92
                                                                           Jiayi Liu, MIA ’07                      Clifford Andrew McGadney, MPA ’06
                                                                           M. Kai-Chun Liu, MPA ’82                Heather R. McGeory, MIA ’05
                                                                           Xianghui Liu, MIA’07                    Eugenia McGill, MIA ’00
                                                                           Robert T. Livernash, MIA ’73, IF ’74    Fred F. McGoldrick, MIA ’66
                                                                           Sherr Yun Lo, MPA ’07                   James D. McGraw, MIA ’55
                                                                           Yvonne C. Lodico, MIA ’82               Lisa McGregor-Mirghani, MIA ’94, IF ’94
                                                                           Jody Susan London, MPA ’90              John T. McGuire, MIA ’63
                                                                           William Anthony Lorenz, MIA ’99         Albert Dan McIntyre
                                                                           Ronald Dean Lorton, MIA ’71, IF ’71     Sarah Lynn McLaughlin, MPA ’98
                                                                           Jonathan A. Lowe, MIA ‘69               Bozena Nowicka McLees
                                                                           Erica Granetz Lowitz, MPA ’94           Molly Michael McMahon
                                                                           Julia Y. Lu, MPA ’03                    Patricia Marie McSharry, MIA ’86,
                                                                           Yi Lu                                      CERT ’86
                                                                           Lai Luo                                 Daniel Joseph McSweeney, MIA ’07
                                                                           Craig Philip Lustig, MPA ’98            Matias Mednik
                                                                           Charles H. Lyons, IF ’68                Joseph A. Mehan
                                                                           Maria Ma, MIA ‘05                       Laila M. Mehdi, MIA ’86
                                                                           Hugh P. Macbrien, MIA ’53               Alexandra Alison Meise, MPA ’07
                                                                           Vernon L. Mack, MIA ’73                 Mellon Financial Corporation Fund
 Daniel Mayer Kosinski, MPA ’07          Anne Elizabeth Lally, MIA ’01     Patricia M. Macken                      Ronald I. Meltzer, IF ’73
 Stephanie Jane Kosmo, MIA ’84           Sange Lama, MPA ’07               David MacKenzie, PhD, CERT ’53          Roger C. Melzer
 Eric Kimball Kostrowski                 Jose M. Lamas, MIA ’86            David MacKenzie, PhD, CERT ’53          Jack W. Mendelsohn, CERT ’77
 Artur J. Kowalski                       Ting Lan, MIA ’05                 Benjamin Edward Madgett, MPA ’07        Elizabeth Dewar Mendenhall
 Henry Krisch, CERT ’54                  Aikojean Lane, MIA ’05            Gerard Joseph Maguire, MIA ’02          Yerdos K. Mendybayev
 Bernard Kritzer, MIA ’72                Julie Werner Lane, MPA ’92        Alberta S. Magzanian, CERT ’56          Sandrine Mariette Merckaert
 Louis J. Krzych                         John D. Lange Jr., IF ’63         Harpreet Mahajan, CERT ’80              Stuart Grant Meredith, MIA ’88
 Paul Krzywicki                          Toby Lanzer, MIA ’92              Gregory Sidney Mahoney, MIA ’00         Michael G. Merin, MIA ’84, IF ’84,
 Alan B. Kubarek                         John Lastavica                    Melinda B. Maidens, MIA ’76, CERT ’76      CERT ’84
 Rebecca Morris Kuhar, MPA ’98           Boleslaw T. Laszewski             M. Srdjan Maljkovic                     Alexandra Merle-Huet, MIA ’04
 Bruno Kuhmerker                         Lubomir Lausevich                 M. Rade Malkovich                       Edward J. Meros
 Manish Kumar, MPA ’07                   Mel Laytner, MIA ’72              Elizabeth A. Mallonee                   Stephen Allen Messinger, MIA ’89,
 Piotr J. Kumelowski                     Dimitris P. Lazopoulos, MIA ’83   Jerrold L. Mallory, Esq., MIA ’83,         IF ’89
 Jose Kuri, MPA ’99                      Patrick Joseph Leahy, MIA ’89        CERT ’83                             Calvin Marshall Mew, IF ’72
 Peter O. Kurz, MIA ’76                  Lily Ho Leavitt, MIA ’96          Roy Andrew Malmrose, MIA ’84            Sylvia Schmidt Mgaieth, MIA ’01
 Walter Kuskowski                        Amb. Nelson C. Ledsky, MIA ’53    Lawrence H. Mamiya, IF ’68              Jia Mi, MPA ’04
 Donald Ha Kwon, MPA ’05                 Angela F. Lee, MIA ’99            Francesco Mancini, MIA ’03              Frank J. Miceli, MIA ’92
 Susanne Kyzivat, MIA ’84                Jane Lee, MIA ’93                 Angelo Michael Mancino, MPA ’03         Thomas R. Michelmore, MIA ’74
 Chrissa M. La Porte, MIA ’05            Lynn F. Lee, MIA ’57              Harvey J. Mandel MD, PC                 Beth S. Michelson, IF ’97
 Miguel Emilio La Rota, MPA ’07          Sang Yup Lee, MIA ’07             Andrew Thomas Mangan, IF ’84            Daniela Nemec Micsan, MIA ’83, CERT ’83
 Darwin R. Labarthe, MD, IF ’62          Denis Paul Legault, MPA ’97       Theodore E. Mankovich, IF ’71           Christoph Roman Mikulaschek, MIA ’07
 Laurin L. Laderoute Jr., Esq., IF ’66   Lehman Brothers, Inc.             Ida May H. Mantel, MIA ’64              Gregory L. Miles, MIA ’79
 Polly Nora Lagana, MPA ’04              Rebecca Bebe Leicht, MIA ’07      Robert B. Mantel, MIA ’63               Stanislaw A. Milewski, MD
 Sergio Thomas Lagunes, MIA ’05          Matt Leighninger, MPA ’94         Daniel Marchishin                       Zoran Milkovich

 4 4 S I PA N E W S
                                                                                                                             DONOR LIST               S I PA

Adin Calis Miller, MPA ’96             Behzad Dargahi Noubary, MIA ’07          Maya V. Petrovic                      Linda M. Richards, MIA ’78
Rosa Miller                            Lila Fatemeh Noury, MIA ’06              Pfizer Foundation                     Alvin Richman, MIA ’60
Thomas P. Milligan, MIA ’85, IF ’85,   Jane K. Nugent                           Catherine Anne Pfordresher, MPA ’97   Scott Andrew Richman, MIA ’91
   CERT ’85                            Noelle King O’Connor, IF ’84             Jonathan Locke Philipsborn, MPA ’07   Rita Angela Ricobelli Corradi, MIA ’99
George R. Milner Jr., MIA ’49          Robert J. O’Connor                       Phillips Nizer LLP                    Leslie K. Rider-Araki, IF ’81, MIA ’82
Norah Leckey Milner, MIA ’49           Peter Damian O’Driscoll, MIA ’97         Elizabeth M. Phillips, MIA ’79        Sara Beth Riese
Rudolf John Minar, MIA ’93             Steve Sohyun Oh, MIA ’07                 Michelle Eugenia Philp                Michael D. Riess, IF ’63, MIA ’66
Yusuke Miyazawa, MIA ’04               Harry John O’Hara, MIA ’91, IF ’91       The Phoenix Foundation, Inc.          Michael Russell Rill, MIA ’84
Edward T. Mohylowski                   Haruhisa Ohtsuka, MIA ’05                Maurice J. Picard, MIA ’61            Sara Ruth Rioff, MIA ’07
Maria D. Molinero, MIA ’91             Amy Elizabeth O’Keefe, MIA ’04           Andrew J. Pierre, MIA ’57, IF ’61     Slobodan Ristic, MIA ’90, CERT ’90
Redmond Kathleen Molz                  Christina Marie Oliver, MPA ’04          Reka R. Pigniczky, MIA ’98            Austin D. Ritterspach, IF ’63
Ewa Monsul, DMD                        Clarence W. Olmstead Jr., Esq., IF ’67   Jeffrey M. Pines, MD, IF ’71          Eduardo Rivas, MIA ’04
Shelagh Lynne Montgomery, MIA ’92      Onuwabhagbe Abbey Omokhodion,            David W. Pinkham, IF ’69/Stanwood-    Richard C. Robarts, IF ’61, MIA ’62
Jeffrey Gordon Moore, MIA ’85,            MIA ’00                                  Camano News, Inc.                  Richard G. Robbins Jr., CERT ’65
   CERT ’85                            Yalman Onaran, MIA ’93                   Vanessa Pino Lockel, MPA ’03          Debra Leigh Robertson, MPA ’02
Morgan Stanley Foundation              Kevin P. O’Neil, MIA ’85                 Gerald A. Pinsky, MIA ’55             Alina Mercedes Rocha Menocal, MIA ’98
Walter N. Morgan                       Bart Jan Sebastian Oosterveld, MPA ’97   Tas Ling Pinther, MIA ’94             Ettore Rochlitzer
Charlotte T. Morgan-Cato, MIA ’67      Mary Ann Oppenheimer, MIA ’69            Piper Jaffray Companies, Inc.         Dawn McGuinness Rodeschin, MIA ’02
James C. Mori, MIA ’80                 Davin O’Regan, MIA ’07                   Najma Naheed Pirzada, MIA ’03         Rodman Family Trust
Walter J. Morris/Morris Living Trust   Glenn Paul Orloff, MIA ’88               Peter S. Pitarys                      Dorena Lynn Rodriguez, MPA ’96
Emily Susan Morse                      Angela Ortiz                             Robert Walter Pitulej, MPA ’96        Sarah L. Leon Rodriguez
Raymond Basho Mosko, MIA ’07           Bruce A. Ortwine, MIA ’78                Thomas Guenter Plagemann, MIA ’91     Riordan J. A. Roett III, MIA ’61
Juan A. Mosquera                       Joseph Osenni Jr., MPA ’79               Steven J. Plofsky, MIA ’80            Jose Luis Rojas Villarreal, MIA ’00
Henry W. Mott III, CERT ’57            Timothy J. C. O’Shea, IF ’84, MIA ’85,   Polish Veterans of World War II,      Deborah Hannon Rosenblum, MIA ’89
Ann Mrkic Zgonena                         CERT ’85                                 S.P.K. Inc.                        Kathryn Ann Rosenblum, MIA ’86
Donald M. Mrvos, MD                    Tomoyuki Oshino, MIA ’07                 Cary Neil Pollack, MIA ’71            Richard H. Rosensweig, MIA ’68
Catherine J Mulvey, MPA ’05            Poldy Paola Osorio Alvarez               Maurice A. Pollet                     Glenda G. Rosenthal, CERT ’71
Lynette Yabes Munez, MPA ’99           Cesar Oswaldo Osorio Flores, MPA ’ ’07   Maria Popov                           Bradford Alan Rothschild, MIA ’95,
Christine Munn, MIA ’81                Kimberly Ostrowski                       Richard P. Poremski                       CERT ’96
James Frederick Munsell, MIA ’07       Michael Brendan O’Sullivan, MIA ’07      Tomasz Potworowski                    Seymour Rotter, PhD, CERT ’49
Erika Munter, MIA ’96                  Yuko Otsuki, MIA ‘07                     Melissa A. Poueymirou                 Richard C. Rowson, MIA ’50
Rachid Murad, MPA ’04                  Laura Otterbourg, MIA ‘87                Leila Pourarkin, MPA ’07              Moises Rudelman, MIA ’01
Dawn Celeste Murphy, MIA ’04           Jerzy A. Owczarek                        Margaret Edsall Powell, MIA ’01       Michele Aimee Ruehs Steinbuch, MIA ’00
Nancy L. Musselwhite, MIA ’82,         Marilyn G. Ozer, MIA ’71                 Professor Kenneth Prewitt             George F. Ruffner, MIA ’72
   CERT ’82                            William M. Packard, MD, IF ’70           Jeffrey D. Pribor, Esq., IF ’82       Robert R. Ruggiero
Robert O. Myhr, MIA ’62                Elizabeth Sherrerd Page, MPA ’98         Beatriz Prieto-Oramas, MIA ’05        Nona J. Russell, MPA ’85
Myoe Myint                             Chhandasi Pradeep Pandya, MIA ’07        Joseph Procopio, MIA ’72              Thomas J. Russo, CERT ’76
Anna K. Nabelek                        Gerard J. Papa, IF ’74                   Amelia Estelle Prounis, MIA ’87       Benjamin Robert Ryan, MIA ’07
Jonathan Jacob Nadler, MPA ’81         Joyce Ellen Papes, MIA ’83               Paula Marie Puhak, MPA ’07            Michael Rywkin, CERT ’60
Arti Singh Nain                        Lynn Elizabeth Paquin, MPA ’96           Rajiv Krishna Punja, MIA ’07          Maysoon M. Sabkar, MIA ’97
Jad Najjar, MIA ’07                    Jee Hoon Park, MIA ’07                   Camille C. Purvis, MIA ’99            Sabre Holdings
Sawa Nakagawa                          Jung Sook Park                           Bruce Rabb, Esq.                      Anthony R. Saccomano, MIA ’70
Prof. James I. Nakamura                Kendra Park, MIA ’07                     Keith Warren Rabin, MIA ’90           Lisa R. Sacks, MPA ’01
Y. Jane Nakano, MIA ’01                Maxime Parmentier                        Serena Whiteman Rachels, CERT ’67     Carlos Saenz, MIA ’07
Yasutaka Nakasone                      Joana Pascual, MIA ’07                   Mildred Radakovich                    Mark Edward Sajbel, MIA ’82
Bassam A. K. Namani, PhD, MIA ’76      Rebecca L. Pass, MPA ’07                 Patricia Radulovic                    Aisha Fariel Salahuddin
Divya Narayanan, MIA ’98               Louis L. Patalita                        Pia J. Raffler                        Lisa A. Sales
Frances E. Nathan                      Amal Shashikant Patel, MIA ’02           Chitra Raghavacharya, MIA ’01         Anne O’Toole Salinas, MIA ’96, CERT ’96
Peter Ryan Natiello, MIA ’90, IF ’90   Grant R. Patrick, MIA ’81                Zaki Tiedje Raheem                    Jill Beth Salmon, MIA ’05
Karol Nawarynski                       Barbara Paumgarten                       Vikram Raju, MIA ’97                  Russell O. Salmon, CERT ’69
Lori Anne Neal, MPA ’02                John A. Pecoul, IF ’64                   Maminirina Rakotoarisoa               Alexandra Lisa Salomon, MIA ’99
Michele Diane Needham, MPA ’92         Eric Albert Peltzer                      Rene A. Ramos, MPA ’07                Joseph Andrew Samborsky, MPA ’04
Stephen S. Nelmes, MIA ’73             Capt. Richard J. Pera, MIA ’79           Timothy Paul Ramsey, MIA ’93          Joyce C. Samuel
Oksana Dackiw Nesterczuk, MIA ’81,     Jose Peralta/195 Claremont Food, Inc.    Andrea L. Rankin, MPA ’97             Patricia A. Samwick, MIA ’75
   CERT ’81                            Don Peretz                               Adam Clive Raphaely, MPA ’07          Alicia Sanchez
Stephanie G. Neuman                    Beth B. Perez                            Julie Ratner                          Fernando S. Sanchez, MIA ’90
Richard T. Newman, MIA ’51             Steve A. Perez, MIA ’07                  Gary J. Reardon, MPA ’80              Stephanie Mara Sand, MPA ’05
David A. Newsome, MD, IF ’66           Eric Robert Perino, MIA ’07              Shravya Kolli Reddy                   Gonzalo Jose Sanz Perez, MPA ’07
Ann Nicol, MIA ’77                     Andrew Knox Perkins, MIA ’85,            Meghan Elizabeth Redmond, MIA ’07     Alejandro Sarasti, MPA ’07
Marla Nierenberg Hanan, MPA ’97           CERT ’85                              Helen Reeve, CERT ’54                 German Sarmiento, MIA ’07
Elizabeth Ninan                        Jack R. Perry, CERT ’58                  Marvin M. Reiss, MIA ’87/Arabesque    Philip Nathaniel Sawyer, MIA ’87/Philip
Junko Nishikawa                        Eric David Perugini, MPA ’05                Recordings LLC                         Sawyer Designs & Associates LLC
Laura Nicole Nishikawa                 Dragan S. Petakov                        Edmund O. Reiter, CERT ’61            Sara Elizabeth Schaefer, MIA ’02
Eri Noguchi, MPA ’93                   Mariana S. Petermann, MIA ’94            Catherine Rekai                       Herbert A. Schectman, Esq., MIA ’58
Walter R. Nolan                        Sophie Miskiewicz Peters, CERT ’76       Janet S. Resele-Tiden, MIA ’92        Kenneth J. Scheffler
Carolyn M. Nomura, MIA ’76             Ned King Peterson, MIA ’07               Reuters America Inc.                  Mark J. Scher
Tamara H. Norris, MPA ’88              Patrick Edward Peterson, MIA ’07         Margaret Reynolds                     Sebastian Schienle
Bradley S. Norton, MPA ’02             Robert A. Peterson, IF ’79               Michael I. Rhee, MIA ’94              Lilli deBrito Schindler, MIA ’90

                                                                                                                                        S I PA N E W S 4 5
DONOR LIST              SI PA

 Scott Ronald Schless, MIA ’87              Gloria D. Sosin                          Todor Todorovski, MIA ’07                   Ljubomir Vujovic
 Eric S. Schmier                            Aimee Duncan Sostowski, MIA ’07          Kenneth H. Toepfer, MIA ’53                 Kenichi Wada, MIA ’05
 Julia C. Schmitt-Krahmer                   Stephen H. Spahn, IF ’65                 Maria Tomasz                                Samuel Robert Wade, MPA ’07
 Allison H. Schovee, MIA ’85                Nicholas J. Spiliotes, Esq., IF ’79,     Jennifer Elizabeth Toth, MIA ’04            Clark David Wagner, MIA ’85
 Gary Scott Schumann, MIA ’91                   CERT ’79                             Andrew P. Tothy                             Maria M. Waite-Nied, MPA ’82
 Matthew Louis Schumann, MIA ’07            Peter Spiller, MIA ’68                   Ruth E. Townsend                            Sarah A. Walbert, MIA ’80
 David J. Schurman, MD, IF ’63              Susannah R. Spodek, MIA ’97              Elizabeth D. Trafelet, MIA ’03              Henry Walentowicz
 Christina Cathey Schutz, Esq., MIA ’07     Marisa C. Stadtmauer, MPA ’93            John Christopher Traylor, MPA ’89           Roy C. Walker, MIA ’93
 Ana S. Schwartz, MIA ’82                   Nancellen Stahl, MIA ’83                 Gabrielle Louise Miller Trebat, MIA ’99     Marc McGowan Wall, MIA ’75, IF ’75
 Helen Sebastian                            Sally J. Staley, MIA ’80                 Eugene J. Trela                             Jeffrey Gene Waller, MIA ’02
 Charles A. Seelig, MPA ’84                 Robert David Stang, MPA ’84              Cathy Rivara Trezza, MIA ’85                Anthony W. Wan/Signature Builders, LLC
 Lynn A. Seirup, MIA ’80                    T. Stapleton, MIA ’01                    Edward Trickey, MIA ’88                     Jenny Xiao Ming Wang, MPA ’01
 Kaoruko Seki, MIA ’93, IF ’93              State Street Foundation                  Ma. Cherrylin Villasenor Trinidad,          Joy C. Wang, MPA ’01
 Katherine J. Sekowski                      Nicolas J. Stefano, MIA ’07                 MIA ’07                                  Deborah Elizabeth Ward, MPA ’94
 Albert L. Seligmann, MIA ’49               Irena Stefanova, MPA ’07                 Jennifer Andich Trotsko, MIA ’97,           The Washington Post Company
 Irwin S. Selnick, CERT ’78                 Branislava Stefanovic-Skoko                 CERT ’97                                 Rebecca VanLandingham Waugh,
 Marc Jay Selverstone, MIA ’92              Lisa Steinburg, MIA ’89                  Christopher G. Trump, IF ’62                    MIA ’00
 Steven Harold Semenuk, MPA ’90             Claire S. Stelter                        Wilhelmina Tsang                            Egon E. Weck, MIA ’49
 Francesco D’assisi Sensidoni               David Hunter Stephens, MIA ’84, IF ’84   Nicholas B. Tsocanos, MIA ’99               Kimberly Anne Wedel, MPA ’88
 Nina Maria Serafino, MIA ’76               James Mead Stephenson, MIA ’07           April Rae Tubbs, MPA ’07                    Constance D. Weems, CERT ’60
 Karen Serota                               Alan Stern, MIA ’68                      Abby S. Tucker, MIA ’85                     Rhoda S. Weidenbaum, PhD, CERT ’55
 Ryan James Severino, MIA ’04               Clyde Donald Stoltenberg, MIA ’85        Eric D. Tucker, MIA ’84                     Colleen Marie Weigle, MPA ’07
 Nahid Seyedsayamdost, MIA ’01              Megan Stouffer, MPA ’07                  Alisa Fatma Tugberk, MIA ’06                Benjamin Richard Weil, MIA ’92,
 Vilma Shabani, MIA ’07                     Mark Alexander Stover, MIA ’04           Yasemin Tugce Tumer, MPA ’07                    CERT ’92
 Amelia Bates Shachoy, MPA ’88              John Kelly Strader, MIA ’80, CERT ’80    Alper A. Tunca, MPA ’05                     Lois D. Weinert, CERT ’51
 Anuj A. Shah, MIA ’05                      William Paul Strain, MPA ’07             Daniel B. Tunstall, MIA ’68                 Paul J. Weinstein Jr., MIA ’87
 Beth Shair, MIA ’94                        Jukka-Pekka Strand, MIA ’07              Madeline T. Turci, MIA ’81                  Gary Michael Weiskopf, MPA ’87
 Jennifer Shaoul, MPA ’90                   Daniel A. Strasser                       Robert F. Turetsky, MIA ’72                 Rozanne G. Weiss
 Paul A. Shapiro, MIA ’70                   Michael Andrew Streeto, MIA ’89          Lyazzat Tursynbayeva                        Marilyn S. Wellemeyer, MIA ’68
 David P. Shark, MIA ’75                    Allison McCullagh Strype                 Rev. Jaroslav B. Tusek Jr., MIA ’75         Arch. Szczepan Wesoly
 Camilla Violet Sharples                    Adriana Suarez Pardo, MIA ’07            Sharmila Hainum Tuttle, MIA ’05             Donald F. Wheeler, CERT ’71
 Sofija Shashkina                           Diane R. Suhler, MIA ’73                 Donald J. Twombly, MIA ’73                  Catherine Aileen White, MPA ’04
 Peter W. Sheats, MIA ’67, IF ’67           Kamala Sukosol, MIA ’60                  Carolyn Louise Tyson, MIA ’89               Alda T. Whitt, MIA ’72
 Jeffrey Sheban, MIA ’86                    Witold S. Sulimirski                     Yasuhiro Ueki, MIA ’79, CERT ’79            Dana Lynn Wichterman, MIA ’88
 Angela Missouri Sherman-Peter, MIA ’04     Cihan A. Sultanoglu, MIA ’81             Letitia W. Ufford                           Gerard William Wicklin Jr., MIA ’84
 Lei Shi                                    J. Scott Sutliff, MIA ’92                Christie Marie Ulman                        Helgard Wienert-Cakim, MIA ’62
 M. Takenori Shigemitsu                     Elina Sverdlova, MIA ’07                 Gadi Ungar, MIA ‘07                         Barbara Wierzbianski
 Betsy Pollack Shimberg, MPA ’97            William H. Swartz Jr., IF ‘68, MIA ’69   United Colors, Inc./Slawomir A. Korzan      Jill Sue Wilkins, MIA ’ ’91
 Yumi Shindo, MPA ’05                       Alison Kimberly Swenton, MIA ‘00         United Way of Tri-State                     H. David Willey, IF ’63
 Rekha Shukla, MIA ’92                      Stanley P. Swiderski                     Prof. Miguel Urquiola                       Rev. Edward S. Winsor, MIA ’54
 Marshall D. Shulman, CERT ’48              John Temple Swing                        Reina Utsunomiya                            Merle Beth Wise, MPA ’88
 Mark E. Siegelman, MIA ’80                 Emilia Szymanski                         Frederic Joseph Vagnini II, MIA ’89         Krystyna Wisniewski
 Lillian Siemion                            Jahan Fard Tabatabaie, MIA ’01           Daniel D. Valle, MPA ’89                    Matthew David Wittenstein
 Kathryn Angel Sikkink, CERT ’84            Ines Tabka, MIA ’93                      Nancy L. van Itallie, MIA ’02               Stanley J. Wlodarczyk
 Melvyn J. Simburg, Esq., MIA ’71, IF ’71   Nancy Stuart Taggart, MIA ’97            Felicia D. Van Praagh                       Susan Hammond Wolford, MIA ’79
 George W. Simmonds, CERT ’52               L. Trigg Talley Jr., MIA ’92             Anmol Vanamali, MIA ’07                     Donna C. Wonnacott, CERT ’60
 Benjamin Lee Simmons, Esq., MIA ’00        Shu Tamaura, MIA ’07                     Lucia Vancura, MIA ’06                      Ronald G. Woodbury, IF ’66
 Stuart Simon, MIA ’78                      Alice Ayling Tan, MPA ’01                Eileen D. Vandoros, MIA ’70                 Chang-Chuan Wu, CERT ’69
 Willard M. Sims III, MIA ’97               Joanna A. Tan, MIA ’95                   Jorge Luis Vargas, MIA ’98                  Dana Ying-Hui Wu, MPA ’92
 Kuldip K. Singh, MIA ’77                   Gail Tang, MPA ’07                       Herbert Paul Varley Jr., CERT ’61           Michele M. Wucker, MIA ’93, CERT ’93
 Vikram Jeet Singh, MIA ’03                 Li Tang, MPA ’07                         Christopher Michael Vaughn, MIA ’02         Stephen Michel Wunker, MPA ’96
 Deborah A. Singiser, MIA ’95               Kaori Iwasaki Tani, MIA ’07              Ilona Jaramillo Vega, MIA ’94               Norman G. Wycoff, MIA ’50
 Harendra L. Sirisena, MIA ’92              Florence Tatistcheff-Amzallag, MIA ’76   Milos M. Velimirovic                        Eri Yamaguchi
 Vicki Sittenfeld, MPA ’82                  Eda Franzetti Tato, MIA ’80              James Michael Vener, MPA ’07                Hideo Yanai, MIA ’96
 Lori Rossner Skapper, MIA ’91              William C. Taubman, IF ’63, CERT ’65     Karen L. Verlaque, MIA ’94                  Eveline Siling Yang, MIA ’07
 Yael Slater                                Elsabeth T. Tedros, MIA ’07              Edward J. Vernoff, MIA ’68                  Katherine Yang
 Jenna Eleni Slotin, MIA ’07                Myrna C. Tengco, MPA ’05                 Amb. Alexander R. Vershbow, MIA ’76,        Kyunghee Yang, MPA ’00
 Elizabeth Ann Smith, MPA ’04               Nickolas John Themelis                      CERT ’76                                 Sonia Eun Joo Yeo, MIA ’00
 Matthew Paul Smith                         Paul A. Thompson, MIA ’73                Alexander S. Vesselinovitch, Esq., IF ’78   Esma Ozge Yildiz
 N. Diane Smith, MIA ’80                    Scott Christian Thompson, MIA ’97        Frederic Pierre Vigneron, MIA ’83           Kamil Yilmaz, MIA ’07
 Richard M. Smith, IF ’69                   Jennifer Rachel Thomson, MIA ’97         Milagros Villa-Garcia Miranda               Zhijing Yin, MPA ’03
 Scott Seward Smith, MIA ’98                Kathleen Sonia Thomson                   Nitya Viswanathan                           Ka-Che Yip
 Roberto E. Socas, MIA ’55                  Anna Throne-Holst, MIA ’06               Justin Gregory Vogt, MIA ’07                Harry M. Yohalem, Esq., MIA ’69
 Elaine Carol Soffer, MPA ’83               Meghan E.W. Tierney, MIA ’07             Maike von Heymann                           Osamu Yoshida, MPA ’99
 Richard J. Soghoian, IF ’65                Anna Tikonoff, MPA ’07                   Conrad Martin von Igel, MPA ’07             Drew M. Young II, MIA ’72, IF ’74,
 Debra E. Soled, MIA ’82, CERT ’83          Joel I. Tirschwell, MIA ’62              Alexander von Ziegesar, MIA ’05                 CERT ’75
 Juan A. Somavia, MIA ’98                   Stephen E. Tisman, Esq., IF ’72          Jayati Pradeep Vora, MIA ’07                Mark Donald Young, MPA ’91
 Anna Somos, MIA ’07                        Paul S. Tkachuk                          Dragan D. Vuckovic                          William Jack Young Jr., MPA ’90

 4 6 S I PA N E W S
                                                                                                                         DONOR LIST                 S I PA

Michael Yun, MPA ’05                    Veronica Lucia Alvarez, MPA ’07
Fiona Chia-Hsin Yung, MIA ’01           Dean Lisa S. Anderson, CERT ’76
Mischa Alessandro Zabotin, MIA ’89      Toshihide Aotake, MPA ’07
Walter Zachariasiewicz                  Maria Eugenia Apergis, MIA ’07
Alicia A. Zadrozna-Fiszman              Bethany Allyson Aquilina
Fereidoon Zahedi                        Spiridon Ardavanis, MIA ’07
Laura Anne Zaks, MIA ’05                Patrick Sylvestre Augustin, MPA ’07
Laura Ellen Zeiger Hatfield, MIA ’89,   Elena Avesani, MIA ’07
   CERT ’89                             Pamela Maria Ayuso, MIA ’07
Xiaonan Zhang, MPA ’07                  Abhinav Bahl
Alyson Marie Zikmund, MPA ’06           Shai Bandner
Andrew W. Zimmerman, MD, IF ’68         Lauralea Ellen Banks
Zora Zimmerman                          Adam M. Barcan, MIA ’07
Sina Vanja Zintzmeyer, MPA ’07          Christoph Barchewitz, MPA ’07
Julie Margaretta Zissimopoulos, PhD,    Aimee Elise Keli’i Barnes, MPA ’07
   MIA ’93                              Desiree A. Baron
Jonathan Zorach, CERT ’72               Kate Alyssa Bashford
Dominik Zotti                           Samuel Martin Baumann, MIA ’07
Karen S. Zuckerstein, MIA ’75           Eldar Beisimbekov
                                        Joshua Howat Berger, MIA ’07
Matching Organizations                  Maria Luisa Betancur, MIA ’07
American International Group, Inc.      Alison A. Binkowski
Bank of America Foundation              David Samuel Blakeslee
BlackRock, Inc.                         Lylyana Jelka Bogdanovich, MPA ’07
Carnegie Corporation of New York        Patrick Francis Bohan
The Coca-Cola Foundation                David Weldon Boswell, MPA ’07
Constellation Energy Group              Aurelien Antoine Boyer, MIA ’07
   Foundation, Inc.                     Franka Barbara Braun
Deutsche Bank Americas Foundation       Alessandra Bravi
Dow Jones & Company, Inc.               Marisa J. Buchanan, MPA ’07
Edison International                    Kalyani Rammohan Bulfer, MPA ’07
Ernst & Young Foundation                Wisit Bunyaritthipong
ExxonMobil Foundation                   Hollis Ottilia Calhoun, MPA ’07
Gannett Foundation, Inc.                Lee A. Calhoun, MPA ’07
GE Foundation                           Scott Stewart Cameron
Global Impact                           Janet Canver
Goldman, Sachs & Company                Michael Mustafa Carim, MPA ’07
HSBC Bank USA                           Jacqueline Joann Carpenter
IBM International Foundation            Wenndy Carrasco
The Johnson Family Foundation           Jorge Alberto Cervantes
Kaplan Educational Centers              Gustavo Cerello Chacra, MIA ’07       Chinonso Tochukwu Emehelu           Andrea Golfari
Lehman Brothers, Inc.                   Mario A. Chamorro, MIA ’07            Cornelia Mai Ercklentz              Isabel Molina Gonzalez, MPA ’07
Mellon Financial Corporation Fund       Hai-Chiao Chang, MPA ’07              Jacqueline Escobar, MPA ’07         Amaya Gorostiaga
Merrill Lynch & Co. Foundation, Inc.    Charalambos Leonidas Charalambides,   David Andres Falconi, MPA ’07       Erika Nicole Gottfried, MIA ’07
MetLife Foundation                         MPA ’07                            Islam Galal Farghaly                Paige Ellen Mahon Granger
Microsoft Corporation                   Winifred Debbie Chen, MPA ’07         Stephen Francis Farrell, MPA ’07    Gaurav Gujral, MPA ’07
The Moody’s Foundation                  Ada Chirapaisarnkul, MIA ’07          Almudena Fernandez                  Anna Lissa Gutierrez
Morgan Stanley Foundation               Ahreum Cho, MIA ’07                   Alexandra Daves Fiorillo, MIA ’07   Linda Haddad
Pfizer Foundation                       Jefferson Clarke, MPA ’07             James Fonda, MPA ’07                Alyssa Hagen
Phillips Nizer LLP                      Ludmilla Maria Coccia                 Irene O. L. Fong                    Brandon James Hall, MIA ’07
The Phoenix Foundation, Inc.            Vasanta Andrew Collins, MIA ’07       Nicole Eugenia Foster               Melissa Sue Hall, MIA ’07
Piper Jaffray Companies, Inc.           JoAnn T. Crawford                     David Christopher Francis           Lucy Gemma Hargreaves, MPA ’07
Reuters America Inc.                    Erich Cripton                         April L. Frederick, MIA ’07         Helene Genevieve Harroff-Tavel
Sabre Holdings                          Brooke Dufresne Cutler                Lossie M. Freeman                   Rick T. Henson, MPA ’07
Charles Schwab Corporation Foundation   Leanna Ali Dakik, MPA ’07             Scarlett Lopez Freeman              Waichi Ho, MPA ’07
State Street Foundation                 Probal DasGupta, MIA ’07              Abigail Crosbie Frost, MIA ’07      Edit Horvath, MPA ’07
UBS                                     Philippe Dauba-Pantanacce, MIA ’07    Shannon L. Gaffney                  Yehia Saad Houry, MIA ’07
Wachovia Foundation                     Ivania de la Cruz Orozco              Colleen D. Galbraith                Allison Jane Howard, MIA ’07
The Washington Post Company             Toni Elizabeth Dechario, MIA ‘’07     Asif Iqbal E. Gangat                Jade Huang
Wells Fargo Foundation                  Anthony Deckoff, MIA ’07              Sharmeen Gangat                     Nuray Nazli Inal
                                        Mauren Devolder, MIA ’07              C. Robert Garris                    Ignacio Inda Arriaga, MIA ’06
Class Gift 2007                         Carissa Anna Garcia Dizon             Clara Irene Gaztelu, MPA ’07        Farhod Inogambaev, MIA ’07
Sue Aimee Aguilar                       Daniel Doktori, MIA ’07               Kimberly Elizabeth Gilbert Sykes    Ishita Islam
Patricia Marie Aguilo, MPA ’07          Grant M. Duers                        Joseph Michael Gilbride             Eri Iwata, MIA ’07
Hyun Jung Ahn                           Tonina Dumic                          Alessandro Girola                   Meena Jagannath, MIA ’07
Ming Ai                                 Noor-un-nisa Durrani                  Adam Spencer Glatzer, MPA ’07       Carolina Jaramillo, MPA ’07
Hatice Akkaya Karayol                   Steven Jeffrey Ehrlich                Birgit Gocht                        Su’ad Ali Jarbawi, MIA ’07
Isabel Alvarez Norma, MPA ’07           Isaac Manfred Elfstrom, MIA ’07       Ian Matthew Goldsweig, MIA ’07      Jong Hyun Jeon

                                                                                                                                   S I PA N E W S 4 7
DONOR LIST             SI PA

 Velika Kabakchieva, MPA ’07                Laura Nicole Nishikawa                   Elina Sverdlova, MIA ’07             James Michael Vener, MPA ’07
 Patrick Mfumu Kabasele, MIA ’07            Behzad Dargahi Noubary, MIA ’07          Shu Tamaura, MIA ’07                 Milagros Villa-Garcia Miranda
 Kamil Kaluza, MPA ’06                      Milica Obradovic, MIA ’07, CERT ’07      Gail Tang, MPA ’07                   Nitya Viswanathan
 Alexander Gerard Kamp, MIA ’07             Steve Sohyun Oh, MIA ’07                 Li Tang, MPA ’07                     Justin Gregory Vogt, MIA ’07
 Farida Kassin, MPA ’07                     Davin O’Regan, MIA ’07                   Kaori Iwasaki Tani, MIA ’07          Maike von Heymann
 Madina Kassymbayeva                        Angela Ortiz                             Elsabeth T. Tedros, MIA ’07          Conrad Martin von Igel, MPA ’07
 Ayuko Kato                                 Tomoyuki Oshino, MIA ’07                 Kathleen Sonia Thomson               Jayati Pradeep Vora, MIA ’07
 Tomoo Kato                                 Poldy Paola Osorio Alvarez               Paul Wayne Thurman                   Samuel Robert Wade, MPA ’07
 Eliana Katsiaouni, MIA ’07                 Cesar Oswaldo Osorio Flores, MPA ’07     Meghan E. W. Tierney, MIA ’07        Colleen Marie Weigle, MPA ’07
 Sara Rachael Kaufman, MPA ’07              Kimberly Ostrowski                       Anna Tikonoff, MPA ’07               Matthew David Wittenstein
 Ioannis Achilleas Kefalogiannis, MIA ’07   Michael Brendan O’Sullivan, MIA ’07      Todor Todorovski, MIA ’07            Eri Yamaguchi
 Jessie McClintock Kelly, MIA ’07           Yuko Otsuki, MIA ’07                     Ma. Cherrylin Villasenor Trinidad,   Eveline Siling Yang, MIA ‘07
 Kristina Louisa Margriet Kempkey           Chhandasi Pradeep Pandya, MIA ’07           MIA ’07                           Katherine Yang
 Stephen Patrick Keppel, MIA ’07            Jee Hoon Park, MIA ’07                   Wilhelmina Tsang                     Esma Ozge Yildiz
 Farrukh Iqbal Khan, Esq.                   Jung Sook Park                           April Rae Tubbs, MPA ’07             Kamil Yilmaz, MIA ’07
 Hina Khan                                  Kendra Park, MIA ’07                     Yasemin Tugce Tumer, MPA ’07         Xiaonan Zhang, MPA ’07
 Steven Jae Kim, MPA ’07                    Maxime Parmentier                        Lyazzat Tursynbayeva                 Sina Vanja Zintzmeyer, MPA ’07
 Koichi Kimura                              Joana Pascual, MIA ’07                   Christie Marie Ulman                 Dominik Zotti
 Nina Kishore, MPA ’07                      Rebecca L. Pass, MPA ’07                 Prof. Miguel Urquiola
 Stian Kjeksrud, MIA ’07                    Eric Albert Peltzer                      Reina Utsunomiya
 Paulo Francisco Kluber                     Steve A. Perez, MIA ’07
 Arpine Kocharyan                           Eric Robert Perino, MIA ’07
 Jaime Tackett Koppel, MPA ’07              Ned King Peterson, MIA ’07
 Daniel Mayer Kosinski, MPA ’07             Patrick Edward Peterson, MIA ’07
 Eric Kimball Kostrowski                    Jonathan Locke Philipsborn, MPA ’07
 Manish Kumar, MPA ’07                      Michelle Eugenia Philp
 Miguel Emilio La Rota, MPA ’07             Melissa A. Poueymirou
 Sange Lama, MPA ’07                        Leila Pourarkin, MPA ’07
 Sang Yup Lee, MIA ’07                      Paula Marie Puhak, MPA ’07
 Rebecca Bebe Leicht, MIA ’07               Rajiv Krishna Punja, MIA ’07
 Jennifer Olissa Leshnower, MPA ’07         Pia J. Raffler
 Amanda Rose L’Esperance, MIA ’07           Zaki Tiedje Raheem
 David Yifong Li                            Maminirina Rakotoarisoa
 Chelsee Lisbon                             Rene A. Ramos, MPA ’07
 Christine P. Liu, MPA ’07                  Adam Clive Raphaely, MPA ’07
 Jiayi Liu, MIA ’07                         Shravya Kolli Reddy
 Xianghui Liu, MIA ’07                      Meghan Elizabeth Redmond, MIA ’07
 Sherr Yun Lo, MPA ’07                      Margaret Reynolds
 Yi Lu                                      Sara Beth Riese
 Lai Luo                                    Sara Ruth Rioff, MIA ’07
 Patricia M. Macken                         Benjamin Robert Ryan, MIA ’07
 Benjamin Edward Madgett, MPA ’07           Carlos Saenz, MIA ’07
 Harpreet Mahajan, CERT ’80                 Aisha Fariel Salahuddin
 Francesco Mancini, MIA ’03                 Gonzalo Jose Sanz Perez, MPA ’07
 Sylvain David Marpeau-Roussel, MPA ’07     Alejandro Sarasti, MPA ’07
 Yasuyuki Matsui                            German Sarmiento, MIA ’07
 Elizabeth Wairimu Mbau                     Kenneth J. Scheffler
 Cary Palmer McClelland, MIA ’07            Sebastian Schienle
 Albert Dan McIntyre                        Julia C. Schmitt-Krahmer
 Molly Michael McMahon                      Matthew Louis Schumann, MIA ’07
 Daniel Joseph McSweeney, MIA ’07           Christina Cathey Schutz, Esq., MIA ’07
 Matias Mednik                              Francesco D’assisi Sensidoni
 Alexandra Alison Meise, MPA ’07            Vilma Shabani, MIA ’07
 Elizabeth Dewar Mendenhall                 Camilla Violet Sharples
 Yerdos K. Mendybayev                       Lei Shi
 Sandrine Mariette Merckaert                Yael Slater
 Christoph Roman Mikulaschek, MIA ’07       Jenna Eleni Slotin, MIA ’07
 Emily Susan Morse                          Matthew Paul Smith
 Raymond Basho Mosko, MIA ’07               Anna Somos, MIA ’07
 Juan A. Mosquera                           Aimee Duncan Sostowski, MIA ’07
 James Frederick Munsell, MIA ’07           Nicolas J. Stefano, MIA ’07
 Myoe Myint                                 Irena Stefanova, MPA ’07
 Arti Singh Nain                            James Mead Stephenson, MIA ’07
 Jad Najjar, MIA ’07                        Megan Stouffer, MPA ’07
 Sawa Nakagawa                              William Paul Strain, MPA ’07
 Yasutaka Nakasone                          Jukka-Pekka Strand, MIA ’07
 Elizabeth Ninan                            Allison McCullagh Strype
 Junko Nishikawa                            Adriana Suarez Pardo, MIA ’07

 4 8 S I PA N E W S
SIPA News is published biannually by SIPA’s Office of External Relations.

Managing Editor: JoAnn Crawford
Editors: Matteen Mokalla, Nilanjana Pal
Contributing writers: Lincoln Ajoku, Richard W. Bulliet, Jackie Carpenter, John H. Coatsworth, Daniela
Coleman, Rob Garris, Nichole Wong Gomez, Matt Klasen, Robert C. Lieberman, Matteen Mokalla, Jina
Moore, Sawa Nakagawa, Nilanjana Pal, Eduardo Peris Deprez, Samanth Subramanian, Paula Wilson

Contributing photographers: Eileen Barroso (page 37); Nina Berman/Redux (page 26); Tommaso
Bonaventura/Contrasto/Redux (pages 26–27); Gabriel Bouys/AFP/Getty Images (page 3); Francesco
Cocco/Contrasto/Redux (pages 24–25); Stephen Crowley/The New York Times/Redux (page 10);
Stephanie Dalton Cowan/Getty Images (page 15); Dave Cutler (page 6); Viktor Drachev/AFP/Getty
Images (page 30); Jeffrey Hamilton/Getty Images (page 4); Dirk Kemp (page 36); Joe Klamar/AFP/Getty
Images (page 23); Teh Eng Koon/AFP/Getty Images (page 27, right); Wally McNamee/Corbis (page 12);
Doug Mills/The New York Times/Redux (page 29); Karen Minasyan/AFP/Getty Images (page 33, left);
Eastcott Momatiuk/Getty Images (page 5); Per-Anders Pettersson/Getty Images (page 16); Inacio Rosa/
AFP/Getty Images (page 31); STRDEL/AFP/Getty Images (pages 18–19); Sergei Supinsky (page 22);
Juan Carlos Ulate/archivolatino/Redux (pages 28–29); Manan Vatsyayana/AFP/Getty Images (page 20);
Johan Warden/Getty Images (pages 8–9); Jim Watson/AFP/Getty Images (page 21); Toru Yamanaka/AFP/
Getty Images (page 32); Ahn Youing-joon/AP (page 33, right)

Cover Photograph: Peter Gridley/Getty Images

Design and Production: Office of University Publications

School of International and Public Affairs
Acting Dean: John H. Coatsworth
Associate Deans: Patrick Bohan, Rob Garris, Sara Mason, and Dan McIntyre

Office of External Relations:
Rob Garris, Associate Dean for External Relations and Communications
JoAnn Crawford, Director of Publications and Special Events
Daniela Coleman, Director of Alumni Relations
Melissa Poueymirou, Major Gifts Officer

Columbia University
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