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					                                                                                         SPICe
                                FLOODING                                                 briefing
                                  TOM EDWARDS                                            11 September 2007

This briefing provides an introduction to flooding. It contains information              07/48
on recent flooding incidents in Scotland; future risks and the implications
of climate change; flood prevention and other relevant legislation;
responsibilities for flooding and flooding policy; and flood insurance.




   Scottish Parliament Information Centre (SPICe) Briefings are compiled for the
   benefit of the Members of the Parliament and their personal staff. Authors are
   available to discuss the contents of these papers with MSPs and their staff who
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   correct at the time of publication. Readers should be aware however that briefings
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                           www.scottish.parliament.uk


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CONTENTS

KEY POINTS OF THIS BRIEFING...............................................................................................................................3

INTRODUCTION ..........................................................................................................................................................3

WHAT AREAS ARE AT RISK? ...................................................................................................................................4

FLOODING AND CLIMATE CHANGE ........................................................................................................................4

ECONOMIC IMPACT OF FLOODING .........................................................................................................................5

FLOOD DEFENCES.....................................................................................................................................................5

GOVERNANCE ............................................................................................................................................................6

LEGISLATION..............................................................................................................................................................7
    DIRECTIVE ON THE ASSESSMENT AND MANAGEMENT OF FLOOD RISKS ............................................................................9

POLICY.........................................................................................................................................................................9
    PLANNING POLICY......................................................................................................................................................10

INSURANCE...............................................................................................................................................................11

SOURCES ..................................................................................................................................................................11




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KEY POINTS OF THIS BRIEFING
   •   As well as river and coastal flooding; surface flooding can be caused by heavy rainfall or
       poor drainage; and flooding can also be caused by rising groundwater; and dam break or
       overflowing of reservoirs
   •   Maps giving an indication of the areas in Scotland at risk of river and coastal flooding
       have been made available on the Scottish Environment Protection Agency’s website. A
       study by the Office of Science and Technology in 2004 estimated that over 170,000
       domestic and commercial properties could be at risk of river or coastal flooding
   •   Climate change is likely to exacerbate the flooding problem. Without action to
       significantly reduce emissions, by 2080 what is now a one in fifty year flood could
       become a one in twenty year flood
   •   There have been a number of serious flooding incidents in Scotland and other parts of
       the UK in the last 10 years. Insurance claims for repairing the damage caused by
       flooding in England in June and July 2007 is expected to exceed £2.5 billion. The
       average insurance bill for repairing a house following a 20cm flood is £37,000
   •   As well as using hard engineered solutions such as barriers and embankments to protect
       concentrations of population from floods, attention is increasingly turning to other
       solutions, taking a catchment approach to flooding, and making use of natural processes
       to control water flows, such as by restoring wetlands and floodplains. Other options
       include using planning policy to stop the development of high risk areas, and making
       buildings and infrastructure more resilient and able to withstand floods
   •   In Scots law, the prime responsibility for protecting land from flooding rests with
       landowners. Local authorities have powers to develop flood defence schemes on non-
       agricultural land, which are part funded by central government. Local flood policy is
       coordinated by a network of Flood Liaison Action Groups (FLAGs). Developing flooding
       policy is the responsibility of the Scottish Government. Other bodies with a role include
       SEPA, the Police, Fire Service, Scottish Water and hydroelectric operators
   •   The Coast Protection Act 1949 and the Flood Prevention (Scotland) Act 1961 empower
       local authorities to develop flood prevention schemes. The Water Environment and Water
       Services (Scotland) Act 2003 introduced a general obligation on Scottish Ministers,
       SEPA and responsible authorities to promote sustainable flood management. The
       Scottish government intends to bring forward a Flood Prevention (Scotland) Bill
   •   The previous Scottish Executive published an action plan in a National Flooding
       Framework in March 2003. Flooding policy has been developed by a Flood Issues
       Advisory Committee (FIAC) which is due to report to Ministers in 2007.
   •   Planning policy relating to flooding was revised in 2004. The cornerstone of the policy is
       that new development should not take place if it would be at significant risk of flooding
   •   The insurance industry revised its agreement with government to continue to provide
       buildings insurance in most areas in 2005. The agreement is linked to government action
       to build flood defences and manage flood risk

INTRODUCTION
River flooding happens when high waters caused by rainfall or snowmelt inundate normally dry
areas. River systems often have floodplains which are periodically inundated.

The frequency of flooding can be affected by land management practices. Woodlands and
wetlands can slow down the movement of water through the soil. When woodlands are cleared
and wetlands are drained, the time it takes for water to run off into the main river channel is
reduced. Water also drains much faster from urban areas, because it runs straight off roofs,
roads and other hard surfaces into drains, instead of percolating more slowly through the soil.

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Coastal flooding occurs when spring tides coincide with a storm surge which causes the sea to
rise higher than normal.

Surface flooding occurs when heavy rain exceeds the rate at which it can drain away. Surface
flooding caused over 6,000 homes to flood in Hull in June 2007.

Other causes of flooding include rising groundwater e.g. from underground springs, dam break,
or breach of canal embankments. Fears that high water levels would cause a dam to burst at
Ulley reservoir, South Yorkshire, resulted in the evacuation of 700 homes and the closure of the
M1 motorway.

WHAT AREAS ARE AT RISK?
The previous Scottish Executive commissioned the Scottish Environment Protection Agency
(SEPA) to produce an updated flood risk map of Scotland in October 2003. The maps were
completed in 2006 and are publicly available on SEPA’s website. The map shows areas
estimated to be at risk of flooding from either rivers or the sea (or both), with an annual
probability of flooding once in 200 years or more. The flood map is intended to give an indication
of whether a general area may be affected by flooding, and has not been designed to be
accurate for individual properties.

The total number of properties which were at risk of flooding in Scotland was last considered in
2002. The number of properties estimated to be at risk was 171,000 – 94,000 at risk on the
coast and 77,000 at risk from rivers. The SEPA indicative flood map and the Scottish
Government’s assessment of the number of properties are protected by flood prevention
schemes built since 1961, has revised this estimate to 99,000 properties at high to medium risk
of flooding (greater than 0.5% annual probability) – 26,000 at risk from the sea and 73,000 at
risk from rivers. Around 5% of the land area of Scotland is at risk of flooding from rivers or the
sea and within this area 3.9% of all Scottish properties – residential and business – are at risk
(Scottish Government 2007).

Much of Scotland’s important infrastructure is located in river valleys and around the coast. A
severe coastal flood which affected Longannet and Grangemouth for example could have
nationwide economic consequences.

FLOODING AND CLIMATE CHANGE
Climate change is likely to exacerbate the flooding problem. It is predicted that rainfall intensity
will increase, i.e. more rain falling in a short period of time. This is likely to increase the chance
of a rainfall event which causes river and surface flooding (a shorter return period). A recent
study by the Scotland and Northern Ireland Forum for Environmental Research (SNIFFER
2006) indicates that we are already seeing impacts of climate change on our weather.    For
example, between 1961 and 2004 there was a significant increase in winter precipitation, with
North Scotland experiencing an increase in winter rain of almost 70%, East Scotland 37%, and
West Scotland 61%. Increasing trends were also noted in heavy rainfall, particularly in North
and West Scotland, and an increase in rainfall intensity in both East and West of Scotland.  

A study for the Scottish Executive analysed scenarios for river flooding under four different
scenarios for future greenhouse gas emissions (Scottish Executive 2002). The study found that
under scenarios with high levels of emission reductions the increase in size of floods was
relatively modest, typically <10%. Under higher emission scenarios, by the 2080s floods could
be up to 20% larger, and for some rivers, what is now a one in 50 year flood could become a
one in 20 year flood.
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In addition to rising sea levels, which add to the long term risk, storminess is also expected to
increase, increasing the risk of surges which cause coastal flooding.

Increasing rainfall intensity increases the risk of surface flooding – much of the flooding in
England in June and July 2007 was surface flooding caused when existing drainage could not
cope with heavy rainfall. Climate change may mean it is necessary to upgrade surface drainage
in Scottish cities.

ECONOMIC IMPACT OF FLOODING
In recent times floods have affected a number of Scottish rivers, causing considerable damage
to infrastructure and property. These include the flooding in the Eastern Highlands in 1989, the
Tay/Earn flood in January 1993, the Strathclyde flood in December 1994, flooding in Moray in
July 1997 and November 2002 and in Edinburgh and the north-east in April 2000. The economic
losses associated with these floods have been variously estimated at £30 million for the
Tay/Earn flood in 1993 and £100 million for the Strathclyde flood in 1994 (Scottish Executive
2002). Flooding in England in 2000 resulted in insurance claims of over £1 billion. Severe
flooding in England in June and July 2007 resulted in over 50,000 insurance claims. Insurers
expect the total cost of the flood incidents to exceed £2.5 billion (ABI 2007)

In the early 1990s, coastal flooding caused on average £0.5 million of damage a year to
communities around the Firth of Clyde, including Saltcoats, Tarbert, Rothesay and Dumbarton.

The Office of Science and Technology (2004) commissioned an independent review of future
flood risks from 2030 to 2100. The Foresight Flood and Coastal defence project published its
findings in April 2004, including a report specifically on Scotland. The report analysed the
potential future costs of flooding in Scotland based on different flood defence and climate
scenarios. Increasing the standard of flood defences to cope with larger floods would reduce the
costs of future flooding, but at all levels of protection, the cost of flood damage was estimated to
more than double by 2080.

Scotland is home to the National Flood Insurance Claims Database, held at the University of
Dundee. This is the largest database of its kind in the world and includes data on every flood in
Great Britain since 1993. The cost of maintaining the database is funded by insurance
companies in turn. It enables detailed calculations to be carried out of the costs of flood damage
for different types of properties. Analysis of the database shows that repairing damage to a
domestic property after a 20cm flood results in building and contents insurance claims of over
£37,000 (Crichton 2007).

FLOOD DEFENCES
The main options for protecting against river flooding are:

   •   Storing water and slowing its passage through the catchment – water can be stored
       temporarily in reservoirs, wetlands and lakes, and is also held in the soil and in
       vegetation. The storage capacity of a catchment can be increased by changing land use,
       e.g. by filling in drains to create or restore wetlands and floodplains, or by planting
       woodland, as trees store more water than grass or crops. These measures are often
       called “soft engineering” as opposed to hard engineered flood defences. WWF Scotland’s
       demonstration project on the river Devon in Clackmannanshire aims to quantify the
       benefits of ‘natural flood management’ and investigates the effect of soft engineering in
       reducing flood peaks. A recent WWF (2007) report indicates that natural flood
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       management increases the storage capacity of a catchment. Soft engineering can also
       help towards achieving other objectives, such as nature conservation and the Water
       Framework Directive. Detention reservoirs and other engineered storage can also be
       built to store excess water

   •   Improving the river channel to increase the rate of flow – options include widening or
       deepening the channel, creating an overflow channel, enlarging bridges

   •   Raising river banks by building embankments or barriers

The main options for protecting against coastal flooding are:

   •   Allowing wild habitats such as saltmarshes to act as a buffer zone between any
       development and the coast. Where such habitats are being lost because of rising sea
       levels, “managed realignment” means allowing coastal land to flood and maintain such a
       buffer zone

   •   Making use of beaches as a natural coastal defence. There is a natural movement of
       beach material down the coast. Beaches can be built up by using groynes which trap
       sand and other sediments increasing the height of the beach. However these can starve
       beaches further down the coast of fresh material, and can increase erosion and the risk
       of flooding. Beaches can also be fed with material dredged offshore

   •   Building sea defences, such as sea walls

The Scottish Executive commissioned research in 2005 to compile a database of flood defences
in Scotland, to survey their condition, and make an assessment of the area they protect. The
database has been made available online in 2007.

Other solutions for dealing with flooding include:

   •   Preventing high risk developments through the planning system
   •   Making buildings more resistant and resilient to flooding
   •   Reinstatement of floodplains through land abandonment
   •   Using temporary demountable defences

GOVERNANCE
Scottish Government sets national policy and provides resources (up to 80% of the scheme
costs) to local authorities to deal with flooding.

SEPA operates flood warning schemes and Floodline, advises local authorities on flood risk and
prevention. SEPA is a statutory consultee on planning applications where a flood risk is
identified.

Local Authorities manage flood prevention and defence schemes; assess watercourses likely
to pose a risk; maintain watercourses; work with police and fire services in response to severe
incidents; provide accommodation for people evacuated from their homes; coordinate work in
aftermath of a flood.

Flood Liaison and Advice Groups (FLAGs) are non statutory advisory groups of public and
private sector representatives, convened by Councils to share concerns and knowledge and to
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provide advice on a wide range of planning and other flooding issues in an informal setting.
FLAGs were formerly called Flood Appraisal Groups. It is Scottish Executive policy that every
Council should convene a FLAG, or combine with other Councils to do so, possibly on a
catchment basis. 28 out of the 32 local authorities covering 94% of the population have
established FLAGs.

Police are responsible for saving life, rescue and recovery; evacuation; coordination of
agencies involved in the rescue phase; traffic control

Fire brigade work with the police on evacuation, work to minimise damage.

Scottish Water manages discharge of water from drainage systems and sewers; maintains
water supply; repairs flood damaged mains and deals with flooding caused by burst mains;
manages the storage and release of water in supply reservoirs.

Hydroelectric operators manage the storage and release of water in their reservoirs.

Landowners have primary responsibility for flood prevention and insurance.

LEGISLATION
The Coast Protection Act 1949 (c.74) sets out discretionary powers for local authorities to
construct and maintain coastal defences, and for the Scottish Executive to give grants towards
the costs of construction.

Under the Flood Prevention (Scotland) Act 1961 (c.41) (the 1961 Act) flood prevention on non-
agricultural land is also a discretionary power of local authorities. If a local authority decides that
a scheme is required, they must follow the consultation and application procedure set out in the
Act before submitting the scheme to the Scottish Executive for confirmation. Grants at 80% of
the eligible costs are available from the Scottish Executive for confirmed schemes.

Seventy two flood protection schemes have been built under the 1961 Act. These schemes
provide protection to less than 10% of the 77,191 properties estimated to be at risk from inland
flooding in Scotland. This contrasts with schemes in England and Wales, which provide
protection to approximately 70% of the 1.74 million properties potentially at risk from inland and
coastal flooding (Foresight Scotland report). However, recent work by the National Audit Office
(2007) has shown that in England only 57% of all systems and 46% of high risk systems, such
as those protecting urban areas, are in their target condition.

The Flood Prevention and Land Drainage (Scotland) Act 1997 (c.36) amended the 1961 Act and
placed additional duties on local authorities. The most important are the duty to maintain urban
watercourses free of obstructions and to assess the flood hazard. Local authorities are also
required to produce reports on flood prevention every two years.

The Water Environment and Water Services (Scotland) Act 2003 (asp 3) (WEWS Act) is the key
piece of Scots law transposing the Water Framework Directive (2000/60/EC). The directive
made a fundamental change in the management and conservation of water resources in EU
Member States. The Act also introduced a general obligation on Scottish Ministers, SEPA and
responsible authorities 1 to promote sustainable flood management in the discharge of their
relevant functions. The Act does not define sustainable flood management. A definition has

1
  Responsible Authorities are defined in the Water Environment and Water Services (Scotland) Act 2003
(Designation of Responsible Authorities and Functions) Order 2006
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been developed by the Scottish Executive in conjunction with stakeholders in the National
Technical Advisory Group, and its successor the Flooding Issues Advisory Committee (FIAC). A
recent paper produced by the Committee gave the following definition of sustainable flood
management:

        “Sustainable flood management provides the maximum possible social and
        economic resilience* against flooding**, by protecting and working with the
        environment, in a way which is fair and affordable both now and in the future.”
        * ‘resilience’ means: ‘ability to recover quickly and easily’. The Scottish
        Executive uses it to deliver the ‘four As’: Awareness + Avoidance + Alleviation +
        Assistance.)
        ** flooding means all types of flooding: surface (pluvial), sewer, river,
        groundwater, estuarine and coastal
The Scottish Executive plans to hold a further public consultation on sustainable flood
management and the way it will be implemented.

The Water Environment (Controlled Activities) (Scotland) Regulations 2005 have been made
under the WEWS Act. They require the construction of flood defences to be authorised by
SEPA.

RSPB Scotland (2007) has called for a review of flooding legislation as it considers that the
1961 Act and the WEWS Act are contradictory. The 1961 Act only relates to the prevention of
flooding on non-agricultural land, while they argue that implementing the sustainable flood
management duty under the WEWS Act will require the use of agricultural land. They also point
out that the 1961 Act only provides for the use of hard-engineered solutions to flooding, and
suggest its scope should be expanded to allow for soft engineering solutions (such as creating
wetlands) and catchment wide management. A further failing they identify is that the 1961 Act
only allows for one-off payments where land has been affected by a flood prevention scheme.
They feel that annual payments to landowners, such as rural development payments should be
allowed as an incentive for allowing their land to flood. RSPB Scotland also claims that a major
obstacle to achieving a sustainable approach to flooding is the lack of co-ordination between the
various organisations responsible for flooding, and suggests that SEPA should be given the role
of a co-ordinator.

The Civil Contingencies Act 2004 is intended to provide a framework for Scotland’s contribution
to UK civil protection in the 21st century. Part 1 of the Civil Contingencies Act 2004 defines an
emergency as "an event or situation which threatens serious damage to human welfare in a
place in the UK, the environment of a place in the UK, or the security of the UK or of a place in
the UK". The Act therefore covers inland and coastal flooding events. The Civil Contingencies
Act and Contingency Planning (Scotland) Regulations 2005 underpin the implementation of the
Act and provide information on the duties of Category 1 responders for civil protection.
Category 1 responders are: Local authorities; Police; Fire service; Ambulance service; Health
Boards; and SEPA.

In a statement on the Scottish Government’s legislative programme on 5 September 2007, the
First Minister, Alex Salmond MSP said that the government would introduce a Flood Prevention
(Scotland) Bill (Scottish Parliament 2007). A formal consultation paper on the government’s
proposals is expected to be issued in January 2008, and the Bill is expected to be introduced to
Parliament in June 2008.



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DIRECTIVE ON THE ASSESSMENT AND MANAGEMENT OF FLOOD RISKS
Although the Water Framework Directive introduced a new approach to managing and
conserving water resources in the EU, reducing the impact of floods is not one of its principal
objectives, nor does it consider the future changes in the risk of flooding as a result of climate
change (Recital 4 of Floods Directive). Following severe flooding incidents in continental Europe
on the Danube and the Elbe in summer 2002 and further severe flooding in 2005, the European
Commission presented legislative proposals for a directive on flood risk management in January
2006. An agreement on the proposal was reached by the Council of Ministers and the European
Parliament on 24 April 2007, and the final text is expected to be formally agreed later this year.
The new directive will have three main elements:

   •   Member States must carry out a flood risk assessment based on past flood events by
       2011

   •   Following this assessment, they must produce flood risk maps showing the areas at risk
       of flooding by 2013

   •   Member States must prepare flood managements plans by 2015. These must set
       objectives for tackling flooding in terms of protecting natural and cultural heritage, and
       reducing economic impacts, and contain measures for flood prevention; protection;
       preparedness; early warning systems and sustainable flood management.

The RSPB (2007) has called for the directive to be implemented in Scotland through primary
legislation, and for flood management planning to be integrated with river basin management
planning under the WEWS Act and Water Framework Directive.

POLICY
In February 2003 the Scottish Executive agreed a statement of commitments on flooding, and
an action plan was set out in a National Flooding Framework published in March 2003. The
main objectives were to:

   •  Improve information on flood risk by revising flood maps and providing additional flood
      warning systems
    • Revise national planning policy on flooding to prevent unsuitable development where
      there is a significant flood risk.
    • Reduce flood risk for 1,850 properties by providing £40 million from 2003-05 for flood
      defence schemes
    • Improve national guidance on flood risk and flood alleviation schemes. Ensure national
      co-ordination between local authorities, SEPA, and Scottish Water with the establishment
      of a national technical advisory group.
    • Encourage the take up of insurance by householders, better support people affected by
      flooding
In September 2004 a National Technical Advisory Group (NTAG) on Flooding Issues was set up
to provide technical advice on flood prevention schemes to local authorities and other
stakeholders, and in April 2005 this was replaced by the Flooding Issues Advisory Committee
(FIAC) whose role is to:
       •   continue the work started by NTAG on producing guidance for local authorities who
           are preparing flood prevention schemes

       •   advise on sustainable flood management

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       •     advise the Executive on the implementation of the National Flooding Framework
The Executive increased the budget for flood defence schemes to £89 million from 2005-2008.
FIAC is due to present a final report to Ministers in 2007, after which Ministers will decide on its
future.
Following the severe flooding in England in June and July 2007 the UK government has
launched a Lessons learned review, which will be chaired by Sir Michael Pitt and supported by
the Cabinet Office. Around £17.5 million of government funding has been provided to help
communities affected by the floods (Department for Communities and Local Government 2007).
The UK government also announced in July 2007 that it was increasing funding for flood
defences in England and Wales from £600m in 2007-08 to £800m for 2010-11 (DEFRA 2007).


PLANNING POLICY
One of the actions resulting from the National Flooding Framework was a review of planning
policy on flooding. The Scottish Executive’s planning policy on flooding was reviewed in 2003,
resulting in the publication of Scottish Planning Policy (SPP) 7 ‘Planning and flooding’ in
February 2004 (Scottish Executive 2004a). This was a revision of the existing National Planning
Policy Guideline (NPPG) 7 (Scottish Office 1995). The policy is based on a risk framework
modelled on those used by the insurance industry. The main elements of the policy are that:

           New development should not take place if it would be at significant risk of
           flooding from any source or would materially increase the probability of flooding
           elsewhere. […]
           Where built up areas already benefit from flood defences, redevelopment of
           brownfield sites should be acceptable but greenfield proposals will extend the
           area of built development at risk and should preferably be considered in the
           light of alternatives through the development plan process. […]
           For coastal and watercourse flooding a Risk Framework characterises areas for
           planning purposes by their annual probability of flooding and gives the planning
           response:
           Little or no risk area (less than 0.1% (1:1000)) - no general constraints.
           Low to medium risk area (0.1% to 0.5% (1:1000 - 1:200)) - suitable for most
           development but not essential civil infrastructure.
           Medium to high risk area (0.5% (1:200)) or greater - in built up areas with flood
           prevention measures most brownfield development should be acceptable
           except for essential civil infrastructure; undeveloped and sparsely developed
           areas are generally not suited for most development.
SPP7 is supplemented by a Planning Advice Note (PAN) 69 on Planning and Flooding (Scottish
Executive 2004b).

If a planning authority considers that a development is likely to be at risk from flooding, they
must consult SEPA 2 . If SEPA advise that there is a significant flood risk and the planning
authority wish to grant permission, then they must notify Scottish Ministers.




2
 Under Article 15(1)(h) of the Town and Country Planning (General Development Procedure) (Scotland) Order
1992
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INSURANCE
The availability of buildings insurance affects mortgage lending, and could blight property values
if it was not available. Unlike in most other countries, flood cover has been a standard feature of
household insurance policies in the UK since the early 1960s. In the rest of Europe, Australia
and North America, this cover is either not available or only under special conditions.

Autumn 2000 was the wettest in England in over 270 years. The costs to insurers of claims
following severe flooding exceeded £1 billion. This caused the insurance industry to re-examine
its commitment to provide insurance cover for homes at risk of flooding. In 2002 the Association
of British Insurers (which represents 90% of the UK insurance industry) published a new
statement of principles on flooding and insurance. This linked continued provision of insurance
for properties at risk of flooding to government action on flood management in England. The
latest statement of principles was published in November 2005 (ABI 2005). The principles are
as follows:

        1. Areas where flood risk is 1.3% annual probability (or 1 in 75 years) or less -
        Flood cover will be available as a standard feature of household and small
        business policies.
        2. Areas of significant flood risk (greater than 1.3% annual probability or 1 in 75
        years) where improved defences are planned - Insurers will maintain flood
        cover for domestic properties and small businesses that they already insure
        where improvements in flood protection schemes sufficient to reduce the
        likelihood of flooding to 1.3% annual probability or less are scheduled for
        completion within the next five years. This will operate as a rolling five-year
        commitment provided the Statement of Principles remains in force. The
        premiums charged and other policy terms - such as excesses - will reflect the
        risk.
        3. Areas of significant flood risk (greater than 1.3% annual probability or 1 in 75
        years) where no improvements in defences are planned - In these areas,
        insurers cannot guarantee to maintain cover, but will examine the risks on a
        case-by-case basis. Insurers will use their best efforts to continue to provide
        cover and will work to see what action could be taken to make the property
        insurable.


SOURCES
Association of British Insurers. (2005) Statement of principles on flood insurance. [Online].
Available at: https://www.abi.org.uk/Display/File/Child/553/statementofprinciples2005.pdf

Association of British Insurers. (2007) 50,000 and rising - insurers pulling out all the stops to
deal with flood claims. Press release 27 July 2007. [Online]. Available at:
http://www.abi.org.uk/Newsreleases/viewNewsRelease.asp?nrid=14922
Benfield Hazard Research Centre. (2005) Flood Risk & Insurance in England and Wales: are
there    lessons      to    be     learned    from    Scotland?     [Online]     Available    at:
http://www.benfieldhrc.org/floods/flood_report.htm

Crichton, D. (2007) The Hull floods of June 2007. Some insurance industry implications.
[Online]. Available at: http://www.benfieldhrc.org/floods/Crichton_Hull_2007.pdf



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Department for Communities and Local Government. (2007) More Government funding for
communities hit by July floods [Online] Available at:
http://www.communities.gov.uk/news/corporate/441568

DEFRA. (2007) Flood response efforts 'magnificent' says Benn. [Online]. Available at:
http://www.defra.gov.uk/news/2007/070702a.htm

National Audit Office. (2007) Building and maintaining river and coastal flood defences in
England. HC 528 2006-2007. London: NAO. Available at: http://www.nao.org.uk/pn/06-
07/0607528.htm

Office of Science and Technology. (2004) Foresight – Future flooding Scotland. London: Office
of Science and Technology. Available at:
http://www.foresight.gov.uk/Previous_Projects/Flood_and_Coastal_Defence/Reports_and_Publi
cations/Scotland/Scotland.html

RSPB Scotland. (2007) Time for a change – policy changes required to achieve sustainable
flood management in Scotland. [Online]. Available at:
http://www.rspb.org.uk/ourwork/library/reports.asp

Scotland and Northern Ireland Forum for Environmental Research (SNIFFER). (2006) A
handbook      of     climate     trends   across Scotland. [Online]. Available  at:
http://www.sniffer.org.uk/climatehandbook

Scottish Executive. (2002) Climate Change: Flood Occurrences Review. Edinburgh: Scottish
Executive. Available at:
http://www.scotland.gov.uk/Resource/Doc/156664/0042098.pdf

Scottish Executive.(2004a) Planning and Flooding. Scottish Planning Policy 7. Edinburgh:
Scottish Executive. Available at: http://www.scotland.gov.uk/Publications/2004/02/18880/32952

Scottish Executive. (2004b) Planning and Flooding. Planning Advice Note 69. Edinburgh:
Scottish Executive. Available at: http://www.scotland.gov.uk/Publications/2004/08/19805/41611

Scottish Government. (2007) Responsibilities for managing flood risk in Scotland. [Online].
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