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					                              Usability Test Report Document / www.flybe.com / September 2008




Usability Test Report Document / www.flybe.com
conducted and written by Luke Bishop                                  













September 2008
Qantm College, London
Interface Design
Amir Dotan




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                                    Usability Test Report Document / www.flybe.com / September 2008




Table of Contents

Executive Summary              3

User Profiles                   4

Methodology                    4
• Rationale
• Testing environment
• Procedure

Analysis                       4
• Pre-scenario 1               7
• Pre-scenario 2               8
• Scenario 1                   9
• Scenario 2                   10
• Scenario 3                   12
• Scenario 4                   13
• Scenario 5                   16

• Survey results
• Interview results


Summary and Conclusion         21

Expert Review                  22

Appendices
• A - Pre-test questionnaire   32
• B - User release form        33
• C - Post-test interview      34
• D - Post-test survey         35
• E - Scenarios / Notes        36 - 42


References / Test script       43




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                                         Usability Test Report Document / www.flybe.com / September 2008




Executive Summary

A usability evaluation of the main pages of www.flybe.com was conducted in September
2008. The overall purpose of this test was to observe and measure the usability of FlyBeʼs
most important and essential functionality - its ticketing booking function, as well as other
key factors. The FlyBe site is primarily intended for use by the general public in Great
Britain and Europe to book and purchase air travel tickets; a secondary purpose if for
booking hotel accommodation and car hire. This report document is a compilation of the
methodology used to conduct the test, the data gathered during the test, as well as
recommendations for addressing and correcting the usability issues found during user
testing.

In a broad sense, users generally characterized the FlyBe web site in two distinct ways:
1) the site was functional to an adequate degree and adopted a conventional approach to
   airline web site design, but suffered from a lack of consistency across several
   measures, and
2) felt that the siteʼs aesthetics offered very little to the overall experience, and in some
   instances, detracted from it.

The primary user task of booking air travel is well supported with a highly visible ʻBook A
Flightʼ functionality panel on the home page, positioned in an area of highest traffic and
visibility 1.

The secondary user task of booking additional hotel accommodation and car hire are
supported via icons in the upper navigation, and from boxed content areas - both located
on the home page. The upper icons are located on subsequent pages throughout the site.
Although not primary functionality, the site further supports users interested in investment,
employment and corporate information via links found in the global navigation.

However, there is opportunity for improvement in several areas:

• Visual design: the site is cluttered, confusing and too busy. Information could be presented in a
  less cumbersome manner.
• Streamlining: some pages are launched in child browser windows, and also lack corporate
  branding and navigation; additionally, some paths take the user out of the main booking site.
• Location within site: the site does not provide clear, consistent visual cues that inform the user
  where she is at all times.
• Home page content: visual elements on the home page are not weighted in importance -
  elements compete with each other for attention and creates a distracting experience.
• Repetition of navigation: multiple links to the same page occur throughout the site.
• Labeling: the site suffers from inconsistent use of navigation terms and category heading
  names.
• Mental models: portions of the site present information to users in a way that seems illogical, or
  is unexpected.
• Error recovery: error messaging is not always placed ideally, and recovery from user error could
  be improved, in the Account Settings, for example.

No issues were deemed to be critical, while approximately 60% of the issues were of
medium severity. Several issues were deemed to be of high severity. Many of the issues of


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medium severity can be fixed by improving navigation, headers, language and page
layout.



User Profiles

Information collected in the pre-test questionnaire                      (Appendix A)   revealed the following user
profile data:


    user       age       gender         profession              education        hours on     purchases     frequent
     ID                                                                          computer     on internet     flyer
                                                                                  p/week                    member

    U1         48          M        Nursery teacher             University       0-10 hrs         Y            Y
                                                                graduate

    U2         45          M        Interior designer           University       11-25 hrs        Y            Y
                                                                graduate

    U3         46          M        Advanced Rolfer          Post-graduate         +26            Y            Y

          
         
         
        
      
         
         
         



    user                 types of purchases                     types of computer activity
     ID

    U1          airline / train tickets, books          email, professional research, word
                                                                    processing

    U2          airline / train tickets, home                email, social networking, word
                        merchandise                                    processing

    U3          airline / train tickets, books          email, professional research, word
                                                                    processing,

                                  User demographics collected from the pre-test questionnaire.




Methodology

Rationale
Materials for usability testing scenarios, tasks and questionnaires were derived from the
expert review conducted on www.flybe.com. Based upon findings from the review,
scenarios, tasks and questions focused on the effectiveness, error frequency/severity and
user satisfaction of the following areas: booking functionality, the global navigation,
account registration, frequent flyer account set up, and FAQs/Q&A. Each of these five
areas are core features of the site, yet each exhibited potential usability issues ranging
from cosmetic to critical, and therefore were selected for further investigation via user
testing. Cost constraints permitted usability testing of only a portion of the booking process
- users were not required to complete ticket purchases, thus incurring personal charges.
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                                       Usability Test Report Document / www.flybe.com / September 2008




Testing Environment

All usability tests were conducted during a 48-hour period between 01 - 02 September,
and transpired at the same location in an effort to ensure all users experienced identical
testing conditions and environment. Testing occurred on a MacBook laptop computer with
remote mouse device, using the Firefox 3.0 browser and a broadband connection (8MB).
Audio and video for each testing session were recorded with ClearLeftʼs Silverback screen
recording software (Silverback allows the insertion of cue points during testing via remote
control, so facilitator(s) may quickly and easily refer to specific points in a video timeline).
Each user signed a release form authorizing the use of this recorded information for the
purposes of this study (Appendix B). The average duration for each session was one hour,
including time to respond to pre-test questionnaire, as well as the post-test interview
(Appendix C) and survey (Appendix D).


Procedure

First, testing procedure and expectations were explained to users and any questions users
had initially were answered. Secondly, users were asked to complete a demographic
questionnaire. Thirdly, each user was presented with 7 scenarios/tasks (Appendix E), of
which the first two were exploratory in nature. The user was asked to perform each task as
he normally would outside a test setting, one at at time, while the facilitator observed and
documented user behavior. Users were encouraged to ʻthink aloudʼ to provide additional
details about their actions and decisions, and instructed to verbally inform the facilitator
when they believed they had completed the task. Lastly, users were interviewed about
their overall experience using the web site, and also completed a short likert-scale survey.

Users were intentionally given initial exploratory exercises in order to habituate themselves
to the elements of the siteʼs interface, as well as to the unusual activity of ʻthinking aloudʼ
while performing a task. Also, tasks that were deemed to be relatively easy during the
expert review (for instance, S1, S2) were deliberately chosen to be performed first so that
users did not feel immediately discouraged by tasks that could possibly be overly
complicated (S4).



Analysis
User Profiles

All users tested are university graduates (U3 has post-graduate experience), use a
computer at least 10 hours per week, and all have used the internet for booking and
purchasing travel, particularly tickets for air travel. All users had previous experience using
airline web sites, therefore issues uncovered during usability testing are not generally
attributed to usersʼ unfamiliarity with conventional air line web site functionality; survey
results indicate that users considered www.flybe.com to be a conventional and standard
air line site.


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Scenarios

Overall, users were able to complete all tasks (only one user was unable to complete a
single task). Time-to-complete figures reflect a sense of uniformity regarding how users
address a particular issue; 4 tasks were completed in under 3 minutes, while all users
were timed between approximately 6-8 minutes to complete Scenario 4.

During testing, users were asked to perform the following:

•   Pre-scenario 1: explore the FlyBe home page, scrolling but without clicking. (PS1)
•   Pre-scenario 2: explore the entire FlyBe web site, scrolling and clicking allowed. (PS2)
•   Scenario 1: find a complete list of flight times for a given date. (S1)
•   Scenario 2: update account details (street name + post code only). (S2)
•   Scenario 3: find the cheapest fare for a particular flight route on a given date. (S3)
•   Scenario 4: set up a frequent flyer account. (S4)
•   Scenario 5: find the maximum weight allowance for checked-in baggage. (S5)

All Scenarios have been given a priority rating:
high (urgent or important fix - recommend addressing immediately)
medium (relatively important fix - to be addressed only after high priorities are fixed)
low (least urgent/ important fix, recommend addressing when time and resources permit)

Detailed Findings
                             Fig 1. Time to complete for tasks (S1-S5) *

                        U1                        U2                          U3

                   1.53
        S1       1.21
             0.57
                                3.37
        S2                    3.01
                           2.58
                 1.35
        S3              2.14
                                   3.48
                                                                           8.26
        S4                                              6.05
                                                                          8.11
                                3.12
        S5        1.38
                      2.02
                                            Time in minutes




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* Note: PS1 was not subject to time; PS2 was constrained by a 4-minute time limit by the facilitator
- therefore these figures are not reflected in the chart above.

1. Discussion of PS1 - ʻPlease give me your initial reactions to this (home) page. Feel
free to explore this page as you normally would. You can scroll around with your mouse,
but please don't click on anything just yetʼ.

Measurements of PS1 are largely qualitative - users were asked for opinion related to the
FlyBe home page layout, use of graphics, colours, and what element they would click on
first.

  user           user comments                       first click              recommendations

 U1       “too much information”              Destinations link (in      Introduce a more minimal
                                              global navigation)         approach to the home page
                                                                         design, highlighting the
 U2       “design is old school - nothing     Destinations link (in      most key areas.
          new here”                           global navigation)
                                                                         Users were often confused
 U3       “page is cluttered - too many       Destinations link (in      by the large amount of
          colours, too many boxes”            global navigation)         information and lack of
                                                                         creativity in design. Remove
                                                                         boxed content on page as
                                                                         these areas can accessed
                                                                         via the global navigation.
                               Users were asked to provide their initial response to the FlyBe home page.

Every user indicated they would click on the ʻDestinationsʼ link first in the global navigation
when performing this exploratory task, strongly indicating that users come to the site for a
single purpose. Users did not indicate a strong interest in ʻdiscoveringʼ boxed content
areas on the home page. All users seem to feel that the home page was visually
uninteresting as well as overly populated with information. The post-test survey indicated
that users did not find the home page attention-grabbing; two users strongly agreed that
pages in general contain too much information.




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                                             Usability Test Report Document / www.flybe.com / September 2008



                                          Fig 2. Users generally felt the FlyBe home page was too cluttered.



2. Discussion of PS2 - ʻYou have a few minutes to freely explore this Web site. You
may go anywhere you would like to go on the Web site, but please remember to speak
aloud as you do so. I will tell you when your time is up.ʼ (allow 3-4 mins.)


Users were almost exclusively interested in Flybe destinations and the cost of fares. While
users were curious enough to mouse over the global navigation links at top (fig 3) , only
one user clicked on one of these links (Hotels) but then could not return to the main site
without difficulty (mini-site was displayed in a child window). Users did not access the links
describing FlyBe corporate information, Benefits, Car Hire, Hotel and the Site Map.

User comments during this exploratory time include:



• “I no longer know where I am! How do I get back to Home?” (to the FlyBe main site) - U3

• “Thereʼs too many things to click on.” - U1




      Fig 3. Users moused-over the global navigation but generally did not select links under these headings.




    PS2     recommendations

            The site may benefit from a reduction in the amount of text information
            and navigation links; unvisited links such as ʻSite Mapʼ and ʻAbout
            FlyBeʼ could be conventionally located in the footer, thereby
            contributing to reduction of clutter and overloading the user with too
            many choices.

            Pop-up windows should not be used.

            Users seem focused on content related to destinations; visually weight
            the site in favour of more Destination content, presented with greater
            frequency.




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3. Discussion of S1 - ʻYouʼre planning to fly from Aberdeen to Birmingham on 9
September - where would you go on the Web site to view a complete list of flights on that
date?ʼ

  priority             issues                                   recommendations

    low      Users did not access the         All users located flight times from the booking panel
             ʻTimetableʼ.                     on the home page and completed this task faster
                                              than all others.
             Users do not access the
             complete list of flight times Expert Review item 1.3 indicates there may be an
             available.                   issue with displaying the Timetable in a child window.
                                          As no users accessed the Timetable, remove this link
                                          from the global navigation.




                Fig 4. All users accessed the list of flight times via the booking panel from the home page.




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4.Discussion of S2 - ʻAn account has been created for you to use on the site. Please
  update your account details by changing your street address and post code.ʼ (provide
  detail to user).


    priority                  issues                                 recommendations

    medium           The ʻFind Addressʼ             Provide informative and accurate system feedback
                     functionality spawns a         during the ʻFind Addressʼ flow; the system generates
                     c h i l d w i n d o w, a n d   an empty window - user did not know if the update
                     displays incomplete            had completed.
                     and confusing system
                     feedback.                      The system fails to successfully update the user
                                                    account using this functionality, requiring fix. Remove
                                                    blank window in this process, and return user to
                                                    Account page.

                                                    Display messaging at top of Account page that states
                                                    status of account update (updated / not updated).




                                            Fig 5. User updates contact details via ʻFind Addressʼ functionality.




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        Fig 6. User updates contact details via ʻFind Addressʼ functionality; system displays an empty page.




User comments:

• “I donʼt know whatʼs happening now - did it update? It says ʻDoneʼ at the bottom.... Is it
  waiting for me to do something?” - U1

• “It didnʼt work (account update) - Iʼll try it again.” - U1

• “It didnʼt work again - I guess Iʼll update it by hand.” -U1




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5. Discussion of S3 - ʻOn the FlyBe web site, where would you go to find the cheapest
fare for the flights on 19 September, from Aberdeen to Birmingham - returning the 19
October?ʼ

  priority                  issues                                 recommendations

  medium        Air fare booking functionality The lack of a calendar did not appear to be
                l a c k s a c o n v e n t i o n a l problematic, although further testing may be
                calendar embedded in the necessary.
                travel date selection process.
                                                    U1 selected a system-prohibited travel date (return
                The system allows users to dates that precede the departure date); the system
                choose travel dates that should not allow the users to choose a return date
                cause the site to generate an that precedes the departure date.
                error.
                                                    System should be more intelligent during the date
                                                    selection process. For instance, if the user chooses
                                                    the last day of a given month to depart, the system
                                                    should display the following month at the top of the
                                                    list when user selects the return date.




             Fig 7. System generates an error message; can be prevented by providing logical date selection.

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6. Discussion of S4 - ʻYou would like to ensure that you will earn the frequent flyer
points for this flight - set up a frequent flyer account using the email and password
provided.ʼ

   priority               issues                                 recommendations

     high       All users were unable to Simplify Frequent Flyer set-up process:
                complete the task in
                fewer than 4 attempts.                  • provide the user the option to create a Frequent
                                                          Flyer account during the time of initial Account
                Users choose circuitous                   registration (check box).
                paths which require
                m u l t i p l e c l i c k s , l i n k s • the system should know when the user is logged
                appear below the fold.                    in, and pre-populate Frequent Flyer account form
                                                          with user account details, including user email
                System requires                           address. Captcha can be removed completely if
                additional registration                   the user is already logged in under these
                process, even when user                   conditions.
                is logged in.
                                                        Introduce descriptive page headings such as,
                A m b i g u o u s h e a d i n g s “Frequent Flyer Account Registration”.
                confuse users - unclear
                which account is being
                created.

                Captcha codes are
                unclear requiring users to
                enter them multiple times
                before succeeding.

                All users are required to
                supply a different email
                address than the one
                found within their Contact
                Details, confusing users.

                U2 was unable to
                complete the task due to
                poor descriptive language
                - U2 believed he had
                created an Frequent Flyer
                account by default, when
                he had not.




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                                        Usability Test Report Document / www.flybe.com / September 2008




Fig 8. The site would benefit from clear page headers; Captcha technology is often frustrating for users.


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                                           Usability Test Report Document / www.flybe.com / September 2008




             Fig 9. Users were confused by unclear instructions regarding Frequent Flyer account creation.




User comments:


• “It says I donʼt need to do anything because I already have a customer account.” - U2

• “Iʼm thinking, like, I want to kill somebody.” - U3

• “Iʼm confused - donʼt know which account Iʼm signing up for.” - U3

• “If was doing this on my own, and not being tested, I would have left this site. This is just
  ridiculous.” - U1




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                                       Usability Test Report Document / www.flybe.com / September 2008

7. Discussion of S5 - ʻYou want to bring luggage along with on your trip to Birmingham,
but you want to make you sure your baggage doesnʼt exceed the maximum weight
allowance. Find out what the maximum weight allowance is for checked-in baggage in
Economy class.ʼ

     priority             issues                              recommendations

     medium       A l l u s e r s a c c e s s e d Remove the redundant Q&A link visible on all
                  Q&A via the link in the pages.
                  global navigation
                  (Information -> Q&A).           Enlarge text in the Q&A section; menus items are
                                                  already presented in a scrollable, drop-down
                  Text in the Q&A section menu, so loss of real estate will not be an issue
                  is too small.                   of enlargement.

                  Answers appear in bold Display Answers in order of most-viewed by
                  type.                  users.

                  No logical, meaningful Group questions and answers in meaningful
                  a r r a n g e m e n t o f chunks, use meaningful header titles for Q&A
                  Answers.                  page.




                                  Fig 10. Users did not see/use the Q&A link available on every page.




                       Fig 11. Users found Q&A text too small; the all-bold style decreased readability.


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                                         Usability Test Report Document / www.flybe.com / September 2008



User comments:

• “Where is it? (the Answer). The text is so small - plus, itʼs all in bold - I canʼt see what Iʼm
  reading.” - U1

• “I really feel information about baggage should be at the top of this list - not whether or
  not I can take Christmas crackers on board the flight. I mean, how often does that
  happen? Once a year?” - U1

• “Is this bridesmaid dress question really the most important thing about baggage? Why is
  this first in the list?” - U3




Post-test Results

Survey results

In order to determine usersʼ over-all sense of satisfaction, users were asked to complete a
survey using a likert scale [ranging from 1 (strongly disagree) to 5 (strongly agree)]. Users were
asked to respond to 31 positive statements regarding their experiences on the FlyBe web
site. Results are interpreted as percentages in order to represent usersʼ general opinions
of the siteʼs visual elements, graphics, use of colour, layout, ease of use and usefulness of
content (refer to Appendix D for complete list of questions).

Overall, approximately 48% of user responses (Fig 12) reflected a negative opinion (1 & 2)
regarding the use of visual design elements in the interface. U2 had the most favourable
opinion of the site (Fig 14), with only 23% of responses falling within a negative range. U3
had the least favourable opinion of the site, as 61% of responses fell within a negative
range (Fig 15). U1 and U3 responded negatively (1 or 2) to the siteʼs usefulness of content.
All users responded negatively (1 or 2) when asked if the siteʼs information was easy to
read. All users responded with a ʻ3ʼ with regard to ease of use of the siteʼs navigation.




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                                           Usability Test Report Document / www.flybe.com / September 2008



                        Fig 12: Total number of user responses.



                                                    31%


                                 29%
                                                           19%

                                              19% 1%

                1 (strongly disagree - 19% )                     2 (disagree - 29% )
                3 (undecided / ambivalent - 31% )                4 (agree - 19% )
                5 (strongly agree - 1% )

Note: only one statement received a ʻ5ʼ;     Question #27 : The site has a clear purpose: 5    (U3)




                               Fig 13: Total responses - U1.



                                           31%
                                                         17%


                                                          17%
                                       34%



                      1 - strongly disagree                         2 - disagree
                      3 - undecided / ambivalent                    4 - agree
                      5 - strongly agree




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               Usability Test Report Document / www.flybe.com / September 2008



       Fig 14: Total responses - U2.




            42%
                               35%


                 23%



1 - strongly disagree                   2 - disagree
3 - undecided / ambivalent              4 - agree
5 - strongly agree




       Fig 16: Total responses - U3.




           35%
                              32%


                            3%
                           3%
                26%



1 - strongly disagree                   2 - disagree
3 - undecided / ambivalent              4 - agree
5 - strongly agree




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                                           Usability Test Report Document / www.flybe.com / September 2008

Interview results

Users were asked 11 post-test questions, samples of which appear in full below (see
Appendix C for complete list of questions).

Q1. What are your over-all impressions of the site?

•      “Frustrating experience, unclear information, too much information.” - U1
•      “Standard airline site, thereʼs really nothing amazing here.” - U2
•      “It should be less cluttered, have something at the top or side to let you know where
    you are (labels, headings), it should to more intuitive.” - U3



Q4. What are three things you like best about the site?

•     “The central list of destination options on the home page, the ability to compare cost
  of different travel dates on the same page, itʼs easy to book travels dates.” - U1
•     “The name of the company, destination animation on the home page, all the options
  are available on the home page.” - U2
•     “The pages load quickly, the log-in is easy, it has good deals on fares.” - U3



Q6. If you could make one significant change to the site, what would it be?

•      “Tidy it up a bit - itʼs visually too confusing.” - U1
•      “Fix the Frequent Flyer situation - itʼs a disaster.” - U2
•      “Remove all the boxes on the home page.” - U3



Q7. Would you return to this site on your own in the future? Why or why not?

•      “Yes - to compare pricing with other airlines.” - U1
•      “Yes - because itʼs easy to choose flights, and they have lots of destinations.” - U2
•      “Yes - I travel a lot and would come here to compare pricing.” - U3



Q11. Please comment on the Frequent Flyer account set-up process.

•  “It was completely demented; I would never spend that much time being told ʻnoʼ.” - U1
•  “I was confused by the language, I went round and round trying to figure out how to set
 up an account, only to find out that I already qualified for one. It should say more clearly
 that if you hold an account that youʼre already a Frequent Flyer member.” - U2
• “Pretty straight-forward, but the system didnʼt give me good feedback about what was
 going on.” - U3




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                                         Usability Test Report Document / www.flybe.com / September 2008

Q12. Please comment on the content found on the FlyBe web site.

•     “I generally liked the content, found it to be fairly useful.” - U1
•     “Generally pretty concise and specific, fairly standard.” - U2
•     “The content is undifferentiated - it all looks the same. It was depressing. They could
    have some more pleasing colours - the colours are awful.” - U3




Summary and Conclusion
While usability testing did not uncover any catastrophic issues with the FlyBe web site,
testing did point to a range of issues which diminished usability. Testing indicated that the
site would benefit from a minimal home page design which is less cluttered and distracting,
and uses greater focus to help users locate the siteʼs primary functionality. Testing
indicated that multiple paths to the same page was either confusing for users, or was
unused and redundant. While users generally felt positively with respect to the site content
(such as inexpensive fares and multiple destinations), users generally registered a
negative response with regard to locating content and navigating the site. Users felt the
site was encumbered by too much visual information that competed equally for attention,
and also suffered from a lack of clear, easily readable text.

Timed sessions indicated that users were able to successfully complete a task relatively
quickly, although all users suffered from multiple errors and unclear system feedback when
attempting to register a Frequent Flyer account. Unclear information prevented one user
from completing this task.

By implementing a handful of key measures - which are largely visual in nature - to
address the usability issues mentioned above, the FlyBe web site could greatly improve its
usability, improve user confidence and increase the frequency users return to the site.




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                                        Usability Test Report Document / www.flybe.com / September 2008


EXPERT REVIEW

Review Methodology

The site review was conducted by a single user on 31 August, 2008 and lasted
approximately 4 hours. The site was evaluated against Jakob Nielsenʼs standard usability
guidelines or heuristics (1990). The evaluation was limited to review of the primary site
functionality, and to top level navigation.



Detailed Findings

The following tables contain detailed findings for a total of 20 usability issues. Each issue
has been categorized by the following metrics:

Severity - the level of confusion experienced by the user, or the failure of the system.
Location - the page name and/or link on which the issue occurs.
Issue - the usability issue uncovered, including examples as appropriate.
Recommendations - the recommendation to be applied to the usability issue.

A severity rating appears at the end of the report, (p 30).




VISIBILITY OF SYSTEM STATUS
 #     severity    location           issue                           recommendation

 1.1   medium      multiple pages     M a n y p a g e s l a c k a Add a header title at the
                                      visible header describing top of pages lacking
                                      the page name; the headers.
                                      users may not know what
                                      page she has arrived at.

 1.2   medium      all pages          The site lacks visual cues Introduce distinctions in
                                      in the navigation global and local
                                      regarding user location.   navigation, visual
                                                                 indicators differentiating
                                                                 the page the user is
                                                                 currently visiting from
                                                                 other pages.




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#     severity   location                  issue                           recommendation

1.3   medium     Timetable                 Timetable launches in           Display Timetable within
                                           new window containing           standard page template
                 http://                   small table lacking all         of site, keeping
                 www.flybe.com/
                                           references to flybe.com -        navigation and branding
                 timetableService/
                 timetable.do              including navigation and        visible.
                                           branding.
                                                                           Note: Including the Timetable
                                                                           functionality within the Booking
                                                                           panel on the Home Page could
                                                                           reduce this issue, and increase
                                                                           ease of use. This is also widely
                                                                           practiced among other airline
                                                                           sites.
                                                                           Curiously, this feature is
                                                                           embedded on the Contact Us
                                                                           page:                   http://
                                                                           w w w. fl y b e h o t e l s . c o m /
                                                                           contact.php

1.4   medium     Timetable                 Clicking on the                 Display additional
                                           information icon ʻiʼ            timetable information in
                 http://                   launches a new, ill-fitting      parent window, possibly
                 www.flybe.com/
                                           browser window partially        in opening panel using
                 timetableService/
                 timetable.do              obscuring both closing          javascript.
                                           functions at top and
                                           bottom,             and
                                           unnecessarily displays
                                           scroll bars.




CONSISTENCY AND STANDARDS
#     severity    location                 issue                                recommendation

2.1   medium      multiple pages;          Site lacks language                  Match labels of global
                  https://www.flybe.com/    consistency between global           navigation links with
                  en/rewards4all/
                                           navigation links and initial         corresponding page
                  https://www.flybe.com/    information appearing on             labels.
                  cam/initFindBooking.do
                                           corresponding pages. For
                  http://www.flybe.com/     example, ʻQ&Aʼ in the global
                  flightInfo/1book.htm      navigation links to a page
                  http://www.flybe.com/     entitled ʻSupport Formʼ, and
                  map/default.htm          ʻCareersʼ links to a page
                  http://www.flybe.com/
                                           with header of ʻIntroductionʼ,
                  customerRelations/       etc.
                  index.do?
                  layoutType=full




                                                                                                             23
                                               Usability Test Report Document / www.flybe.com / September 2008


#     severity   location                     issue                              recommendation

2.2   medium     Flybe                        Header appears in red block C h a n g e t o s i t e -
                 Destinations                 background with smaller     standard blue block
                                              text.                       header, with larger
                 http://www.flybe.com/
                 destinations/default.htm                                 white text.

2.3   medium     Home Page                    There is a visual                  Remove colored
                                              relationship between the           bounding lines from
                                              upper navigation ʻiconsʼ (top      boxes on Home
                                              right) and the colored             Page.
                                              bounding boxes for each
                                              section on the Home page;
                                              users may believe think that
                                              boxes encircled in purple
                                              may relate to ʻAgent Log-inʼ,
                                              or that boxes in yellow may
                                              relate to either ʻMy Flightʼ or
                                              ʻFrequent Flyerʼ icons.
                                              Potentially confusing.

2.4   medium     Hotel page                   Clicking Hotel links takes Add navigation option
                 http://www.flybehotels.com/
                 home.php?                    user outside main site to to return to main
                 &languageCode=en&count
                 ryOfOrigin=IE
                                              hotel mini site, does not FlyBe site.
                                              provide option to return to
                                              main Flybe site.

2.5   medium     Account                      breaking site convention; an Place an asterisk (*)
                 registration                 asterisk appears by all by the phone number
                                              required fields, but not by options.
                 https://www.flybe.com/cam/
                 initAccountRegistration.do   the phone numbers - one of
                                              which is required. Users
                                              may scan only for ʻrequiredʼ
                                              fields for speed, missing this
                                              option forces the page to
                                              reload.

2.7   low        Home Page                    Redundancy in navigation R e m o v e
                                              links: ʻQ&Asʼ and ʻFAQʼsʼ redundancies; either
                                              link to the same page.        remove links in
                                              Also true for Car Hire, Hotel navigation, or remove
                                              and FlyBe Credit Card links redundant sections
                                              and corresponding sections on on home page (the
                                              Home Page.                         global navigation could be
                                                                                 distilled down to fewer
                                                                                 options, as much content
                                                                                 are available below in
                                                                                 boxed areas).

2.8   low        Hotel page                   Localization options include Remove Ireland as an
                 http://www.flybehotels.com/
                 home.php?                    Ireland, but uses English option, unless Gaelic
                 &languageCode=en&count
                 ryOfOrigin=IE
                                              language.                    is used.

                                                                                                          24
                                            Usability Test Report Document / www.flybe.com / September 2008


#     severity   location                   issue                             recommendation

2.9   low        Home Page                  The FlyBe logo on the top Deactivate the logo
                                            left of the page is clickable, link.
                                            so users may think that they
                                            are not already on the home
                                            page.




LANGUAGE / MATCH BETWEEN SYSTEM AND REAL WORLD
#     severity   location                   issue                          recommendation

3.1   medium     Timetable                  Additional Timetable           Display Timetable within
                                            information is presented       standard page template
                 https://www.flybe.com/      as an error message in         of site, keeping
                 timetableService/
                 timetable.do               the browser, is written        navigation and branding
                                            unclearly and chunked          visible. Use clear
                                            into confusing sections.       explanations of
                                            Technical text appears         timetable. Remove
                                            first, followed by clunky       technical language.
                                            explanatory text.

3.2   medium     Destination                The Destination pages          Allow users to select
                 pages                      include an empty box at        other destinations from
                                            bottom entitled ʻOther         the ʻOther Destinationsʼ
                 http://www.flybe.com/       Destinationsʼ, which is        box; perhaps populate
                 destinations/Belfast.htm
                                            contrary to the lengthy        this box with similar
                                            list of destinations           destination as the one
                                            displayed on the Site          initially selected by user
                                            Map. Users are required        (for example, if the user
                                            to click Back to the Site      selected Birmingham, then
                                            Map to view list of            display all UK destinations).
                                            destinations.
                                                                           If no additional
                                                                           destinations can be
                                                                           added here, then
                                                                           remove the empty box
                                                                           from each page.




                                                                                                       25
                                          Usability Test Report Document / www.flybe.com / September 2008


#     severity   location                 issue                          recommendation

3.3   medium     Q&A                      The phrase ʻ...check the       Rephrase to a less
                                          top Q&A below...ʼ is           confusing statement,
                 http://www.flybe.com/
                 customerRelations/       confusing because of the       such as, ʻcheck the first
                 showAnswer.do            two locations Q&A and          answer belowʼ.
                                          FAQs. Also, ʻtopʼ and
                                          ʻbelowʼ used in close
                                          proximity can be
                                          confusing.

3.4   medium     Global                   The term ʻInformationʼ in      Re-name this label, or
                 Navigation               the global navigation is       provide additional
                                          too general and                adjective, for example,
                                          uninformative.                 ʻPassenger Informationʼ

3.5   low        Home Page                The term ʻOutboundʼ in         Substitute the less
                                          the booking functionality      conventional term
                                          is slightly technical in       Outbound for the more
                                          flavour, and less               widely used term
                                          conventional across the        Departure (as used on
                                          industry.                      major airline sites such as
                                                                         British Airways, Virgin
                                                                         Atlantic, Air France
                                                                         Lufthansa).




USER CONTROL
#     severity   location               issue                         recommendation

4.1   low        all pages              The site does not allow Provide search functionality
                                        ʻsearchʼ functionality, on each page.
                                        which many users
                                        prefer/are used to vs.
                                        browsing (most major
                                        airline sites offer search
                                        Britishairways, Lufthansa,
                                        Virgin Atlantic, United).




                                                                                                       26
                                               Usability Test Report Document / www.flybe.com / September 2008

ERROR PREVENTION
#     severity   location                     issue                          recommendation

5.1   high       Home Page                    Booking system allows          Allow the system to
                                              user to select a Return        prohibit the selection of
                 http://www.flybe.com/         Date previous to the           dates which pre-date the
                 default.htm
                                              Outbound Date. An error        outbound date. For
                                              message informs user of        example, if the user
                                              the anachronous return         chooses 31 Aug, the
                                              date.                          drop-down in the Return
                                                                             Date should only display
                                                                             from September.

5.2   high       Rewards4All                  The site does not use          The system should
                                              user account log-in            recognize if the user is
                 https://www.flybe.com/        information in the             logged in, use the
                 en/rewards4all/
                                              Rewards4All sign-up            account information it
                                              process, and requires          already holds, eliminating
                                              users to complete              this unnecessary and
                                              another form, using            repetitious registration
                                              different email and            step.
                                              password combinations
                                              to their original account
                                              log-in details; requiring
                                              two sets of log-in details
                                              will greatly deter users.

5.3   medium     Account                      The password security Allow more flexibility in
                 Registration                 requires a combination the choice of password.
                                              of capital and lowercase
                 https://www.flybe.com/        a l p h a n u m e r i c
                 cam/
                 initAccountRegistration.
                                              characters. The reviewer
                 do                           used a lowercase
                                              alphanumeric 10-digit
                                              password, which the
                                              system rejected.

5.4   low        Log-in                       All links appearing in left Remove links or grey-out
                                              margin are active but not and deactivate links.
                 https://www.flybe.com/        clickable; user is
                 cam/login.do
                                              presented an error
                                              message prompting user
                                              to log-in to access these
                                              links.

5.5   *          Account                      The system provides No recommendation
                 Registration                 r e a l - t i m e e r r o r - needed.
                 https://www.flybe.com/cam/
                 initAccountRegistration.do   prevention messaging to
                                              the user when filling out
                                              forms.



                                                                                                          27
                                           Usability Test Report Document / www.flybe.com / September 2008




HELP AND DOCUMENTATION
#     severity   location                issue                                recommendation

6.1   medium     Q&A / FAQS              The FlyBe site provides FAQ          Increase font size,
                                         information, but it is               and      improve
                                         presented in very small font         readability layout;
                                         and cluttered closely                answers should be
                                         together. The answers do             displayed in order of
                                         not seem to be weighted in a         most frequently
                                         logical order.                       asked by users.




ERROR RECOVERY
#     severity   location                issue                        recommendation

7.1 critical     Rewards4All             The site does not            Ideally, remove this task
                                         provide adequate error       entirely and provide users
                 https://www.flybe.com/   recovery during the          the option to sign up for the
                 cam/
                 processAccountRegistr   Frequent Flyer sign-up       Frequent Flyer program (as
                 ation.do                process. The process         a simple check box) during
                                         is complex and error         initial Account Registration.
                                         messaging is not well-       Otherwise, if a user is
                                         placed. As a result,         logged-in, pre-populate the
                                         error recovery is poor.      form with user account
                                         (see Error Prevention)       information - remove the
                                                                      Catcha functionality. Display
                                                                      subsequent            error
                                                                      messaging at the top of the
                                                                      form, as many implicated
                                                                      input fields appear below
                                                                      the fold. If the user has not
                                                                      logged-in, then require log-
                                                                      in and then follow above.




                                                                                                      28
                                   Usability Test Report Document / www.flybe.com / September 2008



AESTHETIC AND MINIMAL DESIGN
#   severity   location        issue                           recommendation

8.1 high       all pages       The FlyBe site is blighted R e d u c e a m o u n t o f
                               by     an      o v e r - a l l horizontal bars throughout
                               cumbersome sense of the site.
                               visual design; an over
                               abundance of coloured
                               horizontal bars for
                               navigation and headers
                               make the site difficult to
                               scan. The use of primary
                               colors throughout is
                               unfortunate, although this
                               may be difficult to change
                               as the logo incorporates
                               these colours.

8.2 medium     Home Page       Over-population; poor Include more white space
                               emphasis and focus of t o c l u t t e r e d p a g e s ,
                               v i s u a l e l e m e n t s . A l l especially the home page.
                               elements - barring the
                               Booking panel - seem to
                               be weighted the same in
                               terms of importance. The
                               use of red is distracting
                               and is used for different
                               categories/labels.

8.3 low        Destination     The use of yellow/gold Change either background
               pages           text on a red background color, or text color to a
                               is difficult to read.     combination which reduces
               https://                                 visual stress and adds
               www.flybe.com/
               destinations/                            contrast.
               default.htm




                                                                                              29
                                        Usability Test Report Document / www.flybe.com / September 2008


ACCESSIBILITY
 #     severity     location        issue                             recommendation

 9.1   high         all pages       The FlyBe site is not review HTML to remove
                                    HTML standards compliant validation errors; add alt
                                    a n d s u ff e r s f r o m 2 0 5 tags for images.
                                    validation errors in its
                                    coding. Other accessibility
                                    issues exist such as an
                                    absence of <alt> tags for
                                    images in the code.

       *            all pages       However, CSS validation
                                    was successful.



Severity Rating
(each rating can include one or more of the following definitions)

Critical

• An emergency condition that causes the customer's system to fail or causes customer
  data to be lost or destroyed;
• A catastrophic usability issue that is likely to cause frequent data integrity errors;
• A key feature needed by many customers is not in the system;
• There is no work-around to these problems;

High

• A serious condition that impairs the operation, or continued operation, of one or more
  product functions - this can be avoided, but only with difficulty;
• The software does not prevent the user from making a serious mistake.
• The usability problem is frequent, persistent, and affects many users.
• There is a serious violation of standards.

Medium

• A non-critical, limited problem (no data lost or system failure).
• Moderate problem finding a work-around;
• The problem causes users moderate confusion or irritation.

Low

• Minor questions and/or confusion about the product;
• There are minor inconsistencies that cause hesitation or small aesthetic issues like
  labels and fields that are not aligned properly;
• Cosmetic issues;
• Minor irritation to users, work-around easily found.



                                                                                                   30
                                    Usability Test Report Document / www.flybe.com / September 2008



*
• Noteworthy, but a non-issue; does not require a fix nor recommendation.




                                                                                               31
                                       Usability Test Report Document / www.flybe.com / September 2008


Appendices

Appendix A: Pre-test Questionnaire

General
• Name of participant:
• Gender: M / F
• Which of the following best describes your age?
      [18 to 25    26 to 39    40 to 59    60 - to 74       75 and older]
• Ethnicity / please specify ________________________________

Professional Demographics
• What is your current position and title?
• How long have you held this position?
• Which of the following best describes your work environment?
      [commercial business, nonprofit, government agency, self-employed,
      other _______________ ]
• Which of the following describes your highest level of education?
      [GCSE or equivalent, some university, university graduate, postgraduate (MA/PhD),
      other ________________________

Computer Expertise
• Do you use a computer? Y / N (if N, stop)
• Besides read email, what are typical activities you do on the computer?

• Approximately how many hours per week do you spend on the computer?
            0-10hrs       11-25hrs       +26hrs
• What computer platform do you usually use? [e.g. Mac, Windows XP, etc.]
• What Internet browser(s) do you usually use? [e.g., Firefox, IE v.__, AOL, etc.]
  other___________
• During the last year, how often have you made purchases from a Web site?

• If yes, what types of items have you purchased?




• Is there anything else you use the internet for?




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                                              Usability Test Report Document / www.flybe.com / September 2008




Appendix B: Audio / Video Release Form




Usability Testing - Video/Audio Release Form




I agree to participate in this usability study conducted and recorded by Luke Bishop, for educational
purposes in conjunction with coursework at Qantm College, London.

I understand and consent to the use and release of the recorded material by Luke Bishop. I understand that
the information and material is for educational purposes only and that my name and image will not be used
for any other purpose. I relinquish any rights to this material and understand that it may be copied and used
(limited to educational purposes only) by Luke Bishop without further permission.

I understand that I can leave at any time.

I agree to immediately raise any concerns or areas of discomfort with the study administrator (N/A).




Your signature:____________________________________________________



Date:______________________________________________________________



Please print your name: ______________________________________________


Thank you!




                                                                                                           33
                                      Usability Test Report Document / www.flybe.com / September 2008

Appendix C: Post-test Interview



1. What are your overall impressions of the FlyBe Web site?



2. If you had to give the site a grade, from A to F, where A was exemplary and F was
   failing, what grade would you give it, and why?



3. Name three words or characteristics that describe this Web site.


4. What are the three things you like best about the Web site?



5. What are the three things you like least about the Web site?



6. If you could make one significant change to this Web site, what change would you
   make?


7. Would you return to this Web site on your own in the future? Why/why not?



8. What would entice you to return?


9. Are there materials you would like to see added to the Web site? Which ones?



10. Would you recommend this Web site to a colleague? To a friend?



11. Please comment about the Frequent Flyer account set-up process.



12. Please comment about the content found on the FlyBe Web site.


13. Are there any additional comments youʼd like to make?

                                                                                                 34
                                       Usability Test Report Document / www.flybe.com / September 2008

Appendix D: Post-test Survey

                                       Strongly                                     Strongly
                                       disagree                                      agree
                                           1          2          3         4          5


For our last activity I'm going to give you a short survey of statements about the FlyBe
Web site. I would like you to rate your agreement with each statement on a scale of 1 to 5,
1 as ‘strongly disagree’ with the statement, and 5 as ‘strongly agree’ with the statement.
Please write your response at the end of each statement.

  1. The homepage is attractive. 3 - 4 - 1
  2. The overall site is attractive. 3 - 3 - 2
  3. The site's graphics are pleasing. 2 - 3 - 1
  4. The site has a good balance of graphics versus text. 4 - 3 - 1
  5. The colors used throughout the site are attractive. 2 - 4 - 1
  6. The typography (lettering, headings, titles) is attractive. 2 - 4 - 3
  7. The home page's content makes me want to explore the site further. 2 - 2 - 2
  8. It is easy to find my way around the site. 4 - 3 - 3
  9. I can get to information quickly. 1 - 3 - 3
 10. It is fun to explore the site. 1 - 3 - 2
 11. It is easy to remember where to find things. 4 - 2 - 2
 12. Information is layered effectively on different screens. 1 - 3 - 2
 13. The homepage is attention-getting. 2 - 3 - 2
 14. Information is easy to read. 1 - 4 - 2
 15. Information is written in a style that suits me. 1 - 4 - 2
 16. Screens have the right amount of information. 1 - 3 - 1
 17. The site effectively communicates the company's identity. 1 - 2 - 3
 18. The information is relevant to my professional needs. 2 - 4 - 3
 19. The site is designed with me in mind. 2 - 3 - 2
 20. The site's content interests me. 4 - 2 - 2
 21. The site's content would keep me coming back. 4 - 2 - 2
 22. The site has characteristics that make it especially appealing. 1 - 3 - 1
 23. The site reflects progressive, leading edge design. 1 - 2 - 1
 24. The site is exciting. 1 - 2 - 1
 25. The site is well-suited to first-time visitors. 3 - 4 - 3
 26. The site is well-suited to repeat visitors. 3 - 4 - 3
 27. The site has a clear purpose. 3 - 4 - 5
 28. It is clear how screen elements work (pop-ups, scrolling lists, menu options). 3 - 4 - 3
29. My mistakes were easy to correct. 2 - 3 -3
30. The site was easy to navigate. 3 - 3 -3
31. I could find what I was looking for easily. 3 - 4 - 4



[ U1 - U2 - U3 ]
                                                                                                  35
                                             Usability Test Report Document / www.flybe.com / September 2008


36 - Scenarios

Pre-Scenario 1

“This is the homepage of a company called Flybe. Please give me your initial reactions to
this page. Feel free to explore this page as you normally would. You can scroll around with
your mouse, but please don't click on anything just yet.”

Please give me your initial impressions about the layout of this page and what you think of
the colors, graphics, photos, etc.
User comments:
______________________________________________________________________________________


______________________________________________________________________________________


“Have you ever seen this Web site before? “ Y / N

“Please give me your initial impressions about the layout of this page and what you think of
the colors, graphics, visual elements.”




“Without clicking on anything yet, if you were exploring, what would you click on first?”




      Pathway(s)         Success           Notes/Observations
                         (Circle 1)

                             0
                       Not completed

                               1
                      Completed with
                      difficulty or help

                             2
                           Easily
                         completed




                                                                                                        36
                                            Usability Test Report Document / www.flybe.com / September 2008



Pre-scenario 2

“I'm going to give you a few minutes to freely explore this Web site. You may go anywhere
you would like to go on the Web site, but please remember to speak aloud as you do so. I
will tell you when your time is up.” (allow 3-4 mins.)
User comments:
______________________________________________________________________________________


______________________________________________________________________________________




       Pathway(s)       Success           Notes/Observations
                        (Circle 1)

                            0
                      Not completed

                              1
                     Completed with
                     difficulty or help

                            2
                          Easily
                        completed




                                                                                                       37
                                            Usability Test Report Document / www.flybe.com / September 2008



Scenario 1

“Youʼre planning to fly from Aberdeen to Birmingham on 9 September - where would you
go on the Web site to view a complete list of flights on that date?”



User comments:
______________________________________________________________________________________


______________________________________________________________________________________




      Pathway(s)        Success           Notes/Observations
                        (Circle 1)

                           0
                     Not completed

                              1
                     Completed with
                     difficulty or help

                            2
                          Easily
                        completed




                                                                                                       38
                                             Usability Test Report Document / www.flybe.com / September 2008



Scenario 2

“An account has been created for you to use on the site. Please update your account
details by changing your street address and post code (use the following account details):


      username / email - info@lukebishop.com


      password - Testing123

When you feel you have completed this task, please say so.”

User comments:
______________________________________________________________________________________


______________________________________________________________________________________




      Pathway(s)         Success           Notes/Observations
                         (Circle 1)

                            0
                      Not completed

                               1
                      Completed with
                      difficulty or help

                             2
                           Easily
                         completed




                                                                                                        39
                                            Usability Test Report Document / www.flybe.com / September 2008


Scenario 3

“On the FlyBe web site, where would you go to find the cheapest fare for the flights on 19
September, from Aberdeen to Birmingham - returning the 19 October?

When you feel you have completed this task, please say so.”
User comments:
______________________________________________________________________________________


______________________________________________________________________________________




      Pathway(s)        Success           Notes/Observations
                        (Circle 1)

                            0
                      Not completed

                              1
                     Completed with
                     difficulty or help

                            2
                          Easily
                        completed




                                                                                                       40
                                              Usability Test Report Document / www.flybe.com / September 2008




Scenario 4

“You would like to ensure that you will earn the frequent flyer points for this flight - set up a
frequent flyer account using the email and password I provide you.”


      username / email - info@lukebishop.com


      password - Testing123


When you feel you have completed this task, please say so.”
User comments:
______________________________________________________________________________________


______________________________________________________________________________________




      Pathway(s)          Success           Notes/Observations
                          (Circle 1)

                             0
                       Not completed

                                1
                       Completed with
                       difficulty or help

                              2
                            Easily
                          completed




                                                                                                         41
                                            Usability Test Report Document / www.flybe.com / September 2008




Scenario 5

“You want to bring luggage along with on your trip to Birmingham, but you want to make
you sure your baggage doesnʼt exceed the maximum weight allowance. Find out what the
maximum weight allowance is for checked-in baggage in Economy class.

When you feel you have completed this task, please say so.”
User comments:
______________________________________________________________________________________


______________________________________________________________________________________




      Pathway(s)        Success           Notes/Observations
                        (Circle 1)

                           0
                     Not completed

                              1
                     Completed with
                     difficulty or help

                            2
                          Easily
                        completed




                                                                                                       42
                                          Usability Test Report Document / www.flybe.com / September 2008




References
1 http://www.blackartofwebpublishing.com/FPatternHotSpots




Facilitator Test Script
part I : Intro

Hello, (User),

Thank you for taking part in this usability test. This test consists of three parts: a
background questionnaire and signing a consent form, the usability testing of a web site,
and a short survey of your experience using the site at the end. The entire process should
take about an hour to complete. It is important to remember that we are not testing you-
we are testing the site itself, so there is no right or wrong for you. The audio and video of
the session will be recorded, this information will be used for the purposes of this study
only and will not appear anywhere else. If you have any questions at any point during the
process, it is perfectly ok to ask, but try to engage with the site as you naturally would on
your own. Do you have any questions before we start?

> (consent form first)

> (pre-questionnaire)




Part II : site test

“Thank you. Now we will begin the site test. I will ask you to perform 7 tasks to do one at a
time. While you are performing each task, I will make a few notes and merely observe, not
intervene or comment. Remember, Iʼd like you to try to speak aloud describing what youʼre
doing, why youʼre doing it, what you are thinking as you are performing each task. Do you
have any questions before we begin?”

> (Post-test interview)

> (Post-test survey)




Closing thank you.



                                                                                                     43

				
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