Geothermal energy use in Hungary by xld14276

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									     Geothermal energy use
     in Hungary
     Gábor SZITA
     mechanical engineer
     President of Hungarian Geothermal Association (HGA)




Content
1.      Potential
2.      Historical overview
3.          re-
        The re-injection story
4.      The future
5.      The role of HGA




                                                           1
1. POTENTIAL




                                            POTENTIAL

Geothermal resources-I: the heat
New data are available
(Hungarian Geological Survey, 2004)
    n Annual energy supplied by Earth’s heat flow:
      (dynamic resources):           264 PJ/year
    n Accumulated energy in rocks and liquid:
      (static resources):        343.000 PJ

    (Annual primer energy consumption: ~ 1100 PJ/year)




                                                         2
                                             POTENTIAL

Geothermal resources-II: the water
No up-to-date data are available
        n All subsurface water resource between
          0-2400 m (Liebe, 1980)          2500 km3
        n Geothermal water resource:            ?




                                        POTENTIAL
        The upper-pannonian sandstone geothermal
              aquifer in the Carpathian basin
                      SLOVAKIA                       UKRAINE




   AUSTRIA




                                                 ROMANIA
SLOV.




                                              Outflow temperature
                                                           > 30 C°
   CROATIA
                                                           > 50 C°
                                                           > 90 C°

                                    SERBIA




                                                                     3
2. Historical overview




                                             Historical overview
The number of wells drilled from 1960 to 2000

 100
  90
  80
  70
  60
  50
  40
  30
  20
  10
   0
   1960


          1965


                 1970


                        1975


                               1980


                                      1985


                                               1990


                                                      1995


                                                             2000


                                                                    2005




                                                                           4
                                               Historical overview
Development curve of geothermal utilization

 350

 300

 250


 200

 150


 100

      50


       0
       1960     1965    1970    1975    1980    1985   1990   1995   2000




                                               Historical overview

Quantitative development

                FAST                   MODEST             STAGNATE

350


300


250


200


150


100


 50


  0


1960          1965     1970    1975    1980    1985    1990   1995   2000




                                                                            5
                                       Historical overview

Qualitative development

          Eastern (Hungarian) technology             Western t.

350


300


250


200


150


100


 50


  0


1960       1965   1970   1975   1980   1985   1990      1995   2000




                                       Historical overview

Features of the utilizations
      §   Using waters below 100oC
      §   Harnessing waters mainly for horticultural
          purposes
      §   TDS from 700 to 15 000 mg/l, mostly between
          2000 and 3000 mg/l
      §   High content of Na+ and HCO3-
      §   Corrosion and scaling problems (in some cases)




                                                                      6
3. THE RE-INJECTION STORY




                       THE RE-INJECTION STORY
                                                                                UA
                                                        SK
                                            A


The first experiment                                         BUDAPEST



                                                                                RO
                                        SLO
                                                                        SZEGED

                                                CRO

       Szeged – Mihálytelek
                                                               SCG




              1978
350


300


250


200


150


100


 50


  0


1960     1965   1970   1975   1980   1985        1990        1995        2000




                                                                                     7
                     THE RE-INJECTION STORY

An international conference

              Szeged –1983

350


300


250


200


150


100


 50


  0


1960   1965   1970   1975   1980   1985   1990   1995   2000




                     THE RE-INJECTION STORY

An international conference

              Szeged –1983

350


300


250


200


150


100


 50


  0


1960   1965   1970   1975   1980   1985   1990   1995   2000




                                                               8
                     THE RE-INJECTION STORY

An international conference

              Szeged –1983

350


300


250


200


150


100


 50


  0


1960   1965   1970   1975   1980   1985   1990   1995   2000




                     THE RE-INJECTION STORY

An international conference

              Szeged –1983

350


300


250


200


150


100


 50


  0


1960   1965   1970   1975   1980   1985   1990   1995   2000




                                                               9
                  THE RE-INJECTION STORY
A full range re-injection:
                                                                                                                                                                             UA
                                                                                                                          SK
                                                                                                          A


Szeged-Felsováros                                                                                                              BUDAPEST



                                                                                                                                                                             RO
                                                                                                         SLO
                                                                                                                                          SZEGED

l                                      1983. Drilling of wells: (KBFI)                                          CRO              SCG



l                                      1984. Dec. to 1985 June. First experiment
                                                   Sand deposit at the bottom.
l                                      1988. Well cleaning
l                                      1992. Experiment financed by PHARE.
                                                  Insufficient results to continue
l                                      1992. Nov. Another re-injection test
l                                      1994. Bidding for construction
l                                      1995. June: Project start up.
l                                      1998. April: Stop of re-injection.




                                                                            THE RE-INJECTION STORY
Re-injection test in Szeged-Felsováros
1992. Nov 27. - 1992. Dec. 17.

                                                     Reinjection pressure          Flowrate              Injectivity             Productivity
                                             15,0                                                                                         150
    Pressure (bar) and flowrate (x10 m3/h)




                                             12,0                                                                                          120
                                                                                                                                                and productivity(l/perc/m)
                                                                                                                                                  Injectivity(l/perc/bar)




                                              9,0                                                                                          90




                                              6,0                                                                                          60




                                              3,0                                                                                          30




                                              0,0                                                                                          0
                                              92-11-27        92-12-01       92-12-05         92-12-09         92-12-13        92-12-17




                                                                                                                                                                                  10
                 THE RE-INJECTION STORY
Szeged-Felsováros:
Operation in a fully closed loop.
                                                                          Connection diagram
                                          Hydro cyclone            Pre filter   Fine filter        Heat exch.     Flow meter         Re-inj pumps

                                                                                                                        V




                                                                                              Temperature
                                                                                              Flow rate
Production well                                                                               Re-injection pressure                Re-injection well



      l                                    Careful filtering is required (2 µm).
      l                                    Sudden changes of flowrate have to be avoided.




                                                                               THE RE-INJECTION STORY
Running of re-injection in Szeged-Felsováros
1995. June - 1997. April

                                                       Flowrate                          Pressure                           Injectivity
                                          60                                                                                              180
  Flowtare and pressure (m3/h ill. bar)




                                          50                                                                                              150
                                                                                                                                                Injectivity (l/perc/bar)




                                          40                                                                                              120


                                          30                                                                                              90


                                          20                                                                                              60


                                          10                                                                                              30


                                           0                                                                                           0
                                          1995. jún.              1995. dec.          1996. jún.           1996. dec.           1997. jún.




                                                                                                                                                                           11
                   THE RE-INJECTION STORY
A very short re-injection test
                                                                                                                                           UA
                                                                                                      SK
                                                                                    A


in Szarvas, 1987. March              SZARVAS                                                                       BUDAPEST



                                                                                                                                          RO
                                                                                   SLO
                     Pressure (bar)                    Injectivity (m3/h/bar)                               Flowtare (m3/h)
    10                                                                                                                                20
                                                                                            CRO                      SCG
    9                                                                                                                                 18

    8                                                                                                                                 16

    7                                                                                                                                 14

    6                                                                                                                                 12

    5                                                                                                                                 10

    4                                                                                                                                 8

    3                                                                                                                                 6

    2                                                                                                                                 4

    1                                                                                                                                 2

    0                                                                                                                                 0
     12:00   14:00    16:00   18:00   20:00   22:00   0:00   2:00   4:00    6:00         8:00     10:00    12:00     14:00    16:00
                       12 hours                                                          17 hours




                THE RE-INJECTION STORY
How did a re-injection operator work?
The Hungarian experience:
§        Did not pay water fee and sewage penalty.
§        Tried to re-inject but if the cost of operation rised
         too high he chose the less expensive solution
         let the water off on the surface
§        In this case he saved the cost of electricity (re-
         injection pumps) and well maintenance.
§        Reported the successful re-injection to the authority.




                                                                                                                                                12
       4. THE future




                                               THE future

       Forecasts
                                   1998       2004
1200



1000


 800


 600


 400


 200


   0


 1960 1965 1970 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005 2010 2015 2020

                     New measures in 2004




                                                                    13
                                                   THE future

New measures in 2004
1.   Modification of sewage penalty decree
      The government decree 220/2004 increased the penalty
      items of over-the-limit emissions 70 (that is seventy) times
      as against the former rate.
2.   Significant growth of water reserves contribution
     (water fee)
3.   Modification of the water management law:
       “Any geothermal water exploited exclusively for the
      purpose of energy utilisation shall be returned to earth.”




                                                   THE future

Tasks for the future
§    Real database.
§    Good legal environment.
§    Modernization of existing systems.
§    Building new systems.
§    Development of re-injection technology.
§    Electricity production.
§    Using abandoned hydrocarbon wells.




                                                                     14
                                              THE future

Tasks for the manufacturers
1.   Technology for reduction of Na+
     concentration in cooled geothermal waters:
         Requirement: operation cost must not exceed
         0,10 Euro/m3.
2.   Heat pumps specially designed for 30oC
     waters (as the heat source):
         Requirement: COP should be, at least, 6.




5. THE role of hga




                                                           15
                                    THE role of hga

Activity of HGA in the recent years
§   Hungarian Geothermal Association issued its
    “Statement on the status of harnessing geothermal
    energy in Hungary” on 20th October 2004.
§   HGA managed to make modified the government
    decree 220/2004 on sewage penalty.
§   The existing users may survive.




                                    THE role of hga

Aim of HGA for the future
§   Creating new measures that may be observed.
§   Leading users to observe the laws.




                                                        16
     THANK YOU FOR YOUR
         ATTENTION!
         ATTENTION
Hungarian Geothermal Association
Address: 1012 Budapest, Mátray u. 8/b. HUNGARY
Tel: (1)-214 3727, fax: (1)-214 5953
E-mail: info@mgte.hu, szitag@mgte.hu
http//www.mgte.hu




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