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					            Middle East and North Africa Regional Workshop
          on “Building Partnerships for Disaster Risk Reduction
                     and Natural Hazard Risk Management”
                               (Cairo, April 18-21, 2007 )

                                   Algerian Experience
                     On Urban and Seismic Risk Reduction
   Dr. M. Belazougui *

ABSTRACT. - Algeria was highly satisfied by the launching of the International Decade
of the United Nations for Natural Disaster Reduction (IDNDR 1990-1999) and has fully
participated to the various activities undertaken in its framework.

  The Algerian experience in the field of Natural and Technological disasters Reduction
has begun after the major earthquake of EL Asnam of 10th of October 1980 and was
enriched after the catastrophic floods of Algiers (10th of November, 2001) and the very
damaging Boumerdes earthquake of 21st may, 2003.

  In this paper, the National Policy in these fields will be presented with the different
aspects as the main goals, the implementation mechanisms, the main achievements and
progress, the new legal and regulatory tools and mechanisms, cooperation aspects and then
we will conclude by global evaluation and perspectives.


Key Words: Algerian Earthquakes, Urban and Seismic Risk, Disaster Reduction, Disaster
Management,


     INTRODUCTION

      As many other countries among the international community, Algeria was highly satisfied
   when the united nations general assembly has adopted the resolutions setting up the
   International Decade for Disaster Reduction. (IDNDR).
      The resolution 44/236 of 22,December, 1989, devoting the decade 1990-1999 as
   “International Decade for Disasters Reduction” has as a major goal the setting up by each
   country of a national Committee which will be essentially in charge of promoting activities
   aiming at reducing and preventing natural disasters.
      During the decade 1980-1989 our country, its population and its economy have greatly
   suffered from bursting of adverse consequences of natural phenomena (four earthquakes and
   among them two very damaging ones, forest fires during many years, floods periods alternating
   with a period of strong drought and threatening of locust invasion during 1987-1988 period).
      Having acquired a very valuable experience, particularly after the strong earthquake which
   has stricken the area of El Asnam in October 10th , 1980, (which resulted in the death of 3000
   people and more than 3 billions of US Dollars of damage), the Algerian Government has
   adopted since 1985, a national plan of prevention and management of natural and
   technological disasters. This plan has been updated and reinforced in July 2003 after the lessons
   learned from different earthquakes and other disasters occurred since that period and
   particularly the huge floods of Bab El Oued (Algiers ) in November 10th, 2001, and the dramatic
   Boumerdes earthquake of 21 May, 2003.

     * Director of “Centre National de Recherche Appliquée en Génie Parasismique (CGS) »



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   The consecration of the years 1990-1999 as an international decade for natural disaster
reduction decided by the international community has come to reinforce the national action
   planned in this field. Algeria has implemented the main recommendations of the UN
resolutions by setting up in December, 1990 a National Committee for the decade IDNDR. This
illustrates the commitment of the Algerian state to lead forward a policy in conformity with the
spirit of the resolution and to insert it in the framework of an international concerted
cooperation.
   In this framework, Algeria took actively part in the meeting of Yokohama in May 1994 and
in the adoption of Yokohama strategy for the remaining period of the decade. It has
participated actively to the " global forum" of Geneva ( in July 1999) which has closed the
international decade IDNDR by a pertinent statement of the achievements and by proclaiming
the establishment of the “International Strategy for Disasters Reduction ISDR” for the 21st
century.
   In this present document, the National Policy in these fields will be presented with the
different aspects as the main goals, the implementation mechanisms, the main achievements and
progress, the new legal and regulatory tools and mecanisms, cooperation aspects and then we
will conclude by global evaluation and perspectives.

  1- THE NATIONAL POLICY OF DISASTER REDUCTION AND MANAGEMENT

   The national policy of natural and technological disasters reduction and management
emphasizes especially on the national and local institutions and deals with the two fields of
disasters reduction and organization of interventions and rescue in case of disaster.
   The program of actions includes the taking in charge of all of the fourteen (14 ) natural and
technological disasters identified and listed as being the most important. The measures
undertaken deal with institutional, regulatory and organizational aspects, the listing of capacities
and the increasing of scientific, technical and operating intervention potentials.

1.1- THE NATIONAL POLICY GOALS

   The goals and the actions sustaining this national policy aim especially at:
   * Strengthening of the knowledge, identification and assessment of the hazards and risks for
the needs of disasters mapping.
   * Information and public education
   * Reinforcement of the capacities of the institutions and the organisms whose missions
contribute to the prevention and to the protection from disasters .
   * Encouragement of the collaboration policy and the concertation between the institutions
and the organisms concerned by the assigned goals.
   * Promotion and development of multiform cooperation at regional and international level.

1.2- THE IMPLEMENTATION MECHANISMS OF THE NATIONAL POLICY AND
     THE PROGRAMMES

   The institutions in charge of the implementation of the national policy of prevention and
management of disasters are those designated by the national regulations in this field.
   At the central level, they are entrusted to the ministry departments concerned.
   At the local level, the missions of following and controlling the application of the programme
of actions are entrusted to the local authorities of the wilaya ( departments) and municipalities
with the technical assistance of the deconcentrated services of the ministries.
   The programmed plans have got variable levels of execution but this remain globally
insufficient.
   We must also note that there is a persistant shortage in the field of the coordination. of
activities.




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1.3- ACHIEVEMENTS SINCE THE LAUNCHING OF THE INTERNATIONAL
     DECADE IDNDR IN THE FIELD OF DISASTER REDUCTION

  As national achievements and current activities related to the realisation of the IDNDR and
Yokohama strategy goals, we can particularly mention:

  a) – Reinforcement of the hazards or phenomena survey networks and of
experimental research tools

   In this field we can mention the installation of the seismic survey telemetered network by
CRAAG (National Seismological Centre) composed of 32 stations in 1990-92 as well as the
deployment of a large network of earthquake strong motion recopresently of 300 accelerographs
installed successively in 1985-1992 and 2002-2004 through the national territory (and 30
accelerographs in reserve). Moreover, it has been acquired 10 mobile seismographs by CGS
and the same number by CRAAG and they all have been activated in the region of Boumerdes
for recording of the 21 May, 2003 earthquake aftershocks .
   In addition to this we have to mention the mobile and fixed equipments for dynamic testing
of structures at CGS Center, including a very modern shaking table of 6m x 6m with 6 degrees
of freedom which are in the process of installation ( they will be operational in the second
semester 2007).

b) – Hazards or risks assessments at national level by most of               the concerned
sectors with variable accuracy levels

   Among these evaluations we can mention :
   * Seismic hazards maps at national and regional levels (iso-accelerations maps with
   return periods of 100, 200 and 500 years)
   * Seismic microzoning maps of 30 cities of the regions of Chlef, Algiers, Mascara,and Ain
Temouchent and many Important works ( dams, electrical energy plants and hospitals…)
   * Seismic vulnerability assessment of some strategic buildings.
   * Seismic vulnerability and risk assessment for the central part of Algiers
   * national map of desertification sensitiveness.
   * Index map of vegetation performed for the potential regions of locust reproduction (south
of Algeria and the northern parts of Niger and Mali).

c) – Structured plans for risks reduction or detailed plans for disaster management


  In the field of the disaster reduction policy, the Algerian government has adopted in
29 may, 1985 " a national plan of disaster prevention and organization of
intervention and rescue" .

  It has been followed by the enactment of two decrees which codified this policy :
  * The decree n°85-231 of 25-08-1985 related to the organization of intervention and
rescue in case of disaster.
  * The decree n- 85-232 of 25-08-1985 relative to disaster reduction.

  In this framework, some plans of prevention have been elaborated at the national and
local levels. We can mention as examples:
  * plans of prevention of forest fires
  * national plan against desertification (presently in process of updating for being
adjusted to the international convention of fighting against desertification )
  * national plan for locust fighting
  * national emergency plan against sea pollution (named "PLAN TEL BAHR
NATIONAL" ).
  * plans of prevention and intervention in economical and industrial facilities areas.




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d) – Easy access to the rapid (or early) warning systems at global, national,
regional or local levels

   In this field, we should note that the satisfactory rapid warning systems exist in some
sectors or fields such as:
   * National system of warning by radio for forests fire
   * National rapid warning system for massive outflows of hydrocarbons.
   * National rapid warning system by radio for outflows or bursting of dams .
   * Pilot system for prediction and warning for floods in the basin of Sebaou river (
region of Tizi Ouzou )
   * Specific rapid warning systems for the huge industrial areas (petrol and petro-
chemical areas in particular.)
   * Meteorological warning system of for prediction and prevention of storms and
strong winds.
   * rapid warning system ( divided in 3 levels according to the magnitude of the event
and to the vulnerability of the concerned region) for earthquke or early warning for
floods (these systems are in process of formal and official setting).

e) – Promising start for public education process
  We should notice several sectors concerned by the disaster reduction have at their
disposal public education programs.
   However; their efficiency are variable according to the sectors and fields concerned. The
sectors of forests and environment seem to be the sectors where the concrete and continuous
actions are profitable particularly toward the scholar population . Moreover, some activities of
sensitiveness and information are organized by the associative movement in the fields related to
disaster reduction.
   The methods used for the diffusion of information are generally:
   * Leaflets and posters
   * Conferences, meetings and exposition at schools level
   * Advertising spots in tv and radio .
   These actions will certainly receive a new impulse with the recent creation ( decree n°
04-181 of 24 June 2004 ) of a " national commission of communication related to
major risks" .
   Moreover, concerning the training, we should note the introduction of the teaching of
the 2 modulus entitled " structural dynamics" and " earthquake resistant design of
structures" since 1984 in the numerous existing civil engineering institutes and high
schools.
   It has also been proceeded in 2004 to the elaboration of education programmes at the
third year of the middle level ( the ninth year of education ) of a matter related to " the
environment and natural disasters" . The pedagogical and didactic supports are being
elaborated.

f) – New interest from insurance sector for natural disasters

   For ending with the progress achieved since 1990, we have to mention the important
cooperation with the other sectors for integrating disaster reduction in their planning in
particular with the insurance sector with which a group " insurances and natural
disasters (“CAT-NAT Group”) has been constituted under the leadership of the National
committee for IDNDR and the Ministry of finance ( in charge of insurances). Besides
the here mentioned institutions, this group has been composed from representatives
from National Council of insurance ( CNA) , of 5 publics insurance companies and
CGS (Earthquake Engineering Centre). Its activities deal with the coordination of
efforts to lead to an adaptable coverage by the insurance of the natural and
technological major risks and this could assure in the same time an encouragement to



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prevention and could adequately divide up the charges between the insured, the insurers, the
national and foreign re-insurers and the state.
  These efforts have fortunately lead to the publication of the " Ordinance of 26 august,
2003 related to the obligation of insuring the natural disasters and to the indemnification
of victims". This prescription has come in force on 1st September, 2004.

1.4- NEW LEGAL AND REGULATORY FRAMEWORK

   Two recent major disasters have undoubtedly contributed to new awareness and new impulse
to the programmes and the actions dealing with the Algerian national policy of disaster
reduction and management. The first one is the huge flash floods of 10 Nov.,2001 that have hit
Bab El Oued (a populous district of Algiers City) and other regions of the country and have
resulted in 900 dead or missing people and about 1 billion of US Dollars of damage. The second
one is the very strong earthquake (Magnitude 6.8) of 21 May, 2003 that has badly stricken the
very populated regions of Boumerdes and Algiers in the central part of the country and that
resulted in 2300 dead people and more than 3 billions of US Dollars of damage.

   As a consequence of these two major events, the government has updated and strengthened
the National policy and the programmes of actions and also the legal and regulatory framework.

  In this last field, we can mention the following items:

  -    Enacting on 25 Dec. 2004 of the “Law related to major risks reduction and
       management in the framework of sustainable development”.
       This law, in addition to the requirements dealing with all the aspects of the reduction and
  the management of major disasters that have to be considered by the institutional bodies, the
  communities and all the stakeholders, require in its item 68 the setting up of the “National
  Delegation for Major Risks” . The missions of this National Delegation are of “advising,
  assessment, and coordination of actions aiming at reducing the impacts of major disasters on
  the economy of the country and the security of people and property”. The decree of creation
  of this very important institutional body is presently under examination at the concerned level
  of governmental administration.

  -   Enacting of “ Law 04-05 of 14 Aug., 2004, modifying and supplementing the law 90-
      29 of 1 Dec., 1990, related to land management and urban planning” .
  The modifications introduced by this document deal with a better definition of the hazards
  and the hazards prone areas where building is forbidden or limited, but, above all, stipulate
  two (2) very important requirements, that are:
          * Immediate demolishing of all new construction without legal permit; if the
          municipality does not undertake the demolishing under 8 days after the certified
          report made by the habilitated inspector, the provincial governor (Wali) has to
          substitute the Mayor and demolish with the Wilaya engines in the following 30 days.
          * Compulsory Introduction, in addition to architectural lay-out signed by an architect,
          of designed structural plans signed by a civil engineer, in the technical file presented
          with the demand of building permit. With this last requirement it is expected that, at
          least, the earthquake resistant building requirements will be applied for design phase,
          especially for self-built “small houses”(that are in reality 2 to 5levels high).

  -   Enacting of “Ordinance (law) of 26 Aug. 2003 related to the obligation ofnatural
      disasters insurance and to indemnification of the victims”. This law is in application
      since 1 Sept., 2004 with, as a first step, the insurance of earthquake and floods risks
      concerning all buildings and, in some cases of contents also.

  -   Enacting of “ Arrêté (Ministerial Decision) of 4 Janv. 2004 of Ministery of Habitat
      and Urban Planning approving the new Earthquake resistant building Regulations
      RPA 99 / Reviewed 2003”. The reviewing of the Algerian seismic regulations that exist
      since 1981 deal mainly with a new zoning map and more restrictions for reinforced
      concrete beam-columns building systems considered as very vulnerable in common


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      Algerian conditions, particularly after the huge damage experienced during Boumerdes
      earthquake.

  At Institutional and Organisational levels, in addition to the creation of National
  Delegation for Major Risks, we can mention three other items:

  -   The setting up by the Decree 02-232 of 08 Aug., 2003 of the “National Crisis
      Management Centre (CNAD)”; it is in charge of “permanent monitoring and survey of
      different major risks and assistance to the Authorities in the management of the crisis
      related to major disasters and this, by anticipated planning and preparedness and
      intersectorial and efficient coordination potentialities of existing means and disposals”.

  -   Setting up of “National Agency for Earth Sciences”, by the decree 04-194 of 15 Jul.,
      2004;

  - Setting up by the decree 04-181 of 24 June, 2004 of the “National Commission of
communication related to natural and technological major risks”.


  2- CONTRIBUTION TO THE INTERNATIONAL DECADE IDNDR AND TO
     THE YOKOHAMA STRATEGY
  Among expected contributions, the setting up of the “National IDNDR Committee” chaired
by the “Foreign Affairs Ministry” has fulfilled the priority goal of the UN resolution 44/236.

  2.1- MISSIONS AND ORGANIZATION OF THE NATIONAL COMMITTEE

   This Committee was expected for playing a part of interface with the national Committees
and the other National and International Institutions that aim at promoting cooperation relations
in that field.
   The Committee constituted of about 25 representatives of Ministries, scientific and research
institutions and NGOs had to work on fostering and stimulate synergies and play a part of
animation of National activities in the field of natural and technological disasters reduction for
the aspects of:
  * Informing the Authorities on developments and achievements
  * Promoting scientific and technical activities
  * Promoting public education, particularly through “UN International day for disaster
  reduction” celebration and its induced activities.
   For more effectiveness and optimisation of competences , the National Committee has set up
   three scientific and technical advising sub-committees for, respectively, “Earthquake and
   geological hazards”, “ Climatological hazards”, and “Technological hazards”.

  2.2- ACTIVITIES UNDERTAKEN DURING THE DECADE

  The activities developed by the National Committee in the framework of the International
Decade IDNDR were undertaken in parallel to and as a support for the actions listed in the
programme adopted by the Algerian Government in May 1985.

   These activities consisted mainly in inter-sectorial coordinating actions oriented toward the
promotion of multilateral co-operation for which the National Committee played a part of
interface; In this matter, 10 co-operation projects were proposed via IDNDR Secretariat to
member countries but, unfortunately, only one has got a positive issue with help of German
governmental co-operation and resulted in a concrete project of Insurance System of natural
disasters.

  Concerning National activities, they are of two types:




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  1-    Current activities of coordination and follow up of execution of yearly programmes of
        actions, the celebration of the UN International Disaster Reduction Day (every second
        Wednesday of each year), and the sponsoring or support of several scientific and
        technical seminars and workshops on given thematic(s).

  2-    Specific activities dealing with, for instance, organising scientific and technical
        meetings aiming at promoting a given methodology for reducing one or more major
        disaster(s), or elaborating a special file for the high Authorities advocating for a
        perennial institutionalisation of disaster reduction activity.


  3- REGIONAL AND INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION

  Among the projects submitted for international co-operation and financing,, the one that was
entitled “Project for improvement of the natural disasters insurance system” has got the
support of German Government. The achievement of this project can be considered as a
“success story” in the field of co-operation.

   As for the Algerian participation to the international activities of the Decade, it has resulted in
lending of National experts to integrate UN regional and international activities and institutions,
in the contribution to the work of Organization of African Unity (OAU) experts Committee, and
in the active contribution to other Maghrebian, Arab, Euro-mediterranean and African projects
dealing with major risks reduction; In this framework, we can mention the seismic risk and the
locust fighting.

   As for the seismic risk, Algeria has actively participated in 1990-1991 to the “Regional
Mediterranean Project for Seismic Risk Reduction (Seismed)”, and to “Radius” (1998-1999)
and “Risk-UE” (2001-2004) projects; at that occasions information and experience exchanges
were very fruitful for Algerian, African and Mediterranean participants; in the other side,
fruitful exchanges were regularly organized between Maghrebian experts in the framework of
the “Earthquake Engineering Maghrebian Association”.

  Locust fighting is the field where the International co-operation in the region shows the best
organization and the best functioning, and Algeria plays an essential part in that.

  Despite these matters of satisfaction, we have however to admit that results expected from the
Decade process of co-operation were globally not met because, for a large part, of the non-
existence of international financing mechanism; and that remain to be done for the future.

   In the meanwhile, we must promote the development of exchange and technical assistance
relations at regional and sub-regional scales; this will allow closest collaboration between the
different potential partners, optimisation of the use of existing potentials in the least developed
countries, and foster the emergence of locally available and mobilizable expertise.


   Finally, for the case of natural disaster emergency, it would be highly wished for organizing
regional mechanisms of solidarity and mutual help so that a country which is badly stricken by a
major disaster, could urgently benefit from effective intervention and rescue assistance of other
neighbouring countries




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  4- CONCLUSION AND PERSPECTIVES

  4.1- GLOBAL EVALUATION

  When considering the past activities and experience, we can say that the period of more than
15 years since the beginning of the decade was globally positive for the Algerian stakeholders
and concerned institutions.
Among the positives aspects, we can mention:

   * Existence of official Policy and programmes of natural and technological disasters
reduction; this policy has been confirmed and strengthened by the law on “ Major Risks
Reduction and Disaster Management in the Framework of Sustainable Development” enacted
on 25 , December,2004.

  * Existence, and strengthening by new settings up, of a great number of institutions and
specialized Establishments that can actually work in these fields.

  * Existence of permanent or punctual activities in the field of disaster reduction
  * Existence of National Committee for IDNDR which, through its activities, has given new
impulse to the animation and coordination of actions in this wide field. These activities will
certainly be amplified by the National Delegation for Major Risks in way of setting up in
application of the law of 25-12-04.

   * Capitalization of valuable experience in most categories of risks
   * Existence of valuable human potential and high level expertise in many of these fields
that could be used for other countries’ needs.

  *   Growing involvement of NGOs in disaster reduction activities.

  Beside these highly positive aspects, we have to take note of a number of insufficiencies or
unsatisfiedness causes among which we can mention:

  * Insufficiency in intersectorial approaches in the implementation of disaster reduction
programmes; this gap will certainly be solved by the future “ National Delegation for Major
Risks” activities.

   *      Insufficiency of physical and financial means for activities improvement and
intensification, particularly during the economic crisis of 1986-2000 period.

          *   Insufficiency in public education activities

          * Insufficiency of International cooperation in this field

  4.2- RECOMMENDATIONS AND PERSPECTIVES

  The activities that have to be undertaken for 2005-2015 period would aim at solving
constraints and difficulties previously experienced, in one side, and, in an other side, at
developing a large and sustainable series of actions in the field of disaster reduction.

  In that framework, we can mention the following actions:

      * Rapid kick-off and development of activities of the “National Delegation for Major
      Risks” and the “National Centre for Crisis Management”. These two (2) Entities are of
      major importance in the process of implementation of the various aspects of “Disaster
      Reduction” and “Disaster Management” requirements included in the law of Dec. 2004.


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* Setting up of provincial and local “ Disaster Reduction and Management Committees”;
these Committees have to help for and to coordinate at provincial and local levels all the
investigations and the technical tools linked with the specific disasters and crisis,
following the law requirements previously mentioned.

* To progressively take into consideration the various local hazards that threaten some
specific regions ( up raising or saltering or pollution of watertables of Saharian oasis,
subsidence of surface geological layers, etc…) .

* To design and implement specific projects aiming at disaster reduction at national and
local levels with adequate financial mechanisms.

* To foster regional and international cooperation following available opportunities,
particularly through “pilot projects” including real technology transfer possibilities.

* Develop at a higher scale public education actions, and, in particular, associate as much
as possible all stakeholders and communities to the programmed projects in the field of
disaster reduction.

* Integrate the National Plan of Actions in the global framework of the “International
Strategy of the United Nations for Disaster Reduction (ISDR)” to benefit, at least for
informational aspects, from the experience of all other countries that activate in the field.




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