Editorial Curation and Identity Management in Digital

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					 Editorial Curation and Identity
Management in Digital Libraries
     A Case Study of the NSDL
       David Millman and Kate
   Wittenberg, Columbia University
National Science Digital Library
Established by the NSF in 2000 as an online
 library of exemplary resources in science,
 technology, engineering, and mathematics
 for audiences from Pre-K to Lifelong
 Learners
Core Integration: UCAR, Cornell, Columbia
Pathways: Discipline-specific portals
           Core Integration
• UCAR manages educational outreach,
  project management, evaluation
• Cornell hosts and operates production
  services
• Columbia handles collection development,
  publisher partnerships, shibboleth identity
  management
               Pathways
• Audience or Discipline-Specific Portals
• Currently, these include: biology,
  chemistry, computational science,
  engineering, materials science,
  mathematics, middle schools, community
  colleges, multimedia classroom resources,
  and physics and astronomy
 Columbia’s Work: New Models for
    Digital Library Development
• Placing publishers’ content in educational
  context
• Embedding a virtual learning world within
  digital library resources
• Community sign-on as access
  management strategy for a distributed
  digital library
  Research Articles in Context
• Selected collections of full text primary
  research articles from scientific journals
• Audience-appropriate overviews, links to
  related background materials in the NSDL
  and in other digital collections
• Evolution of publisher participation within
  digital libraries
      Research-based Learning
           Environment
• NSDL publisher partners have made
  available classic articles that represent
  critical moments in scientific research
• Core Integration editorial staff have hired
  subject specialists and teachers to serve
  as editors of the sections
    Classic Articles in Context
• Overview of the subject
• Explanation of significant aspects of the
  research
• Discussion of the work within the larger
  literature on the subject
• References to other resources within the
  library (datasets, simulations, classroom
  materials)
    Editorial Curation to Enhance
     Digital Library Resources
• Students will be able to use NSDL
  resources to answer questions and find
  information
• They will simultaneously develop skills in
  research and information literacy
• Users understand the provenance,
  authenticity, and contexts of information
• Connecting “closed” classroom tools with
  the “open” Web
 Immersive Activity to Enhance
   Digital Library Resources

         Virtual Learning Worlds

• Research state of the art in
   “serious gaming”
• Collaboration & Outreach
• 3D Game Prototype
      Virtual Learning Worlds
• Games that can develop skills in
  leadership, strategic thinking, problem
  solving, collaboration
• Already familiar to arriving students
• Research advisory board: education and
  content specialists, learning theorists,
  teachers
Demo
             VLW Prototype
• Prototype: “House of Chaos” to illustrate
  concepts in physics
• Collaboration with NSDL comPADRE Pathway
  project
• Students can follow links to underlying NSDL
  content for further investigation of demonstrated
  concepts (gravity, friction, lightning, etc)
            VLW Next Steps
• Testing integration as a social network
  application (see Facebook)
• Game-based metaphors for current DL facilities,
  like “search,” and tools, like “faceted search” or
  “concept map navigation” (see, e.g, NSDL
  Strand Map Service from Digital Learning
  Sciences)
• Investigate metadata requirements to implement
  facilities most seamlessly
            VLW Next Steps
• Testing integration as a social network
  application (see Facebook)
• Game-based metaphors for current DL facilities,
  like “search,” and tools, like “faceted search” or
  “concept map navigation” (see, e.g, NSDL
  Strand Map Service from Digital Learning
  Sciences)
• Investigate metadata requirements to implement
  facilities most seamlessly
Core Infrastructure Case Study:
      Community Sign-on
• NSDL is a distributed digital library of collections,
  services, and infrastructure components--that is,
  a Virtual Organization
• “Community Sign-on” (CSO) is an Identity
  Management system for this virtual organization
• CSO is an implementation of Shibboleth
• CSO allows access to multiple NSDL partner
  sites and services with a single login
• CSO facilitates collaboration between and
  sharing among partner services
     CSO Changes Over Time
• Evolution of NSDL-wide project requirements
  and the experience of the participants
• Technical skill set becomes more widely
  available
• Business model creates project incentives to
  know about each others’ users, to collaborate
  with each other, or to act as a whole

• Review the interactions within the project
  ecology
             CSO Ecology 2001-2007
    Policy   privacy, IP                     metadata
             protect, scalability            standards


                                               top-down          partners w/own            bot-up        cross-party
  Planning                                     vocab dvl         infrastructure            vocab dvl     svcs


                technology     centralized                            architectural
Technology      selection      consulting                             integration
                                                                                      deployments


  Business                    free                                               personalized       sustain w/own
  model                       content                                            services           subscribers


  External                                     google
                                                                     IdM in soc
                                                                     nets, collabs
  drivers
                                                         funding                            funding
                                                         structure                          structure


               2001                                                                                          2007
             CSO Ecology 2001-2007
    Policy   privacy, IP                     metadata
             protect, scalability            standards


                                               top-down          partners w/own            bot-up        cross-party
  Planning                                     vocab dvl         infrastructure            vocab dvl     svcs


                technology     centralized                            architectural
Technology      selection      consulting                             integration
                                                                                      deployments


  Business                    free                                               personalized       sustain w/own
  model                       content                                            services           subscribers


  External                                     google
                                                                     IdM in soc
                                                                     nets, collabs
  drivers
                                                         funding                            funding
                                                         structure                          structure


               2001                                                                                          2007
               CSO Policy
• Privacy, Intellectual Property protections,
  scalability
• Metadata standards
• Main policy decisions made early in the
  process -- more impact from the
  interaction of other factors over time
             CSO Ecology 2001-2007
    Policy   privacy, IP                     metadata
             protect, scalability            standards


                                               top-down          partners w/own            bot-up        cross-party
  Planning                                     vocab dvl         infrastructure            vocab dvl     svcs


                technology     centralized                            architectural
Technology      selection      consulting                             integration
                                                                                      deployments


  Business                    free                                               personalized       sustain w/own
  model                       content                                            services           subscribers


  External                                     google
                                                                     IdM in soc
                                                                     nets, collabs
  drivers
                                                         funding                            funding
                                                         structure                          structure
               CSO Planning
• Selection of IdM technology: Shibboleth, the SAML
  application from the Internet2 consortium
• Vocabulary development-- centrally driven (teacher vs
  student)
• Partners’ bring broader goals and own organizational
  structures
• Vocabulary development revisited-- bottom-up based on
  partners’ requirements (trusted contributor vs others)
• Cross-project services-- bottom-up based on particular
  strengths of the partners
             CSO Ecology 2001-2007
    Policy   privacy, IP                     metadata
             protect, scalability            standards


                                               top-down          partners w/own            bot-up        cross-party
  Planning                                     vocab dvl         infrastructure            vocab dvl     svcs


                technology     centralized                            architectural
Technology      selection      consulting                             integration
                                                                                      deployments


  Business                    free                                               personalized       sustain w/own
  model                       content                                            services           subscribers


  External                                     google
                                                                     IdM in soc
                                                                     nets, collabs
  drivers
                                                         funding                            funding
                                                         structure                          structure
          CSO Technology
• Centralized consulting, training,
  evangelizing
• Architecture integration analysis,
  consulting
• Integration of deployments, clearinghouse
  for interoperation configuration
• Analysis of alternative IdM options,
  industry tracking
             CSO Ecology 2001-2007
    Policy   privacy, IP                     metadata
             protect, scalability            standards


                                               top-down          partners w/own            bot-up        cross-party
  Planning                                     vocab dvl         infrastructure            vocab dvl     svcs


                technology     centralized                            architectural
Technology      selection      consulting                             integration
                                                                                      deployments


  Business                    free                                               personalized       sustain w/own
  model                       content                                            services           subscribers


  External                                     google
                                                                     IdM in soc
                                                                     nets, collabs
  drivers
                                                         funding                            funding
                                                         structure                          structure
       CSO Business Models
• Significant free content
• Personalized services (social net,
  workflow)
• Integration with existing paid-subscriber
  services to increase sustainability
             CSO Ecology 2001-2007
    Policy   privacy, IP                     metadata
             protect, scalability            standards


                                               top-down          partners w/own            bot-up        cross-party
  Planning                                     vocab dvl         infrastructure            vocab dvl     svcs


                technology     centralized                            architectural
Technology      selection      consulting                             integration
                                                                                      deployments


  Business                    free                                               personalized       sustain w/own
  model                       content                                            services           subscribers


  External                                     google
                                                                     IdM in soc
                                                                     nets, collabs
  drivers
                                                         funding                            funding
                                                         structure                          structure
       CSO External Drivers
• Google search: in contrast to metadata-
  centric effort. How much data
  consistency is necessary?
• Funding structure (I): NSF creates larger
  partner projects (“Pathways”)
• Identities increasingly important in social
  network services
• Funding structure (II): increasing demand
  for sustainability plans
      CSO Status/Next Steps
• CSO remains key infrastructure service, though
  not for all the original reasons
• Evolutionary process -- few tasks are “done”
• Within current technology, several architectural
  changes can improve partner efficiency and user
  experience
• Next steps require more granular “trust values”
  (confidence measures of both partners and
  individual users)