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					Christianity
                                 Anti-temple prophets




Amos   Elijah (= “El is Yah” or “God is Jehovah)   Jeremiah
 Some Pro-Temple Prophets….




Haggai: “Build me a house”    Ezekiel: “inner conscience
                              as judge of humans”
 Isaiah: the “Prophet of Jesus”
“Heaven is my throne and Earth,
          my footstool”
    Israel: the Greek Period
Alexander’s Empire ca. 323 BCE
Rome at its height
  ca. 200 CE
Pharisee, Sadducee, Zealot,
          Essenes
   diaspora – dispersal
The Second Messiah: Bar Cochba
(Revolt in Judea: ca. 132-135 CE)
Jesus the Prophet, Jesus the God
Aphrodite and Eros from
Tenagra (ca. 4th century CE)
and Pompeii (middle)




           ...Mary, mother of
           Jesus, to the right
  Heracles, Hercules: a model for
             Christ?
                 Three views of Christ:
   “Judaizer” – or the old-time Jewish wing of the now
               predominantly Gentile faith
Gnostic – the more “Greek” and “Hindu” style Christianity
              Orthodox / Catholic synthesis
James the Just,
  (d. 62 CE)
   Brother of
    Jesus,
  Head of the
  Jerusalem
    church
Gnosticism:
Gospel of Thomas the Twin,
“Doubting” Thomas, doubting
Christ was resurrected in the
flesh
Thomas – meaning “Twin”
brings the messianic Judaism
we today call Christianity – to
India.
Reincarnation among other
Hindu-like beliefs are part of
this wing of only historical
survivor of the anti-Gnostic
persecution by the orthodox
 “The Gnostics were distinguished as the most polite,
the most learned, and the most wealthy of the Christian
                        name.”
               – Gibbon (Decline & Fall)
Valentinus the
   Gnostic
(ca. 100 – 160
      CE)
Constantine I
“The Great”
272 [1] – 337)
     Four Patriarchates:
Jerusalem, Corinth, Alexandria
           ...Rome
Hagia Sophia: “Holy Wisdom”
     in Constantinople
  The Latin Patriarchate
a.k.a. Roman Catholicism
      Yikes! Germans!
Along with Slavs, “Barbarians”
  to Greek and Roman alike
Dark Ages:Thank God for the Pope!
Islam: Success of the final anti-
temple Prophet against the “evil
  priests” of later Christendom
                        Age of the
                        Caliphs    Expansion
                        under the Prophet
                        Mohammad, 622-632
                        Expansion during the
                        Patriarchal Caliphate,
                        632-661
                         Expansion during the
                        Umayyad Caliphate, 661-
                        750
    Abbasids Dynasty 750 – 1258
                                 ‫ب ي‬
The Abbasid Caliphate (Arabic: ‫, الع ّاس ّون‬al-‘Abbāsīyūn) was the third of the
                Islamic Caliphates of the Arab Empire.
                     The Fatimid Caliphate or al-
Fātimiyyūn (Arabic )‫ الفاطميون‬Arab Shi'a dynasty that ruled over varying
 areas of the Maghreb, Egypt, and the Levant from 5 January 909 to
  1171. It was the fourth and final Arab caliphate. The caliphate was
 ruled by the Fatimids, who established the Egyptian city of Cairo as
                               their capital
        The Empire Strikes Back!
      Bringing the Cross to the Infidel
   The Crusades were a series of religion-
    driven military campaigns waged by much
    of Christian Europe against external and
    internal opponents. Crusades were fought
    mainly against Muslims, though campaigns
    were also directed
    against pagan Slavs,Jews, Russian and
    Greek Orthodox
    Christians, Mongols, Cathars, Hussites,Wald
    ensians, Old Prussians and political enemies
    of the popes.[1] Crusaders took vows and
    were granted an indulgence for past sins.[1]
   For the first decade, the Crusaders pursued a
    policy of terror against Muslims and Jews that
    included mass executions, the throwing of
    severed heads over besieged cities walls,
    exhibition and mutilation of naked cadavers,
    and even cannibalism, as was recorded after
    the Siege of Maarat.
    Once inside the city, as was standard
    military practice at the time,[15] the Franks
    then massacred the civilians, destroyed
    mosques and pillaged the city.[16] The
    crusaders finally marched to the walls of
    Jerusalem with only a fraction of their
    original forces.
Mongol Empire at peak (ca. 1294)
Turkish (Ottoman) Empire
         ca. 1683
 Martin Luther (November 10, 1483 – February 18, 1546)
 was a German monk,[1] theologian, university professor,
Father of Protestantism,[2][3][4][5] and church reformer whose
ideas influenced the Protestant Reformation and changed
            the course of Western civilization.[6]

                                   Justification by faith
The classical period of witchhunts in Europe falls into the Early Modern
       period or about 1480 to 1700, spanning the upheavals of
    the Reformation and the Thirty Years' War, resulting in tens of
                        thousands of executions.
John Calvin (or Jean Calvin in French) (10 July
              1509 – 27 May 1564) was
       a French Protestant theologianduring
  the Protestant Reformation and was a central
        developer of the system of Christian
theology calledCalvinism or Reformed theology.
    In Geneva, his ministry both attracted other
Protestant refugees and over time made that city
      a major force in the spread of Reformed
   theology. He is famous for his teachings and
    writings, in particular for his Institutes of the
                  Christian Religion.
Persian Empire
(ca. 500 BCE)
           Buddhism comes West
   Greeks and Romans
      Platonic and Gnostic reincarnation
       Gnosticism – The first principle was neither
        comprehensible nor incomprehensible
   St. Clement of Alexandria
       Desert Fathers and the sramana movement
   Josaphat in medieval period
   Marco Polo and the Khans
       Sagamani Borcan (following Mongolian pronunciation)
        “for certainty if he had been baptized a Christian he
        would have been a great saint before God.”
Empire of Alexander the Great
       (ca. 326 BCE)
Roman Empire (ca. 117 CE)
     Gnostic Gospels:Thomas
   These are the secret words which the living Jesus
    spoke, and Didymus Judas Thomas wrote them down.
    But the Kingdom is within you, and it is outside of
    you. When you know yourselves, then shall you be
    known, and you shall know that you are the sons of
    the living Father. But if ye do not know yourselves,
    then you are in poverty, and you are poverty.
   In the days when you were eating that which is dead,
    you were making it alive. When you come in the light,
    what will you do? On the day when you were one,
    you became two. But when you have become two,
    what will you do?
Kerala: Home of Thomasist
         Christians
     Hun Empire
(ca. 451 post-Roman)
Persian (Sassanian) Empire
    (ca. 6th century CE)
Arab Empire
(ca. 750 CE)

				
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