Compromising the Integrity of Science and Technology Advice Bypassing Analysis Embryonic stem cell research made without benefit of traditional advisory process and peer review. Facts on which it was based were wrong and inaccurate. Energy research priorities bear no resemblance to priorities or analyses developed by national laboratories or by privately supported universities. Skewed DOD research priorities (e.g. spending 15% of entire DOD R&D budget on missile defense) require cuts in university and industry research on most pressing needs. Impropriety in Science Advising Process Union of Concerned Scientists documented that Bush administration “has suppressed or distorted the scientific analyses of federal agencies to bring results in line with administration policy.” Eliminated references to climate change in “Report on the Environment.” Meddled politically with EPA mercury ruling. Removed from government websites scientific evaluation of HIV/AIDS and abstinence-only education. Distorted link between breast cancer and abortion. Removed panelists from Bioethics Council. Replaced distinguished scientists from lead poisoning prevention panel and workplace safety panel with pro-industry representatives. Introduce political litmus test for members of Army Science Board, NIH drug abuse panel. Science and Technology for Jobs and Economic Growth Innovation lies at the heart of American Economic growth and the creation of rewarding jobs but our legacy of discovery and invention is under threat. Kerry has detailed plans for strengthening private research and funding balanced growth in federal R&D. Investments in Federal R&D pay rich dividends to the nation Private rates of return on R&D spending average about 24%. But societal rates of return on R&D spending – the economic benefits that accrue to the entire society – are about 66%! Private industry cannot and will not commit the level of resources to R&D that is best for society. So public support for R&D has been a critical element of Federal policy for more than 200 years – and it has kept our nation at the forefront of technological and industrial success. Returns to Public R&D Investment Author (year) Estimated Rates of Return (%) Private Social Nadiri (1993) 20 - 30 50 Mansfield (1977) 25 56 Terleckyj (1974) 29 48 - 78 Sveikauskas (1981) 7 - 25 50 Goto-Suzuki (1989) 26 80 Bernstein-Nadiri 10 - 27 11 - 111 (1988) Scherer (1982, 1984) 29 - 43 64 - 147 Bernstein-Nadiri 15 - 28 20 - 110 (1991) Table adapted from: Griliches (1992), and Nadiri (1993) by The Council of Economic Advisers 1995 Government-Industry-University Research Partnerships Morse telegraph in 1842 A&M research successes (Hybrid grain, pest management) health care/ pharmaceuticals modern jet engines and aircraft Global Positioning Satellites VLSI, parallel computing, computer graphics the internet and world-wide-web Kerry Proposals Commitment to strong, predictable growth in NSF, NIH, and other R&D agencies. Invest in research for Industries of the Future. Extend the Research and Experimentation tax credit. Eliminate capital gains for long-term investments in small businesses ($6B over 10 years). Performance-based regulations (e.g. cap and trade). Provide tax credits and other measures to ensure broadband access is universal and affordable. The Bush Record Science office removed from White House and Science Advisor demoted in rank. Huge tax cuts benefiting wealthy have created enormous deficits competing with private investment and now require cuts in federal R&D investments. Budget cuts for the next 5 years for NSF, NIH, NASA, EPA, HHS, USDA. Elimination of DOC’s Advanced Technology Program and Manufacturing Extension Program Health Care Federal R&D, including NIH budget doubling (’98-’03), has fueled spectacular growth in our understanding of human biology. Success in building on the promise of biomedical research depends on strong Presidential leadership. John Kerry understands the scientific opportunities ahead and shares the hopes of patients and patient advocates Kerry Priorities for Defense Research : Sustained growth in NIH research budgets. Support embryonic stem cell research within strict ethical guidelines. Restore scientific integrity to federal science review panels. Expand research on health promotion, disease prevention, and quality of care. Stronger support for vaccines and other biosecurity measures. Strengthen international efforts to combat HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis, malaria, and other parasitic diseases. Lift gag rule. Increase widespread diffusion of information technology to slash administrative costs of health care. The Bush Record Proposes to cut inflation-adjusted funding for the National Institutes of Health by 5.8% from 2005 to 2009. Proposes to cut inflation-adjusted funding for NIH by 5.8% from ’05 to ’09 which means fewer grants, pace of discovery slowed. Fund $1.8B for biosecurity research out of NIH budget while still cutting budgets. Ideological restrictions on embryonic stem cell research. Misinformation about useful stem cell lines. Removed from NIH and CDC websites information about” effectiveness of condom”s and “programs that work.” Frustrated domestic and international AIDS prevention and family planning efforts with draconian gag rules. Failed to fully commit U.S. resources in the ongoing global AIDS epidemic. National Security and Homeland Security National Security Research The threats facing the U.S. at home and abroad are dramatically different than those faced during the Cold War. A new generation of technology is essential to meet the challenge. John Kerry clearly understands that “we can’t have a 21st century military unless we’re using 21st century technology and preparing our forces for 21st century threats. We need a military that is equipped for the next fight, not the last one.” National Security Research “Government spending on science is essential to promoting innovation and industrial growth. But Bush favors extreme right wing ideology ands special interests over science." "U.S. leadership in innovation and invention is at risk because of poor management at the national level." "We're not undertaking research that most scientists has enormous potential because of a philosophical or theological constraint or a certain narrow definition of morality." "The federal budget deficit is crimping science spending. NIH and other science agencies face cuts ir flat budgets. The crunch will be worse in a few years unless there is a substantial change in the way we are taxed and governed.“ John Kerry 2004 Kerry Priorities for Defense Research : New equipment to find and destroy nuclear, chemical and biological weapons, Advanced communications and information technologies, Sensing and control technologies, including robotic systems that minimize the risk of casualties Improved sensors to secure airports, seaports, Advanced training for US forces and first responders Communication systems and other tools for first responders Increased investment in long-term, high- The Bush Record Cut research budget for basic and applied research In 2001, DoD endorsed goal of investing 3% of total DoD budget in S&T. Bush has failed in last four years to reach that goal in his budget submissions. Cut research budget for basic and applied research. Huge growth in highly applied development programs. 15% of all DoD R&D goes to Missile Defense systems that all objective external reviews have said won’t work Energy and the Environment Kerry proposes a vigorous program of research and incentives for energy efficiency and new energy supplies, while the Bush administration energy plan increases our dependence upon Middle East oil and ignores mounting threats to our environment, including climate change. Kerry Priorities for Defense Research : $20 billion program of incentives that will support development and production of highly efficient automobiles and trucks and a "clean fuels partnership" Research on renewable energy and tax credits aimed at achieving the 20% of electricity from renewables by 2020. Research on nuclear power and a pledge to base nuclear waste disposal policies on rigorous peer- reviewed science. advanced "smart grid" control technologies to ensure the reliability of the electric grid $10 billion over the next decade to develop efficient, low-emission power from coal The Bush Record Short sighted subsidies to existing oil and gas producers Sacrificing environmental standards in Alaska and elsewhere for small amounts of energy Failed to take action on Climate Change Long-term energy research focused narrowly on hydrogen reduce energy efficiency research by 11.2 percent between 2004 and 2005 Over the next five years cut : Energy research by 2.3% EPA research budget 12% NOAA 10.5% Overrule professionals in environmental assessments Education A solid background in mathematics and science is needed for virtually every job. It takes 20 years to educate a citizen – not a quick return on investment. Workforce issues rarely respond to quick fixes and often span generations. Only 5% of U.S. 24-year olds have earned degrees in science or engineering. By that measure, we now trail Japan, Korea, and the UK. A decade ago, we were leading. A solid background in math and science is needed for virtually every good job. New jobs requiring science, engineering, and technical training will increase by 51% by 2008. But the U.S. education system continues to struggle. Only 52% of students who enter 4 year colleges graduate. Our S&T workforce should reflect the face of America. We need to attract more citizens, especially minorities and women, into careers in science, math, and engineering. Bush Kerry The budgets submitted by the Double National Science Bush administration have Foundation Graduate proposed $27 billion less than Scholarships for Math and the amount committed under Science. the President's own No Child Offer Summer Institutes and Left Behind legislation. Mentors to 50,000 K-12 math and Proposes $269 million for a science teachers and $5,000 partnership to improve high bonuses for teachers entering school math achievement by these fields. providing professional Provide $300 Million in Innovation development for teachers--a Grants to Encourage 1 Million good start, but inadequate to Girls and Minorities to Pursue the task. Science and Math. Fully fund the "Tech Talent" challenge grant program and increasing support for math and science programs at colleges serving a high share of disadvantaged students. In Conclusion Wise management of science and technology demands Presidential Attention Kerry has demonstrated that he will base policy on the unbiased advice of the Science and Technology community and that he will provide strong, balanced support for research Bush has shown willingness to distort or ignore scientific analysis and short change the nation’s future by sacrificing research to tax cuts. If we fail to invest in far-reaching, high-risk research now, how can we be confident that the US will maintain cutting edge producers or a state-of-the-art military in year 2015? There is only one clear choice!