Peasant uprising cycle in peasant uprisings and authoritarian political

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					Peasant uprising cycle in peasant uprisings and authoritarian political

 peasant uprising cycle to provide a
 again in ancient China, the peasant uprising frequent occurrence, are
each peasant uprising of social unrest, population reduction, economic
back, this periodic cycle, and not for the Chinese community to provide a
more reasonable, in line with humanity's political and economic system Ta
Although Poshi new political forces right Shengchan Guanxizuochu
Bufentiaozheng, Dan soon after the system's shortcomings exposed again
Yici people's suffering will also enter the cycle again. This article
does not intend to explain the nature of peasant uprisings and make a
differentiation of the evaluation, but solely on the negative impact on
peasant uprising little superficial view, from the peasant uprising and
seeks the unity of autocratic politics perspective view peasant uprising,
a different orthodox understanding of the history textbook issue in
perspective peasant uprising.
 Chen Sheng Wu Guang from "big Chu Xing, Sheng Wang" to the inclination
of the "heaven when dead, yellow days when the legislature" from Li
Zicheng of "Jun-Tian-free food" to Hong's "ubiquitous even , is
everywhere full warm "in this ancient land, a branch full of rebellious
spirit of the banner of righteousness planted a castle of the city wall,
however, as outside the Church of Liangshan Shuibodu loyalty" for good
"in the banner start flying, loyalty halls to Gang Star also ranked Zuoci
hierarchy as the first city rebels just plug the yellow flags set, the
city had the distribution of power and interests finished. The level of
the system of the pyramid, only the upper tower for a handful of people,
horses, and the pyramid itself, and no damage.
 Qin and Han dynasties, China's social structure (the pyramid) is
extremely stable on the status of Confucianism, absolute monarchy and
form a solid small-scale peasant culture - political - economic system,
three flesh and blood, forming a rigid plate, never self-renewal, a
 farmer is the victim of this system. Peasant uprising is often the end
point of an old dynasty, but also the starting point of a new dynasty.
Peasant uprising rooted in a kind of tragedy that could not break through
their own system, that is, in Confucianism, the small peasant economy and
authoritarian political system in this unbreakable, as the operators of
small-peasant economy and Confucian followers, they can not realize
authoritarian Politics is the root of its suffering, will not be able to
break through this system. Peasant uprising was caused by authoritarian
political system, a great tragedy in the ancient Chinese civilization
model, the interests to be deprived, thinking is always under control of
the peasant class, each time for the history of peasant uprisings have
left a moving story, for farmers the suffering of the tragic life of the
color coated. There Yuan Dynasty sad singing: "Xing, people suffering,
death, suffering people." Sufferings of the people, rather than suffer
from dynasties struggling system, while at the same time, the people
itself constitute a basis for such a system is! They want to own land, to
achieve the original equality, but also just do not want too much power
to intervene in the production, so that they can live a peaceful, "You
come to my weaving, farming," the small farmers living. The purpose of
the peasants revolt, it is not unreasonable systems destroyed, but that
kind of system maintenance. "He could be replaced by", "Men Suddenly in
Black as such are" psychological, to a peasant army seized power,
immediate former system for learning. As Mr. Qiliang "Chinese
Civilization" says: "If the evaluation from the perspective of history,
peasant uprisings and the development of Chinese history, its meaning is
negative than positive. Because it does not lead to social progress, but
only to make history in the rotation cycle of turmoil. even said that
Chinese civilization model, farmers struggle against the autocratic rule
in itself is a means to maintain. "
 farmer on the system and the emotional dependence can be traditional
culture to find the source. In ancient China, two thousand years of
Chinese thinking on the most influential Confucian thought. Road and
release only place in the Confucian do not reach the supplementary
fragmentary and even transform, absorb and utilize, as a part of
Confucian ideology. Warring States Chinese thought dynasties of Chinese
civilization based model of competing as early as the Warring States
period had basically laid. China's civilization model, as expressed by
Mr. Qiliang: "created by the Duke of Zhou to the Han Chinese civilization
and shaped pattern, both political and economic fields, or the
ideological and cultural fields, which are reflected as a capital of \
'de \' character , or by people is the main theme of the. This is the
essence and soul of Chinese civilization, but also the value of the
Chinese pillars. "(see Qiliang" History of Chinese Civilization ")
Confucian classics for an ideal society with a description of all the
moving , Datong of the world, ethics, repair Qi Zhiping, Virtue, for the
people an outline of a saint by the perfect rule, while the level of the
people living in an orderly society. One after another ancient Confucian
masters to achieve this perfect society to explore. In the Chinese
civilization model, the "benevolence" and "ceremony" constitutes the core
of Confucianism. "Repair Qi Zhiping" thinking the rulers by "Slim" -
"regulating the family" and "country" - "the world", achieved by the sage
rulers of high moral character rule. However, history is before us: the
power of moral constraints are purely fantasy, the rulers through
introspection, to improve their own morality and thus consciously
arbitrary use of power for the people can benefit, as the lamb meat habit
change as requested wolf . In fact, the power itself is unreliable in any
case, the hope of happiness delivered to the centralized body or person,
just like the free delivery to the devil. Power only with
differentiation, and checks and balances is possible and reasonable
exercise. However, a long time, Chinese people never realized that. "Shi"
in ancient China as the inheritors of the academic culture, but also
independent of imperial power and the people of a force, they think they
pay the "king of the teacher" role, on the one hand from the Chinese and
the Confucian code search requirements of Chapter putting sentences
introverted self benevolent rulers, on the other hand constantly in the
Confucian classics as the blueprint for the people to create another
batch of duty doctrine. Three cardinal guides and the five permanent
members and three from the four virtues, step by step to strengthen to
thwart the people's thinking unbreakable iron flails, on the power of
moral restraint that desire in practice shattered and the people to be
ethical code of imprisonment in the power participation in the
realization of the Chinese people's thinking free space more and more
narrow. In other words, rogue powerful political force that is who will
come to be "emperor" phenomenon in the country rise to the ideal sage
completely shattered, and rogue powers were able to use the Confucian
concept of "ritual" system with the doctrine of methodology, etc. and
demand people do law-abiding law-abiding and obedient citizens.
 autocratic power of Confucianism in the implementation and promotion of
participation, so that people's consciousness, too, yearn for a
"benevolent" government of the monarch, eager Moraliztion achieve.
Confucian thought here to be popular, secular, and most people thought
the Chinese formed a line. The most terrible thing is that this thinking
led to the Chinese people a sincere recognition of the despotism of
authoritarian regimes have sincerely accepted, and therefore each peasant
leaders seized power after the victory, the uprising of all the beautiful
and touching promise it instantly vanish into thin air They could not
wait, "Tang Tai Po," and he plans to enjoy in the hands of arbitrary
totalitarian life. At the same time scholars have also used "Tang Wuge
life" tradition of strong evidence of the new ideas for old generation
toward how people should Skyway to prove their morality, rationality and
legitimacy, the historians made more real by name, the history of
political hooligans written marvelous school, even the greatest
historians of ancient China, Sima Qian, Liu Bang, the mother does not
have to Intercourse with a large Jiao Liu Bang was born the legend
enthusiastically arrange things included in the official history it? The
purpose of nothing more than that the emperor is the emperor on the
throne Tianshou. In such circumstances, the ruler of God itself, required
reporting of psychological and moral people slave mentality is a natural
extension. After the downfall of the Ming Dynasty, Li Zicheng in the
Beijing more than a year had opened branches in selecting ministers, the
exams will be the "world Gueiren Yan", "day people go with the", "If the
drought and look forward to rain," such as a sort of thing, because it
wishes to present himself as a peril of the great saints. Confucian
thought people should be Tianshun Jen Jun, being required to absolutely
rule from their own.
 in the population, the public awareness of a totalitarian despotism to
generation to generation because of institutional basis. Traditional
Chinese culture only "collective", not "personal" and only "obligation",
no "right", "father and son son Chen Fu Jun monarch and his subjects,"
the ceremony ideology, the people simply as "Jun" and "minister" "Father"
"child" role exists, but there is no independent "I"! Yan to the ethical
code was also full of the "three from four virtues" of the obligations of
creed. It has never been the role of social subjects Zeng Yi, to look at
the owner's sense of personal and national, community. Whether Liu Bang's
"real man when so too" or Xiang Yu's "he can be replaced," embodied the
interests of the desire of power impulses, rather than self-awareness. It
is hoped that Ren Jun, the Mahdi's appearance, once and for all solve the
problem of equality, so that their souls to be sent for long lines in the
palm square piece of land, sunrise, sunset and go, we have food to live
and work In other words, under the influence of Confucian culture, people
generally agree on the autocratic politics, desire to continue small-
scale peasant labor form. Lack of independence of mind and consciousness,
passive treatment of the political people can not be satisfied with
small-scale peasant awakening from suffering. The consequences of
laissez-faire with regard rulers arbitrarily deprived of all rights of
the powerless, and even the survival, exacting from which was born, and
militarism from the the sky, until the accumulation of suffering has
exceeded the tolerance level of large-scale peasant uprising broke out
the form to do a total. Throughout each of the background of a peasant
uprising took place, there were not natural disasters, times of hardship.
Chinese farmers and patient endurance is a miracle in world history,
peasant uprisings in other countries, most of the fight for freedom,
China is fighting for the job. Lack of sense of independence and the
people on the other hand the negative consequences of treatment of the
political victory of the peasants after the uprising, peasant leaders
immediately took off his robe replaced commoner inherited former king's
power to authoritarian rule. Always open for some time towards the
beginning of a rest with the people and implement the policy of
appeasement to the relative world peace, and bring in peace among the
institutions of another round of suffering quietly build up again. As Mr.
Lu Xun "lamp ramble" says the Chinese only "want to be slaves and not of
the age" and "temporary stability of the slave era to do."
 totalitarian dictatorship is characterized by the largest political
indifference to life, to achieve a certain person or a handful of people
willing to borrow the power to deprive the interests of the people's
interests, or even injure the people. "People" in the eyes of despotic
rulers is not life, but merely a bunch of numbers. Despotism greatest
sin, it is to deprive people of freedom, stifle people's self-awareness,
stifle thought, stifle innovation and civilization, so that the authority
of the country prostrate at the feet, always lackey, corruption,
excessive taxes and levies, militarism is despotism a chronic illness,
are relentless on the interests of the people away. Suffering of the
people in ancient society mainly caused by the totalitarian system, the
largest social conflict and authoritarian system of the people of the
conflict. But in the cultural ideology, social and cultural constraints,
the people not only small-scale peasant economy as the best living
conditions, and thus on the system wholeheartedly agree despotism - that
is where the tragedy of peasant uprisings. Thus, each magnificent peasant
uprising not point to a direct attack power itself, but merely a power of
a dynasty or even who. The success of the uprising which brought it
naturally can not be contradictory digestion, but only dynasty, rulers of
replacement. The face of destructive peasant uprising, but in fact it did
not undermine the authoritarian political system the least bit. On the
contrary, it is always the people in the authoritarian political and
irreconcilable contradiction to the time the development of the outbreak
continued to despotic rule. Can be said that the peasants uprising became
a totalitarian political adjustment mechanism, from another point of view
maintains an authoritarian political order. Peasant uprising constituted
China's authoritarian system of survival, continuity is an integral part.
 further major strength as a people can not sit in a chair Banqi
themselves, a social system without external stimuli, unable to release
its own internal energy of the liberation of the new self. "Autocracy -
small-scale peasant - Confucian" civilization model like a hard iron
plate, political, economic, cultural reinforce each other, from within
simply can not break through and innovation. Peasant uprising causes the
tragedy lies in the lack of a Confucian culture, with different ideas and
theories and ways of thinking.
 First of all, speaking from the way of thinking, lack of independence
and genuine sense of authority resulting from the ideological needs is a
major chronic illness. Lost slave masters, often but will down from the
clouds. In the peasant uprising, also often with the people and leaders
of the uprising to establish a new authority, then the new authority
against the old authority, which naturally lead to a new authority to
obtain the same set up after the victory of authoritarian regimes. Han
Dynasty of Yellow Turbans, the inclination of the military use of Taoist
Yellow Turbans that "heaven is dead, Huang Set up" slogan, with opening
angle of the "yellow day" to oppose the Han Dynasty's "Heaven." Hong Jin
Tian Qing uprising in the use of Christianity in the "God King" to anti-
anti-hole, its "peaceful light of day," an absurd insult Confucius is the
book "Father God, Lord King," the blows, "kneeling in the days of
Confucius Brother before Christ, and again ask for forgiveness, lashing
many, Confucius pleaded not already. "This is an attempt to create a
ratio dynasty regarded as a sage and teacher of Confucius greater
authority" God King "with an overwhelming sage. Ancient Chinese people
are not really in the soul of awareness of equality, people want only the
emperor, high ranking official to be compassionate about the people,
"What I added in Dili Yan?" Men plow and women weave, sunrise and sunset
and the return of life into their dreams. Pursuit of the peasant economy
and meet the necessary people want authority, not equality and freedom.
Because the peasant economy itself is in need of protection authority.
Previous peasant uprising in the "yellow day" and "royal God," an analogy
existing authority as called for greater authority to the new authority
of the opposition, the destruction of the old authority, so that once the
new authority of the victory, will replace the old authority granted ,
pressure in the heads of the people. Continue to bring the authoritarian
policies are often not open-minded king, slave relationship with the Lord
once again established.
 Second, from the ideological theory, Confucianism is a tight system of
ethics, its rigor and rigidity is almost flawless. The traditional model
of Western civilization, social system against the current models of
civilization, social system. Enlightenment, the Enlightenment thinkers to
counter the modern use of ancient, that is parked with the ancient Greek
tradition of Roman and Christian democratic ideology of equality against
the feudal autocracy. Fierce criticism of the Church destroyed the myth
and religion, the formation of the state as a natural social contract
also prompted an unprecedented awakening people's consciousness. Anti-
historical status as a weapon, so the Enlightenment thinkers have a solid
theoretical basis, the Enlightenment swept across Europe like wild Biao,
China, facilities and the United States, have established a democratic
bourgeois parliamentary politics. In ancient China, there is no
theoretical resources of democracy, perhaps that even if there were, have
long been used to prove the rationality of virtue and perfection. Ancient
Chinese legend of Yao and Shun's demise has always relish for the
Confucian, leaving aside for Yao, Shun is real people, but the "demise"
does reveal a little primitive democratic atmosphere. However,
Confucianism advocated by the "Rule of Yao and Shun," no culture of its
democracy and equality, but its moral saints, "choose the virtuous and
able" to be devouring the original spirit of democracy to include "Saint
and king" among the political theory of system , Yao, Shun was
established ethical standards for the sage, to inspire successive
autocratic rulers Li Xingde rule. Or some point of our democratic ideals
of the spark it has been devouring the Confucian thinking lost. Dynasties
big firms in the case of Confucian culture, people can not go looking for
other spiritual resources. Dominance of Confucianism, his virtue,
Political Ideas and binding on the people's thinking and stifle the
possibility of a new ideology created. China's peasant uprising of the
late a large number of western new term, but the Confucian Ren and Li of
the deep structure of governance does not and can not clear up, so its
nature is no different from the previous peasant uprising. In the Taiping
Rebellion of Hong borrow Christian term, self-proclaimed "King" issue
"the world over a man, full of brothers and fathers of the world and more
women, full of sisters of the group" Christian-type calls, planning a
"Arita with farming, there is rice with food, clothes to wear the same,
with the money to make, everywhere evenly, everywhere fed and warm, "the
ideal world. However, once established the Taiping Heavenly Kingdom, the
city of Nanjing, the Qing government hierarchy than even strict.
 Confucian thought and Western politics and religion during a similar
place, it is reasonable patriarchal argument based on the rationality of
monarchical power, and thus demonstrate the rationality of autocracy. The
West from the "Bible" in Adam's patriarchal extended to monarchical
power. And on the "Bible" of different understanding, elucidation can be
as an anti-authoritarian political ideology of equality of arms. The
relationship between Christianity and democracy, as Tocqueville in the
"Old Regime and Revolution," has said: "If the thought of a democratic
society and religion necessarily enemies, would be a mistake:
Christianity and even Catholicism, and nothing the spirit is the absolute
opposite of a democratic society, there are many things of great benefit
even of a democratic society. "British liberal thinker John Locke in"
government "theory is based on the article CKS" Bible "as far as the
rationality of democracy elaborated. And Confucianism, "father" and
"child" elucidation of the ethical relationship to the "monarch" and
"minister" the ethical relationship between political issues and ethical
issues as a talk. Can also say that the political philosophy of
Confucianism have not been stripped out of the parent body of ethics,
political issues are as ethical issues for discussion. Moral system of
political relations can not find the shadow of a little democracy. An
obvious example is the power of the people who used to regard as their
parents father and mother. As we all know the ancient people of the
magistrate's called a "parent-like" praise the officials of the clean is
"loving the people as child", local officials tend to "parents" itself.
Emperor home world, local officials are considered natural home side. In
the peasant uprising in the uprising leader is often known as the "father
and mother," the land of China a few decades ago we had a hot not to sing
"Dieqinniangqin as Chairman Mao's pro-" What? In fact, this is just the
old traditional concepts of reproduction only. People in the Taiping
Rebellion in the praise of Prince Zhong Li Xiucheng have a "Law vine
climbing high on the wall, farmers rely on Li Zhong Wang. Landlord master
Xiapo Dan, people find the pro-father and mother." (See the way the
British series "Modern Chinese anti-imperialist song selection,"
Zhonghua, 1962) does not know that people once revered as the leader of
the pro-farmer father and mother, they also pro-father and mother back to
the people itself, then the world power system at home Once again, the
establishment of a matter of course, another matter of course autocracy
come, once again the plight of farmers to enter another cycle.
 Chinese civilization model innovation requires a new system, the impact
of civilization, Chinese civilization is satisfied the new needs of the
old spit ideological side of the Enlightenment, one for the West, the
establishment of modern political and economic systems. Destroy the power
of autocratic politics lies in the differentiation and checks and
balances. Chinese thinkers of the autocratic monarchy of the doubt will
be seen from the end of the Ming. Tang Zhen in the "hidden book" raised
on violent: "since the Qin, who as emperor by key thieves." Yan Zhiqing
the end of the Tan is a sharp criticism of absolute monarchy: "the
scourge of monarchy, as no compound added, can either by non-strangers.
"" Two thousand years of political, Chin-cheng, also are thief. "(see"
Benevolence "), the introduction of Western China and Confucianism to
provide a completely different and even opposing each other civilized
system. The Enlightenment thinkers of equality, freedom, democratic
ideas, such as the long dark night air, lightning, across time and space
for hundreds of years, awakened the Chinese people. Recognition of the
value of democracy and freedom to become a major Western frame of
reference, we can only give a Western frame of reference is possible to
look beyond the traditional, rational look at history again to understand
the traditional transformation of the society. Inertial forces of the old
civilization, large, often unpredictable. After the 1911 Revolution, Mr.
Lu has suddenly given a sound people still harsh voice cried: "I think
before the revolution, I was a slave, shortly after the revolution,
cheated on by the slaves, become their slaves . "In a large population,
vast land of China, in particular, majority of the population and the low
level of knowledge of rural society, deeply rooted in traditional
thinking is still a great resistance to modernization, authoritarianism -
small-scale peasant - Confucian culture system real subversion, take a
long time the toughness of the Enlightenment, but also need to build a
new modern system.
 peasant uprising of the limitations of the limitations of not only
farmers, but also the limitations of traditional Chinese culture. Peasant
uprisings and inextricably linked to authoritarian politics, no matter
how nice the banner of play, how sweet the promises promised, in the
Confucian culture dominated society, peasant uprising autocracy would
only release a conflict regulation mechanism .

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