"Yale Law Library – The Avalon Project"
BLACK HISTORY There have been ongoing debates about when and how the achievements of African Americans should be acknowledged during the course of a child’s education. This debate has produced several perspectives on the focus of specific achievements, highlighting the contributions of specific individuals and crafting the duration of such recognition. There are those who feel that a month provides sufficient time to present a comprehensive review of these achievements. Still others feel that the history of African Americans should be provided throughout the formal educational years of a child. At issue in this resolution is whether or not Black history should be a mandated requirement throughout a child’s education. This preliminary guide includes several web links to articles and legislation that might prove useful as this topic receives further scrutiny. Yale Law Library – The Avalon Project http://www.yale.edu/lawweb/avalon/treatise/truth/truth.htm NARRATIVE OF SOJOURNER TRUTH Written by Olive Gilbert, based on information provided by Sojourner Truth. 1850 CONTENTS HER BIRTH AND PARENTAGE ACCOMMODATIONS HER BROTHERS AND SISTERS HER RELIGIOUS INSTRUCTION THE AUCTION DEATH OF MAU-MAU BETT LAST DAYS OF BOMEFREE DEATH OF BOMEFREE COMMENCEMENT OF ISABELLA'S TRIALS IN LIFE TRIALS CONTINUED HER STANDING WITH HER NEW MASTER AND MISTRESS 1 RESOLVED: Baltimore City should require mandated Black history throughout a child’s education. ISABELLA'S MARRIAGE ISABELLA AS A MOTHER SLAVEHOLDER'S PROMISES HER ESCAPE ILLEGAL SALE OF HER SON IT IS OFTEN DARKEST JUST BEFORE DAWN DEATH OF MRS. ELIZA FOWLER ISABELLA'S RELIGIOUS EXPERIENCE NEW TRIALS FINDING A BROTHER AND SISTER GLEANINGS THE MATTHIAS DELUSION FASTING THE CAUSE OF HER LEAVING THE CITY THE CONSEQUENCES OF REFUSING A TRAVELLER A NIGHT'S LODGING SOME OF HER VIEWS AND REASONINGS THE SECOND ADVENT DOCTRINES ANOTHER CAMP-MEETING LAST INTERVIEW WITH HER MASTER CERTIFICATES OF CHARACTER (Actual document is about 60 pages long) http://jurist.law.pitt.edu/currentawareness/ussupremes.php SUPREME COURT (US) JURIST legal news archive... University of Pittsburgh School of Law Tuesday, April 18, 2006 The Rosa Parks Act [AL Legislature] 6:15 PM ET An Act, Relating to pardons; to provide that a person convicted of violating a state law or municipal ordinance whose purpose was to maintain or enforce racial segregation or discrimination would be granted a pardon of the conviction upon application, Alabama Legislature, passed April 18, 2006 ["The Rosa Parks Act", HB 592, as amended; a bill that would pardon Rosa Parks, the Rev. Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. and other civil rights activists convicted of violating Jim Crow laws in the state]. Read the full text of the legislation. Reported in JURIST's Paper Chase here. 2 RESOLVED: Baltimore City should require mandated Black history throughout a child’s education. http://www.scotusblog.com/wp/ SCOTUSblog is a blog maintained by Goldstein and Howe. This web site links to Supreme Court news articles and original documents. http://www.progroupinc.com/site/page/pg4547-as44.html Karen Stinson Karen Stinson, founder and first CEO, started ProGroup more than 20 years ago with a vision of leading a highly skilled, multicultural, multi-disciplined team to partner with clients in creating supportive, productive workplaces. Today, her vision has become a living laboratory of more than 100 diverse professionals committed to creating inclusive cultures that work, a concept proven over time to Make Differences a Business Advantage™. Strategic alliances with other organizations add even greater depth and expertise to ProGroup's offerings. If you have a need, ProGroup and its worldwide partners can meet it. http://www.insightnews.com/articles.asp?mode=display&articleID=2183 Do we still need Black History Month? by Mema Ayi and Demetrius Patterson Special to the NNPA from the Chicago Defender This article helps to frame the discussion about the need to maintain the recognition of the achievements of African Americans during the month of February while working towards the inclusion of same throughout the year. A reference to a Morgan Freeman interview on 60 Minutes highlights this article. LW http://www.nnpa.org/news/default.asp National Newspaper Publishers Association (NNPA): The National Newspaper Publishers Association, also known as the Black Press of America, is a 67-year-old federation of more than 200 Black community newspapers from across the United States. Since World War II, it has also served as the industry's news service, a position that it has held without peer or competitor since the Associated Negro Press dissolved by 1970. http://www.blackpressusa.com/search/LocalPaper.asp 3 RESOLVED: Baltimore City should require mandated Black history throughout a child’s education. This is a comprehensive list of African American newspapers (Black Press) available nationwide. LW http://www.blackprwire.com/display.asp?show=overview Black PR Wire, Inc. is the nation's premier news distribution service center. The company's database holds a comprehensive listing of over 1,200 Black-owned publications and media and includes a comprehensive listing of key Black journalists throughout the United States and the Caribbean. http://www.blackprwire.com/display.asp?show=mission The mission of Black PR Wire is to deliver client press releases, video and audio news releases, electronic video messages and electronic newsletters to key reporters, writers, and influential grassroots, social and civic community leaders throughout the U.S. and the Caribbean. Our goal is to provide you with FAME, whereby we offer you Flexibility, Awareness, Mention, and Effective results. Black PR Wire provides our clients with quality and efficient distribution services on a local, state, national, and international basis. http://www.blackprwire.com/display-news.asp?id=3344 For Immediate Release Tuesday, December 11, 2007 Contact Information Sonshine Communications Abigail Knowles Wolfe (305)948-8063 (BPRW) Advanced Placement studies and African American history Advanced Placement (A.P.) curriculums across the United States seek to offer High School students more in depth studies in 37 specific areas including chemistry, calculus, European history, physics and Spanish literature (to name a few) yet educators are currently debating whether or not to add African American history to that list…African American history is American history therefore why not offer it at the highest level of High School academia for all to discover? 4 RESOLVED: Baltimore City should require mandated Black history throughout a child’s education. http://www.whitehouse.gov/news/releases/2007/01/print/20070126-4.html National African American History Month, 2007 A Proclamation by the President of the United States African-American History Month Message, 2007 African American History African Americans have been an integral part of America for generations, and our Nation is stronger because of their contributions. During National African American History Month, we honor the achievements of African Americans and recognize our continued responsibility to strive for equality for all our citizens. With grace and determination, African American men and women have shaped our Nation and influenced American life. Frederick Douglass, W.E.B. DuBois, Rosa Parks, and Martin Luther King, Jr., advanced the cause of civil rights for all Americans and helped change the course of American history. Educators Booker T. Washington and Carter G. Woodson helped break down racial barriers in education to provide opportunity for all people. Americans have benefited from the achievements of scientists like George Washington Carver. Artists such as Pearl Bailey, Ella Fitzgerald, and Louis Armstrong inspired Americans and created some of the most celebrated music this Nation has ever produced. The theme of this year's National African American History Month, "From Slavery to Freedom: Africans in the Americas," recalls African Americans' long journey to justice and commemorates the courage and persistence of the heroes who called on our Nation to live up to its founding promise. A century after African American soldiers fought for their freedom on the battlefields of the Civil War, African Americans struggled peacefully for their rights in the streets of Birmingham, Alabama, and on the Mall in Washington, D.C. Courageous civil rights leaders answered hate and discrimination with love and dignity, toppled segregation laws, and worked to make America a more just and hopeful Nation. All Americans can be proud of the progress we have made, yet the work for a more perfect union is not done. As we celebrate National African American History Month, we reaffirm our commitment to build a society where every individual has the opportunity to achieve the promise of this great land. NOW, THEREFORE, I, GEORGE W. BUSH, President of the United States of America, by virtue of the authority vested in me by the Constitution and laws of the United States, do hereby proclaim February 2007 as National African American History Month. I call upon public officials, educators, and all the people of the United States to observe this month with appropriate programs and activities that honor the significant contributions African Americans have made to our Nation. IN WITNESS WHEREOF, I have hereunto set my hand this twenty-sixth day of January, in the year of our Lord two thousand seven, and of the Independence of the United States of America the two hundred and thirty-first. GEORGE W. BUSH 5 RESOLVED: Baltimore City should require mandated Black history throughout a child’s education. http://usinfo.state.gov/scv/history_geography_and_population/civil_rights/african_americ an_rights/african_american_rights_legal.html Legal Resources Selected Primary Resources Codification of the Fair Housing Act Title VIII of the Civil Rights Act of 1968 and amended. Prohibited discrimination of race, color, religion, or national origin in the sale or rental of housing and other real estate related transactions. See the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) web site for more on the Fair Housing Act and texts of other laws and executive orders dealing with fair housing issues. Codification of the Voting Rights Act of 1965 Subchapters I-A, I-B, I-C). Abolished discrimination against voters. See also, text of President Lyndon B. Johnson's Special Message to Congress: "The American Promise", 15 March 1965; audio, and President Johnson's remarks at the signing of the Voting Rights Act, 6 August 1965. Images, transcripts and lessons plans can be found at the OurDocuments.gov web site. The Civil Rights Act of 1964 (as amended) Codified in Title 42, Chapter 21 of the United States Code. Often cited as the most important civil rights legislation in the U.S., it prohibits discriminatory acts in public education, (sec 2000c et seq.) federally-funded programs, (sec 2000d et seq.) accommodations, (sec 2000a) and employment, (sec 2000e et seq.). President Dwight D. Eisenhower: Executive Order 10730: Desegregation of Central High School (Little Rock, Arkansas) Allowed the president to "federalize" the Arkansas National Guard and send 1,000 U.S. Army paratroopers from the 101st Airborne Division to assist them in restoring order in Little Rock school integration crisis. Tested, and ultimately upheld, the 1954 Brown Supreme Court ruling outlawing school segregation. Background and important documentation about this crisis , which gained world-wide attention, is available at the Dwight D. Eisenhower Presidential Library. 23 September 1957. President Harry S. Truman: Executive Order 9981: Desegregation of the Armed Forces Abolished segregation in the armed forces and ordered full integration of all the services. Images, transcripts and lessons plans can be found at the OurDocuments.gov web site. See also Desegregation of the Armed Forces, a collection of Project Whistlestop, the digital archive of the Truman Presidential 6 RESOLVED: Baltimore City should require mandated Black history throughout a child’s education. Library. The desegregation collection contains hundreds of pages of digitalized documents - press releases, letters, and diary entries - covering 1938 to 1957. 26 July 1948; Codification of the 1866 and 1871 Civil Rights Acts 42 U.S.C sec 1981-85. Post-Civil War, Reconstruction Era statutes prohibiting racial discrimination in both civil and criminal venues. Criminal context is found in 18 U.S.C. sec 241 and 242 "Civil War Amendments" to the U.S. Constitution: 13th Amendment (1865)abolished slavery 14th Amendment (1868) guarantees "equal protection" under law 15th Amendment (1870) lays out voting rights Emancipation Proclamation (1863). See also an overview of the history and ramifications of the Proclamation from the U.S. National Archives' publication, Prologue, Summer 1993 Selected Court Decisions on Individual Civil Rights Brown v. Board of Education (1954) The Supreme Court Decision declared that "separate educational facilities are inherently unequal." For more information see In Pursuit of Freedom and Equality from Washburn University School of Law; Brown v. Board of Education National Historic Site from the U.S. National Park Service; and an IIP special feature commemorating the 50th anniversary of the "Brown" decision. Plessy v. Ferguson (1896) The Supreme Court established the "separate but equal" doctrine which remained in effect until Brown v. Board of Education (1954). See also the analysis of Justice Harlan's famous dissent, "Our constitution is colorblind." Civil Rights Cases (1883) The U.S. Supreme Court case that effectively blocked attempts by Congress, in the post Civil War era, to enact laws barring discrimination against blacks in privately owned public accommodations. The prohibition of private racial discrimination was enforced with the passage of the Civil Rights Act of 1964. 7 RESOLVED: Baltimore City should require mandated Black history throughout a child’s education. Scott v. Sandford (1856) The Supreme Court ruled that blacks were non-citizens, without constitutional rights associated with citizenship. The decision and its aftermath contributed to the outbreak of the Civil War; it was overturned by the ratification of the Fourteenth Amendment. View an exhibit of significant records documenting the Scotts' early struggle for freedom, a chronology and additional links from the Washington University Libraries. 8 RESOLVED: Baltimore City should require mandated Black history throughout a child’s education. http://ed.stanford.edu/suse/faculty/displayFacultyNews.php?tablename=notify1&id=637 Wineburg doubts that black history mandate in schools will lead to student success Black history mandate eases into Philadelphia schools February 18, 2007 The Philadelphia Inquirer By Susan Snyder PHILADELPHIA - Joe Lawless is a white history teacher at George Washington High School in Philadelphia, and this year the main course he teaches is African American history. "I actually have learned more than I think I've taught," said Lawless, a 16-year teaching veteran, who grew up on an almost all-black block in North Philadelphia. "A lot of those questions I've had about African Americans and my relationship with African Americans have been answered. It's given me a lot of understanding." Lawless embraces the Philadelphia School District's mandate - the first of its kind in the country - that high school students take an African American history course before graduating. Harry Knight, a black history teacher at the same school, which has a diverse student body, disagrees. "It's a good idea to have it. Forcing it was a bad idea," Knight said, suggesting that it be an elective. "My first-period class, where they are predominantly Caucasian, they're like, `Why isn't it multicultural?' I agree with them." Such debates among teachers and students are quietly going on throughout the 173,000- student district, which experts say remains the only urban school system in the nation to require such a course for graduation… (Excerpt from article) 9 RESOLVED: Baltimore City should require mandated Black history throughout a child’s education. http://www.csmonitor.com/2005/0201/p12s01-legn.htm Black history: best taught in February or all year long? By E. Jeanne Harnois | Contributor to The Christian Science Monitor This month at Walter Payton College Prep High School in Chicago, history classes will cover urbanization - specifically, the changes to the city's culture and music that resulted when Southern blacks migrated north. In English classes, meanwhile, students will be reading Toni Morrison and studying the Harlem Renaissance. And the high school's African-American Club will host an annual school-wide assembly featuring black poetry and music. The Chicago school is one of many across the US that gears its February curriculum toward exploring black Americans' contributions to society. The idea that students are enriched by learning about the heritage and role of African-Americans is widely accepted among most US educators. What's now debated is whether such lessons should be confined, some say "segregated," to one month or, instead, be incorporated into class work all year long. Earmarking a single month to recognize black achievement, this camp argues, is not enough in a society built on the contributions of many racial and ethnic groups. (Excerpt from article) Full HTML version of this story which may include photos, graphics, and related links 10 RESOLVED: Baltimore City should require mandated Black history throughout a child’s education. http://nmaahc.si.edu/section/education Smithsonian National Museum of African American History and Culture – Education If you study to remember, you will forget, but if you study to understand, you will remember. –Unknown The National Museum of African American History and Culture aspires to tell the story of America's history through an African American lens. American history is made up of many individual, yet connected stories. Whether you found this page because you are looking for interesting things to do with your family or students or because you like learning new things, we are happy that you are here. We hope that you leave inspired to continue learning. Education Department Vision Statement Upholding education to be the key to personal and societal betterment, we aspire to jumpstart creativity, to generate self-pride and to inspire life-long learning for diverse audiences. (This description comes directly from the website) 11 RESOLVED: Baltimore City should require mandated Black history throughout a child’s education. http://article.nationalreview.com/?q=YjJhYTFhNWU1MDhjOTkyYmJlOGEwZDAyYW EzNGM2YTQ= Black History Month: Why? And the Ivy League’s misplaced emphasis. By Jonah Goldberg EDITOR'S NOTE: This is one of those rare occasions when I feel the need to recycle an old column. My reasons are twofold, but I will give you three since NR is a traditionally Catholic magazine which encourages Trinitarianism in all things. First, I've got to go do something which would prevent me from writing a column today even remotely as good. Second, this column is about Black History Month which begins today. Third, this column elicited a very large, often angry, response when I first wrote it, and since a large number of my readers weren't around back then, I thought it would be okay to rerun it. I don't think it's dated, though the reference to "Selma" was of course a nod to Jesse Jackson's tendency during the Florida recount to mention Selma at every opportunity. Also, since I have you here, let me throw one more thing at you. If you haven't been to "The Corner" yet, you really have to check it out. It is already, by far, the fastest growing, most popular new feature we have ever come up with (and that includes our "What Was the Sweatiest Movie Ever?" poll). For those of you who don't "get it," here's what it's about. Various NR editors and members of our extended family get to comment on anything we like, including each other's comments. We try to keep the posts short and the most recent appear on top. There are no editors, no rules, and no master plan. Yes, as many, many, many readers have pointed out, it's very much like a blog along the lines of AndrewSullivan.com or Instapundit.com. The difference, however, is significant. Those guys run one-man operations. If you can't see the distinction, look at it this way…We are halfway through Black History Month. And who among us can say he is immune to the excitement? The truth is, a lot of people feel that every month is Black History Month. And I don't just mean people like Jesse Jackson who see "Selma" in everything from bad service in restaurants to Global Warming. Anyone who's looked through a college syllabus or high- school textbook in the last decade cannot honestly say that black history doesn't get a whole lot of attention. For example, on a lark I decided to search the course offerings at Brown University. I searched for courses offered in the 1999-2000 academic year in which the words "black" 12 RESOLVED: Baltimore City should require mandated Black history throughout a child’s education. or "African" appeared in the course description. Below is what I found (I deleted repeated courses offered in both spring and fall semesters, as well as courses in the hard sciences): 1. An Introduction to Afro-American Studies 2. West African History 3. The Afro-Luso-Brazilian Triangle 4. Colonial Cultures in Comparative Perspectives: Africa, the Caribbean, the United States 5. Freedom in African Political Thought… (Excerpt from article; he lists a total of 42 courses) The writer goes on to explain and document why Black History Month should be discontinued. The tone is straightforward and his search methods proved useful beyond researching this topic. LW 13 RESOLVED: Baltimore City should require mandated Black history throughout a child’s education.