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					Good Morning
• Continue to explore components of effective
  vocabulary instruction

• Experience doing a running record and miscue analysis

• Look at the common components for reading

• Experience a carousel to learn about the readings for
  this week
One Vocabulary Instructional Program
            Michael Graves, 2006
The Vocabulary Book: Learning and Instruction
• Providing Rich and Varied Language

• Teaching Individual Words

• Teaching Word Learning Strategies

• Fostering Word Consciousness
 Providing Rich and Varied Language
• Read alouds
• Independent reading
• Writing activities that focus on word choice
  and usage
• Author study
• Book talks/literature discussion groups
• Genre study
      Teaching Individual Words
• Students acquire new word meanings through
  explicit vocabulary instruction

• Activities that focus on specific words to learn
  entirely new words as well as enhanced
  meanings of familiar words
                         Concept Wheel
                                                            1. “What words do
                                                               you think of when
                                                               I say, _____ ?”
brave                      brave
courageous                                                  2. List words.
                                                            3. Read definition.
valiant                                                        Compare.
daring                                                      4. “What three other
                                                               words will help
bold                                                           you remember the
                                                               word _____ ?”

having courage : DAUNTLESS ; 2 : making a fine show : COLORFUL < brave banners
flying in the wind>; 3 : EXCELLENT , SPLENDID <the brave fire I soon had going
   Verbal Visual Word Association


                 In my life:

my definition:   opposite:
Teaching Word-Learning Strategies
When you come to a word and you don’t know
 what it means….

• Word part clues

• Context clues
 Structural Analysis: Using Word Part
• Three main parts: prefixes, suffixes, roots

• Common rootsnew words
• Dismantling and reassembling

• lawlessness
• Brainstorm List for the Baseword “Play”
  – player
  – playful
  – playpen
  – ballplayer
  – playing field

• Discuss in pairs: How does each word relate
  to play?
Common Roots                                      Prefixes                 Suffixes
LATIN                                             un- (not)                -s (plurals)
audi (hear)
                      1. Choose a root.           re- (again)              -ed (past tense)
dict (speak)
port (carry)          2. Brainstorm a list of     in-, im-, ir- il (not)   -ing (present
spect (see)              words that use the       dis (not)                tense)
                         base word.                                        -ly
scrip/script                                      en-, em- (cause
tract (pull/draw)     3. Discuss: how does        to)                      (characteristic
vis (see)                each word relate to
                                                  non- (not)               of)
GREEK                    the base word?                                    -er, -or (person)
                                                  under- (too little)
auto (self)           4. Think of two words                                -ion, -tion (act,
bio (life)               and one invented         in-, im- (in or
                                                  into)                    process)
graph (written/          word using the root
                         and common               over- (too much)         -ible, -able (can
                         affixes.                                          be done)
hydro (water)                                     mis- (wrong)
meter (measure)       5. Be ready to share
                                                                           -al, -ial (have
                                                  sub- (under)             characteristics
ology (study of)         one word
                                                  pre- (before)            of)
photo (light)
scope (see)                                       inter (between,          -ness (state of)
tele (distant)                                    among)

Adapted from Blevins, W, 2001 Teaching phonics and word study in the intermediate grades,
       Contextualizing: Cloze
Sheila Rae started off, skipping. “I am brave,” she
sang. “I am f_____.” She stepped on every crack.
She walked backwards with her eyes closed. She
gr                              b
________ at stray dogs, and ________ her teeth at
stray cats. And she ________ that the trees were
________ creatures. She climbed up them and broke
their fingers off. Snap, snap, snap. Sheila Rae walked
and walked. She turned corners. She crossed
streets. It suddenly occurred to Sheila Rae that
nothing looked ________ .
• Categories of help
   – Definition (the author explains the meaning of the
     word right in the sentence/selection)
   – Synonym (the author uses a word similar in meaning)
   – Antonym (the author uses a word nearly opposite in
   – Example (The author provides one or more example
     words or ideas)
   – General (the author provides several words or
     statements that give clues to the word’s meaning)
– Definition:
   • When Sara was hiking, she accidentally walked through a patch of
     brambles, prickly vines and shrubs, which resulted in many scratches
– Synonym:
   • Josh walked into the living room and accidentally tripped over the
     ottoman. He then mumbled, “I wish people would not leave the
     footstool right in the middle fo the room. That’s dangerous!”
– Antonym:
   • The supermarket manager complained, “Why do we have such a
     plethora of boxes of cereal on the shelves? In contrast, we have a real
     shortage of pancake and waffle mixes. We’ve got to do a better job
– Example:
   • There are many members of the canine family. For example, wolves,
     foxes, coyotes and pets such as collies, beagles, and golden retrievers
     are all canines.
– General:
   • It was a sultry day. The day was very hot and humid. If you moved at
     all, you would break out in a sweat. It was one of these days to drink
     water and stay in the shade.
    Fostering Word Consciousness
• Help students to develop an Interest in words, an
  appreciation of word choice, and expand their

• Activities that focus on word play and figurative
  language (e.g., alliteration, slang, simile, metaphor,
  homophones, hyperbole, idioms, oxymoron,

• Keeping vocabulary charts, making students
  accountable in their writing, fostering application in
  everyday conversations
           Slang from Family Members
Relation      Slang                   Meaning          Year
Grandma       Toodle-loo              goodbye          1938
Dad           Cool                    It’s all right   1964
Mom           Far out                 Awesome          1975
Uncle         Crazy                   Wild             1979
Husband       Been there, done        Already been     1996
              that, got the t-shirt   through that
Table 1
Table 2
Table 3
Table 4
Table 5
Table 6
Table 7
Table 8
            English Language Learners
Research (Fitzgerald, 1995; McLaughlin et al., 2000; Garcia 1991;Jiménez, 2001;
  Fitzgerald, 1995) informs us of other instructional strategies that help ELLs
  improve their vocabularies :

• Direct instruction in vocabulary to deepen word knowledge of high-frequency
  grade-appropriate words.

• Instruction in strategies to infer meaning from text and recognize root words.

• Activities outside the classroom to extend and deepen students' understanding
  of word meanings.

• The use of writing as an avenue for meaningful use of language.

• Extensive opportunities to practice the language, through speaking and writing
  as they interact with peers and adults.
    Selecting and Teaching Vocabulary
1. Word meanings are best learned through conceptual
2. Word meanings should be learned in context. The contextual
   setting gives student clues to word meanings.
3. Vocabulary instruction should be based on learner-generated
   word meanings.
4. Vocabulary should focus on usable words.
5. Students should be taught the use of context clues and structural
   analysis skills (prefixes, suffixes, root words).
6. Students should learn to use the dictionary, thesaurus and
   glossary to develop understanding of word meanings when they
   cannot figure out the meanings from experience, context or
   structural analysis.
      Which vocabulary words?
“Is understanding the word important to understanding the

“Are students able to use context/structural analysis to
discover the word’s meaning?”

“Can working with this word be useful in furthering students’
contextual, structural analysis or dictionary skills?”

“How useful is this word outside of this selection?”
        For more information…
• Read the C.O.R.E. resource, Chapters 11-13)
  – Chapter 11: Specific Word Learning Strategies
    (structural analysis of words)
  – Chapter 12: Word Learning Strategies (context,
  – Chapter 13: Word Consciousness (including
    idioms, similes, etc.)
    A Balanced Reading Program
• Read Aloud

• Shared Reading

• Guided Reading

• Independent Reading
                Guided Reading
• Core of the reading program

• Text difficulty

• Control of text

• Model reading strategies

• Variety of genres

• Text structure
Cueing Systems
 What kinds of good questions* have you heard
     teachers use during guided reading?

* Questions that guide students to process text
Assessing Guided Reading
Cueing Systems
• Substitution

    They did not have books.
•   Omission
         …they dove       the waves
•   Insertion
         …splashing and spraying the water…
•   Correction
         …in the shade of the tall palm tree…
•   Multiple attempt
         How lucky he was to live in a Somali village…
•   Partial word

        Mohamed loved to go swimming in the sea.
               Running Record
               Miscue Analysis
• The little monkey had it.

• …to see if there was any danger. He heard

• Every day except Friday…
Mohamed loved to go swimming in the sea. How
lucky he was to live in a Somali village right on the
Indian Ocean! The sandy shore rang with the happy
shouts and cries of the village boys and girls. They
liked to race one another into the surf, splashing and
spraying the water into a white dancing foam before
they dove into the waves. Mohamed and his young
sister, Asha, spent all the time they could in the cool,
clean sea, swimming and playing water games. They
were good swimmers because their mother had
taught them.
• What do you notice about this reader?

• How many errors did she make?

• What types of errors were they?
Mohamed loved to go swimming in the sea. How
lucky he was to live in a Somali village right on the
Indian Ocean! The sandy shore rang with the happy
shouts and cries of the village boys and girls. They
liked to race one another into the surf, splashing and
spraying the water into a white dancing foam before
they dove into the waves. Mohamed and his young
sister, Asha, spent all the time they could in the cool,
clean sea, swimming and playing water games. They
were good swimmers because their mother had
taught them.
E   SC
• What do you notice about this reader?

• How many errors did she make?

• What types of errors were they?
• How are these readers similar and different?

• What do you think is meant by “all miscues
  are not created equally”?

• Which reader is of greater concern to you?
    Assessing Reading Development
Informal Reading Inventories (IRI)
• Graded words lists
• Graded passages
  – Running records/miscue analysis
  – Graphophonic/syntactic/semantic errors
  – Comprehension questions/retelling
  – Frustration/instructional/independent levels
• Other components
Graded Words Lists
         Coding a Running Record
Code my reading in the following ways:
                              Graded Passage                                             E   SC
      One day a mother rabbit and her child were taking a nap. A fox ran by.
      He looked wild but he was very mild. The fox liked to make soup. He would find
      wild things that grew in the woods. He would grind them up and put them into
      his soup. “Are you ready for some soup?” asked the fox. “Yes,” said the mother
77    rabbit. “Wake up, child. The kind fox has made us some soup.”
92    “Soup, soup, soup,” said the rabbit child “We always have soup. All we ever
109   have is soup! I hate soup!” This made the fox feel very mad. He began to grind
122   his teeth. He said, “I am a kind fox. I am always mild. I don’t ever get mad but
136   you made me mad!” He ran away into the woods. “Oh no! said the mother
148   rabbit. “You made the fox mad. He has always been so kind and mild. Now he
162   will be a wild fox and won’t make us soup ever again. We have always had his
174   soup. What will we have now?” “Stew!” said the rabbit child. “I will make stew.”
186   “You are a child,” said his mother. “How can you make stew?” The rabbit child
201   said, “I can go into the woods and find wild things to grind up and put into the
214   stew.” “No you can’t,” said the mother rabbit. “The fox is wild now. Wild foxes
216   eat rabbits!”
Other components
• Reading interest survey
• Phonemic awareness
• Phonics
• Structural analysis
• Vocab
• CLOZE exercises (vocabulary)
• Spelling
    As you come in from break…
• Please find the table with your sign-up for the
           Test-taking Strategies

• Multiple choice and open-ended, constructed
• Multiple choice
  – Difficult
  – 70, some experimental
  – Don’t waste too much time
  – Answer every question
  – Stems: long!
  – 2 types: content, scenario
• Essays
  – 2 short (15 minutes), 2 long (25 minutes)
  – Short: 50-100 word answer
  – Long: 150-250 word answer (1 typed page=225-250
  – Hypothetical situation
  – Get to the point
  – Identify strategy, provide information, explain why it is
  – Write legibly
• Case Study
  – Raw data
  – Identify: strengths, areas of need, interventions
    to address each area of need
• Consider test developers
  – They want you to convey an understanding of
    reading that is “balanced”…
     • direct, explicit teaching;
     • objective met in pleasant, no-nonsense way
  – Includes “teaching of skills”…
     • automatic behavior
  – “and strategies”
     • behavioral choice
• Content areas
  – Not equally addressed
  – Focus on areas 3-7:
     •   Phonemic Awareness
     •   Concepts about Print
     •   Systemic, Explicit Phonics and other Word Identification Strategies
     •   Reading Comprehension
     •   Literary Response and Analysis
     •   Content Area Literacy
     •   Independent Reading
            R.I.C.A Domains
          R.I.C.A. Case Study
• The Fluent Reader: Oral Reading Strategies for Building Word
  Recognition, Fluency and Comprehension by Timothy V. Rasinski
• Bringing Words to Life: Robust Vocabulary Instruction by Beck,
  McKeown and Kucan
• The Vocabulary Book: Learning and Instruction by Michael Fl Graves
• Evidence-based Reading Instruction, articles from the International
  Reading Association
• Creating Strategeic Readers: Techniques for Developing in
  Phonemic Awareness, Phonics, Fluency, Vocabulary, and
  Comprehension by Valerie Ellery
• Good-bye Round Robin by Optiz and Rasinski
• Leveled Books by Fountas and Pinnell