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									                    Curriculum Development and Instructional Design
                                           PSU EDUC 506
                                       Jacques L. Gibble, Ed.D.

                                   “Style and Curriculum”
Style is defined as “…a quality of imagination and individuality expressed in one's actions and
tastes: does things with style.” Imagination and individuality are partly inherent in genetic
makeup and partly the result of education.

As applied to our profession there is teaching style, learning style, leadership style and
communication style. Style, in this context, is learned behavior that is partly attributable to
physiological elements (i.e. preference for seeing as opposed to hearing) and partly to one‟s
conscious and unconscious thoughts and intellectual preferences. These later preferences are,
in turn, ascribed to the internalized elements that give direction to our lives.

It has been said, and is taken as factual by many, that teachers teach as they were taught. It
has also been said that teachers teach in the style in which they personally learn. Style,
hopefully, is also influenced by education (certainly, if style comes only from learning
preferences or vicarious learning by observation of others – “teaching of” courses would be

It is intellectually useful to gain insight into one‟s “styles”. Such insight, coupled with reflection,
makes your “style” motivation more understandable and, therefore, more consciously

There are many „style‟ surveys. I am asking that you take four of these surveys – one in
learning, one in teaching, one in leadership and one in communication. You are to use the
results of these surveys and relate them to elements of different philosophical positions we have
reviewed. The goal is to better understand the effect those philosophies have on your „styles‟.

                         Learning Style: Kolb’s Learning Style Inventory

               Teaching Style: Grasha’s Teaching Style Inventory (Done Online)
                  (underscore not space between “/tstyles3_instructions.html”)

                    Leadership Style: Blake and Mouton Leadership Survey

                          Interpersonal Communications: JoHari Window


Upon completion of the analyses of these surveys, you are expected to write a one page
(approximately 500 words) reflective paper relating what you have learned about yourself to the
various defining elements of the six philosophical positions which we discussed in class.

You might also find it useful to use the belief surveys on philosophy and learning theory which
we completed in class. You should stress what you have learned about yourself and what
effect that learning has had or may have on your instructional design efforts and your
subsequent teaching.

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                              Kolb’s Learning Style Inventory


On the next page you will be asked to complete 12 sentences. Each has four endings. Rank the
endings for each sentence according to how well you think each one fits with how you would do
about learning something. Try to recall some recent situations where you had to learn
something new, perhaps in your job. Then, using the spaces provided, rank a “4” for the
sentence ending that describes how you learn best, done to a “1” for the sentence ending that
seems least like the way you would learn. Be sure to rank all then endings for each sentence
unit. Please do not make ties.

Example of a completed sentence set:

     When I
0.                ___I am happy        ____I am fast        ___I am logical      ___I am careful

REMEMBER:              4= most like you
                       3= second most like you
                       2= third most like you
                       1= least like you.
AND:                   You are ranking across, not down.


Plot the Category Scores on Chart One. Connect the scores on the axis (i.e. connect CE axis
score to RO axis score and the RO axis score to the AC axis score and the AC axis score to the
AE axis score). Finally connect the AE score to the CE axis score. Look at the areas under the
four connecting lines. The largest area indicates your primary learning style.

Example: You may find your largest area is under the triangle formed by the AE to CE axis. That
would indicate you to be an active learner who needs concrete experiences.

Plot the Action Scores on Chart Two. Connect the scores on the horizontal axis with the
score on the vertical axis. The area in the resulting triangle indicates your personal learning

Example: You may find your triangle places you in the Diverger quadrant. That would indicate
you to be a thinker who acts only after thought.

Read the section: Understanding and Interpreting of Kolb’s Learning Style Inventory

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There are nine sets of four words listed below. Rank each set of four words, by assigning a “4”
to the word that best characterizes your learning style, a “3” to the next more characteristic
word, a “2” to the next most characteristic word and a “1” to the word that is least characteristic
of you as a learner. Be sure to assign a different rank number to each of the four words in each
set; do not make ties.

    1          ___discriminating   ___tentative         ___involved            ___practical
    2          ____receptive       ___relevant          ___analytical          ___impartial
    3          ____feeling         ___watching          ___thinking            ___.doing
    4          ____accepting       ___risk-taker        ___evaluative          ___aware
    5          ____intuitive       ___productive        ___logical             ___questioning
    6          ____abstract        ___observing         ___concrete            ___active
               ___ present-
    7                              ___reflecting        ___future-oriented     ___pragmatic
    8          ___experience       ___observation       ___conceptualization ___experimentation
    9          ___intense          ___reserved          ___rational          ___responsible

Add the numbers in each column and put the scores below.

  Total for the      Column One             Column Two           Column Three        Column Four
scores from each
    Category              CE                       RO                   AC                AE
Use these scores on Chart One.


Subtract the column totals as indicated in these equations.
        Action        AC-CE=                                   AE-RO=

If the result of AC-CE or AE-RO is greater than 30 subtract 10 points
If the result of AC-CE or AE-RO is 29-25 subtract 9 points
If the result of AC-CE or AE-RO is 24-20 subtract 8 points
If the result of AC-CE or AE-RO is 19-15 subtract 7 points
If the result of AC-CE or AE-RO is 14-10 subtract 6 points
If the results is less than 10 just copy the score above to the lines below.

“Subtracted Score” AC-CE=________________ AE-RO=__________________

Plot these scores on Chart Two.

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               Chart One

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        Locate the 4 points according to their category (ie. AE is Active experimentation.)
        Connect the points by drawing straight lines from CE to RO, RO to AC, AC to AE and
        finally AE to CE. The resulting shape should be „kite-like.”

                Chart Two

        Draw a straight line between the two scores to connect them.

PAGE 5 OF 26
               Understanding and Interpreting Kolb's Learning Style Inventory

Kolb's Learning Style Inventory (Kolb, D. A. 1984) is based on John Dewey's emphasis on the
need for learning to be grounded in experience, Kurt Lewin's, work that stressed the importance
of a person's being active in learning, and Jean Piaget's theory on intelligence as the result of
the interaction of the person and the environment.

Kolb's four stage theory uses a model with two dimensions. You can think of the first dimension,
as shown in the model below, running horizontally and it is based on task. The left end of the
dimension is doing the tasks (performing), while the right end is watching the task (observing).
The second dimension runs vertically and is based upon our thought and emotional processes.
The top of the dimension is feeling (responsive feelings - such as Henry David Thoreau), while
the bottom of the dimension is thinking (controlled feelings - such as Dr. Spock of Star Trek

You might also think of the horizontal dimension as how we react to the environment around us
(extroverts jump in and do it, introverts observe from the sidelines). While the vertical dimension
is the soul or ego within us (the left side of the brain is logical, while the right side of the brain is
creative and emotional).Notice that this is very similar to other two dimensional models, such as
the Managerial Grid.

Learning Model

These four positions on the two dimensions describe a four-step learning model or process
(note that each position is represented by a box in the above diagram). Note that if we only fell
along ONE dimension, we would have one of four learning styles:

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Feeling or Sensing (Concrete Experience) - perceive information. This dimension represents
a receptive experience based approach to learning that relies on feeling based judgments. They
generally find theoretical approaches to be unhelpful and prefer to treat each situation as a
unique case. They learn best from specific examples in which they can be involved. These
learners tend to relate to peers, not authority (they are people persons - they want to get along
with others, not be bossed around). Theoretical readings are not always helpful while group
work and peer feedback often leads to success. Planned activities should apply learned skills.
The instructor acts as coach/helper for this self-directed autonomous learner.

Watching (Reflective Observation) - reflect on how it will impact some aspect of our life.
These individuals rely heavily on careful observation in making judgments. They prefer learning
situations such as lectures that allow the role of impartial objective observers. These individuals
tend to be introverts. Lectures are helpful to this learner (they are visual and auditory). This
learner wants the instructor to provide expert interpretation. They look for an instructor who is
both a taskmaster and a guide. This learner wants their performance to be measured by
external criteria.

Thinking (Abstract Generalization or Conceptualization) - compare how it fits into our own
experiences. These individuals tend to be more oriented towards things and symbols, and less
towards other people. They learn best in authority-directed, impersonal learning situations that
emphasize theory and systematic analysis. They are frustrated by and gain little from
unstructured "discovery learning" approaches such as exercises and simulations. Case studies,
theoretical readings and reflective thinking exercises help this learner. Very little else helps this

Doing (testing in new situation or Active Experimentation) - think about how this information
offers new ways for us to act. These individuals learn best when they can engage in such things
as projects, homework, or group discussions. They dislike passive learning situations such as
lectures. These individuals tend to be extroverts. This learner wants to touch everything
(kinesthetic or tactile). Problem solving, small group discussions or games, peer feedback, and
self directed work assignments all help this learner. This learner likes to see everything and
determine their own criteria for the relevance of the materials.

Learning Style Dimensions

These two lines intersect each other and form four quadrants (represented by the circles in the
above diagram). These quadrants form the four personal learning styles (These four quadrants
represent a more complex model of learning styles as they are based upon two dimensions):

Assimilators (or Theorists) like to learn using abstract conceptualization and reflective
observation (lecture, papers, analogies) and like to ask such questions as "How does this relate
to that?" Training approach – case studies, theory readings, and thinking alone. Their strengths
lie in their ability to create theoretical models. They tend to be less interested in people and less
concerned with practical applications of knowledge. They are often more concerned with
abstract concepts. Theorists are often found in research and planning departments. This
learning style is more characteristic of basic science and mathematics than applied sciences.

Convergers (or Pragmatists) like to learn using abstract conceptualization and active
experimentation (laboratories, field work, observations). They ask "How can I apply this in
practice?" Training approach - peer feedback; activities that apply skills; trainer is coach/helper
for a self-directed autonomous learner. The pragmatist's greatest strength is in the practical

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application of idea. They tend to be relatively unemotional. They prefer to deal with things rather
than people. They tend to have narrow technical interests and quite often choose to specialize
in the physical sciences.

Accommodators (or Activists) like to learn using concrete experience and active
experimentation (simulations, case study, homework). They tell themselves "I'm game for
anything." Training approach - practicing the skill, problem solving, small group discussions,
peer feedback; trainer should be a model of a professional, leaving the learner to determine her
own criteria for relevance of materials. Their strengths lie in doing things and involving
themselves in new experiences. They are called accommodators because they excel in
adapting to specific immediate circumstances. They tend to problems intuitively, relying on
others for information. Accommodators are often found working in marketing and sales. The
accommodator is at ease with people but is sometimes seen as impatient and pushy. This
learner's educational background is often in technical or practical fields such as business.

Divergers (or Reflectors) like to learn using reflective observation and concrete experience
(logs, journals, brainstorming). They like time to think about the subject. Training approach -
lectures with plenty of reflection time; trainer should provide expert interpretation -
taskmaster/guide; judge performance by external criteria. Their strengths lie in an imaginative
ability. They tend to be interested in people and emotional elements. People with this learning
style tend to become counselors, organizational development specialists and personnel
managers. They have broad cultural interests and tend to specialize in the arts. This style is
characterizes individuals from humanities and liberal arts backgrounds.

A reminder that we learn from all four experiences (quadrants), but one of the four is our
favorite. The ideal training environment would include each of the four processes. For example,
the cycle might begin with the learner's personal involvement through concrete experiences;
next, the learner reflects on this experience, looking for meaning; then the learner applies this
meaning to form a logical conclusion; and finally, the learner experiments with similar problems,
which result in new concrete experiences. The learning cycle might begin anew

The training activities should be flexible so that each learner could spend additional time on his
or her preferred learning style. Also, you can enter the learning cycle at any one of the four


Learning to ride a bicycle:

       Reflectors - Thinking about riding and watching another person ride a bike.
       Theorists - Understanding the theory and having a clear grasp of the biking concept.
       Pragmatists - Receiving practical tips and techniques from a biking expert.
       Activists - Leaping on the bike and have a go at it.

Learning a software program:

       Activists - Jumping in and doing it.
       Reflectors - Thinking about what you just performed.
       Theorists - Reading the manual to get a clearer grasp on what was performed.
       Pragmatists - Using the help feature to get some expert tips.

Learning to coach:

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         Pragmatists - Having a coach guide you in coaching someone else.
         Activists - Using your people skills with what you have learned to achieve your own
          coaching style.
         Reflectors - Observing how other people coach.
         Theorists - Reading articles to find out the pros and cons of different methods.

Learning algebra:

         Theorists - Listening to explanations on what it is.
         Pragmatists - Going step-by-step through an equation.
         Activists - Practicing.
         Reflectors - Recording your thoughts about algebraic equations in a learning log.

Notice that Kolb's model is actually two models in one:

A four step learning process:

          1.Watching [introvert - reflection]
          2.Thinking [mind]
          3.Feeling [emotion]
          4.Doing [extrovert - muscle]

Which then goes on to describe the four learning styles used within the learning process:


        Bernice McCartney’s
         4MAT Program is
        designed from Kolb’s

                                Grasha's Five Teaching Styles
          Anthony Grasha, Teaching with Style (Pittsburgh, PA: Alliance Publishers, 1996).

          You will need to go to the website and take the survey there. Be sure to print out the
          summary page. (underscore
          between tsyles3_instructions.html)

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Fill in your scores here

            Score                         Style                          Range
                                     Formal Authority
                                     Personal Model

Teaching Styles

Grasha identified the following five teaching styles as description of prevalent aspects of teacher
presence in the classroom.


        Possesses knowledge and expertise that students need.
        Strives to maintain status as an expert among students by displaying detailed knowledge
         and by challenging students to enhance their competence.
        Concerned with transmitting information and insuring that students are well prepared.

Advantage: The information, knowledge, and skills such individuals possess.

Disadvantage: If overused, the display of knowledge can be intimidating to less experienced
students. It may not always show the underlying thought processes that produced the answers.

Formal Authority

        Possesses status among students because of knowledge and role as a faculty member.
        Concerned with providing positive and negative feedback, establishing learning goals,
         expectations, and rules of conduct for students.
        Concerned with the correct, acceptable, and standard ways to do things and with
         providing students with the structure they need to learn.

Advantage: The focus on clear expectations and acceptable ways of doing things.

Disadvantages: A strong investment in this style can lead to rigid, standardized, and less flexible
ways of managing students and their concerns.

Personal Model

        Believes in "teaching by personal example" and establishes a prototype for how to think
         and behave.
        Oversees, guides, and directs by showing how to do things, and encouraging students to
         observe and then to emulate the instructor's approach.

Advantage: An emphasis on direct observation and following a role model.

PAGE 10 OF 26
Disadvantage: Some teachers may believe their approach is the best way leading some
students to feel inadequate if they cannot live up to such expectations and standards.


       Emphasizes the personal nature of teacher-student interactions.
       Guides and directs students by asking questions, exploring options, suggesting
        alternatives, and encouraging them to develop criteria to make informed choices.
       Overall goal is to develop in students the capacity for independent action, initiative, and
       Works with students on projects in a consultative fashion and tries to provide as much
        support and encouragement as possible.

Advantage: The personal flexibility, the focus on students' needs and goals, and the willingness
to explore options and alternative courses of action.

Disadvantage: Style is often time consuming and is sometimes employed in a positive and
affirming manner.


       Concerned with developing students' capacity to function in an autonomous fashion.
       Students work independently on projects or as part of autonomous teams.
       The teacher is available at the request of students as a resource person.

Advantage: Helps students to perceive themselves as independent learners.

Disadvantage: May misread student's readiness for independent work. Some students may
become anxious when given autonomy.

Grasha identified these five teaching styles to represent typical orientations and strategies
teachers use. He claims that these styles converge into four different clusters that, like colors on
an artist's palette, make up the characteristic ways teachers design instructional settings.

Teaching Styles Cluster 1 Summary

Cluster 1: The expert/formal authority cluster tends toward teacher-centered classrooms in
which information is presented and students receive knowledge.

Here the Expert and Formal Authority blend is dominant. My observations suggested that these
styles worked best with students who were less capable with the content and who possessed
more Dependent, Participant, and Competitive learning styles.

Cluster 1 teaching also was effective when teachers were willing to control classroom tasks.
While it might be nice to do, it did not appear necessary in most circumstances for a teacher to
devote time to building relationships with students.

Nor did they have to be overly concerned with encouraging students to build relationships with
each other. One need only observe how this teaching style is played out in large classes to
appreciate the latter point.

A Summary of the Model's Requirements

PAGE 11 OF 26
General Classroom Methods

        Traditional teacher-centered presentations and discussion techniques.

Degree of Sensitivity to Learning Styles that Teacher Needs

        (Low) As normally practiced, differences among students do not have to be considered.
        Students can be treated alike although the methods used can be enhanced if allowances
        for learning styles were made.

Capability of Students to Handle Course Demands

        (Low-Moderate) Students typically do not need to display what they know during class
        periods nor do they have to take much initiative or responsibility for obtaining
        information. Need the emotional maturity to sit quietly in class and the motivation to
        periodically ask or to answer questions. Additional knowledge and participation required
        in advanced courses.

Control of Classroom Tasks

        (Moderate-High) Works best with teachers who are willing to control the content
        presented, the flow of information, and how class time is spent.

Willingness of Teacher to Build/Maintain Relationships

        (Low) Classroom tasks do not normally demand that teachers develop relationships with
        students or help students to do so with classmates.

Teaching Styles Cluster 2 Summary

Cluster 2: The personal model/expert/formal authority cluster is a teacher-centered approach
that emphasizes modeling and demonstration. This approach encourages students to observe
processes as well as content.

The combination of the Personal Model, Expert, and Formal Authority teaching styles are
prominent. Students need to possess more knowledge than they would in a lecture class
because they will frequently have to show what they know.

The coaching of various skills and problem solving abilities characteristic of such teaching
leaves students with few opportunities to hide their ignorance. It also helps if students possess
Participant, Dependent, and Collaborative learning styles or are flexible enough to develop

Such styles work nicely in learning environments where coaching and following the examples of
role models are prominent. Teachers must have some interest in influencing how learners use
the knowledge and skills that are taught. They also must work to develop relationships.
Research shows that effective models are typically people who are liked are well-respected
(Bandura, 1986).

A Summary of the Model's Requirements

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General Classroom Methods

        Role modeling and coaching/guiding students on developing and applying skills and

Degree of Sensitivity to Learning Styles that Teacher Needs

        (Moderate-High) Must know how to teach students who possess different styles and be
        able to encourage Participant, Dependent and Collaborative Learning Styles.

Capability of Students to Handle Course Demands

        (Moderate) Needs adequate knowledge and skill, must take initiative and accept
        responsibility for obtaining what they need to learn. Needs emotional maturity to handle
        feedback and must have the motivation to improve.

Control of Classroom Tasks

        (Moderate) Important for teacher to periodically empower learners to show what they
        can do.

Willingness of Teacher to Build/Maintain Relationships:

        (Moderate-High) Effective models are liked and respected by students.

Teaching Styles Cluster 3 Summary

Cluster 3: The facilitator/personal model/expert cluster is a student-centered model for the
classroom. Teachers design activities, social interactions, or problem-solving situations that
allow students to practice the processes for applying course content.

The blend of Facilitator, Personal Model, and Expert in this cluster provides a good match to
students who have more Collaborative, Participant, and Independent styles as learners. In
addition to possessing or being willing to acquire appropriate content, students also need to be
willing to take initiative and to accept responsibility for meeting the demands of various learning

Teachers must exercise some control over the processes used in order to facilitate learning. But
they should be less interested in controlling the specific details of the content student acquire.
Some of what students will learn about the material in this mode of teaching cannot be
programmed in advance.

Similarly, there should be more interest in developing and practicing other skills (e.g., ability to
work with others) and a broader range of content related skills (e.g., critical and creative
thinking). Developing and maintaining a professionally friendly and warm relationship with
students is helpful.

A Summary of the Model's Requirements

General Classroom Methods

PAGE 13 OF 26
        Collaborative learning and other student-centered learning processes consistently
        emphasized in a course.

Degree of Sensitivity to Learning Styles that Teacher Needs

        (Moderate-High) Teacher often consults with students, processes the outcomes of group
        work, and suggests alternative approaches to handling issues. Collaborative, Participant,
        and Independent styles work best and teacher must be able to encourage their

Capability of Students to Handle Course Demands

        (Moderate) Need adequate levels of knowledge, initiative, and a willingness to accept
        responsibility for learning. Students must have enough emotional maturity and
        motivation to work with others on tasks.

Control of Classroom Tasks

        (Low-Moderate) Teacher to get tasks going and then turns the processes of running
        them over to students. Even when the teacher is more center stage (e.g., when
        processing a group task or case study), emphasis is on listening to student ideas,
        facilitating a discussion, and clarifying ideas.

Willingness of Teacher to Build/Maintain Relationships

        (Moderate-High) Good relationships facilitate the teacher's role as a consultant and
        make students more willing to share their ideas.

Teaching Styles Cluster 4 Summary

Cluster 4: The delegator/facilitator/expert cluster places much of the learning burden on the
students. Teachers provide complex tasks that require student initiative, and often group work,
to complete.

This combination of the Delegator, Facilitator, and Expert modes of teaching works best when
students have appropriate levels of knowledge and possess Independent, Collaborative, and
Participant learning styles. Their capabilities also must include a willingness to take initiative and
to accept more responsibility for their own learning.

To use the highly student-centered teaching methods of Cluster 4 or the independent study
processes means that teachers must be willing to give up direct control over how learners
engage various tasks and their outcomes. An independent study or collaborative project, for
example, would be lass interesting if the teacher planned every detail and the outcomes were
highly predictable.

Teachers must be willing to "empower" students and to develop rapport with them. The
instructor must be viewed as approachable in order to consult effectively with students and to
act as a resource person. Good working relationships among students, however, have to be
something they rarely work on themselves in the context of their tasks.

A Summary of the Model's Requirements

PAGE 14 OF 26
General Classroom Methods

        Emphasis on independent learning activities for groups and individuals.

Degree of Sensitivity to Learning Style that Teacher Needs

        (Moderate-High) Teacher acts as a consultant and resource person for students. Must
        know how to emphasize and to help students adopt Independent, Collaborative, and
        Participant styles.

Capability of Students to Handle Course Demands

        (High) Students need proficient levels of knowledge and skill, and must take initiative
        and accept responsibility for their learning. Need emotional maturity to work alone and
        with others and the motivation to succeed when asked to work independently.

Control of Classroom Tasks

        (Low) Important for teacher to move into the background and serve as a consultant and
        resource person.

Willingness of Teacher to Build/Maintain Relationships

        (Low-Moderate) Students must manage their own interpersonal processes in groups.
        Good communication needed when consulting with students.

For Grasha there are a number of factors which influence which cluster will be appropriate in
"painting" the classroom environment. The teacher's response to student learning styles, the
students‟ capabilities to handle course demands, their need for teacher to directly control
classroom tasks, and their willingness to build/maintain relationships are important elements in
determining what teaching style will be adopted in a classroom

                             Blake and Mouton Leadership Survey

Below is a list of statements about leadership behavior. Read each one carefully, then, using
the following scale, decide the extent to which it actually applies to you. For best results, answer
as truthfully as possible.

                Never                       Sometimes                           Always
       0                1               2                 3                4                5

1._______ I encourage my team to participate when it comes decision making time and I try to
      implement their ideas and suggestions.

2._______ Nothing is more important than accomplishing a goal or task.

3._______ I closely monitor the schedule to ensure a task or project will be completed in time.

4._______ I enjoy coaching people on new tasks and procedures.

PAGE 15 OF 26
5._______ The more challenging a task is, the more I enjoy it.

6._______ I encourage my employees to be creative about their job.

7._______ When seeing a complex task through to completion, I ensure that every detail is
          accounted for.

8._______ I find it easy to carry out several complicated tasks at the same time.

9._______ I enjoy reading articles, books, and journals about training, leadership, and
          psychology; and then putting what I have read into action.

10._______ When correcting mistakes, I do not worry about jeopardizing relationships.

11._______ I manage my time very efficiently.

12._______ I enjoy explaining the intricacies and details of a complex task or project to my

13._______ Breaking large projects into small manageable tasks is second nature to me.

14._______ Nothing is more important than building a great team.

15._______ I enjoy analyzing problems.

16._______ I honor other people's boundaries.

17._______ Counseling my employees to improve their performance or behavior is second
            nature to me.

18._______ I enjoy reading articles, books, and trade journals about my profession; and then
              implementing the new procedures I have learned.

                                         Scoring Section

           After completing the questioner, transfer your answers to the spaces below:

                      People                                             Task
                1                                                  2
                4                                                  3
                6                                                  5
                9                                                  7
               10                                                  8
               12                                                 11
               14                                                 13
               16                                                 15
               17                                                 18
           Total of √                                         Total of √
 Total X 0.2 (multiple the Total                    Total X 0.2 (multiple the Total
 by 0.2 to get your final score)                    by 0.2 to get your final score)

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                                      Matrixing the Results

Plot your final scores on the graph below by drawing a horizontal line from the approximate
people score (vertical axis) to the right of the matrix, and drawing a vertical line from the
approximate task score on the horizontal axis to the top of the matrix. Then, draw two lines
from each dot until they intersect. The area of intersection is the leadership dimension that you
operate out of.


                                            Organization Man

The above sample shows score of 4 in the people section and a score of 6 in the task section.
The quad where the two lines intersect is the leadership style, in this case -- Authoritarian

                                            Organization Man

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                                          The Results

This chart will give you an idea of your leadership style. But, like any other instrument that
attempts to profile a person, you have to take in other factors, such as, how does your
supervisor or students rate you as a leader, do you get your job done, do you take care of your
students, are your GROWING your organization, etc.

You should review the statements in the survey and reflect on the low scores by asking yourself,
"If I scored higher in that area, would I be a more effective leader?" And if the answer is yes,
then it should become a personal action item.


Blake and Mouton‟s (1964) 'managerial grid' is probably the best known of the behavioral
theories of leadership. Robert Blake & Jane Mouton developed a two dimensional model to
depict five major leadership styles each of which represents the two distinct elements “Concern
for people” and “Concern for production.” They plotted these two dimensions to arrive at five
leadership styles corresponding to the four corners and the center-point of the resulting grid.

The scores for the two dimensions intersect (i.e. 4,4). Based on where they intersect there are
five leadership types. Intersections closest to the one listed here are the most descriptive of
your leadership style.

9,1 Country Club
Attention to needs of people-friendly organization and work environment. Operating efficiency
through controls.

1,1 Impoverished
Minimum effort to get required work done and sustain organization. Little concern for either
people or production.

1,9 Authoritarian
Arranging work in such a way that human element interfere to a minimum degree. Leader is
thoughtful, comfortable, and friendly with little concern for output.

5,5 Organization Man
Balancing style to get out work and maintain morale. A balanced approach - concern for work in
exchange for satisfactory level of morale.

9,9 Team Leader
Interdependence through a “common stake” in organization. High output through committed
people, achieved through trust, respect, and interdependence.

Blake & Mouton concluded that the first four styles are not the most effective. They argue
that the 9.9 management style is the most effective type of leadership behavior. This approach
will generally result in improved performance, low absenteeism and turnover and high employee

                                      People and Mission

Some may ask, "In order to get a perfect score I would have to max out statements 2 (Nothing is
more important than accomplishing a goal or task) and 14 (Nothing is more important than

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building a great team), but this would be a paradox." One of the mottos of the U.S. Army is
"People and mission first." That is, nothing is more important than accomplishing the mission
and nothing is more important than looking out for the welfare of the people. A good leader can
do both!

                                    Relationships with Others

For statement 10 - "When correcting mistakes, I do not worry about jeopardizing relationships,"
some people might believe that a "people-person" would put a low score to this question. They
might believe that a "people-oriented" person would not want to jeopardize a relationship.
But, if a teacher really cared about the student, would the relationship (being friends) be more
important or would guiding the person on to the correct behavior be more important? Lets put it
in a "leader-teacher" relationship - If you did not correct your learner's mistakes, would that
make you a more "people" teacher? Probably not. Good leaders do what it takes to build and
develop the people around them. The "relationship" is not what makes them tick...guiding others
onto greatness is what a "people" leader is all about.

This question helps to separate the "country club leaders" who want to be friends with everyone;
the "impoverish leaders" who are afraid they might make waves; and the real "people leaders"
who are more concerned with coaching others so that they benefit the team. That is, if the
leader lets one of her peers continue with the incorrect behavior, does this help or hinder the
other members of the team? It is best not to picture a "people" leader as a friend, but as a
person who concerned with the growth and welfare of others.

Instead of presenting a teacher with a dilemma of choosing one or the other alternative, it shows
how a leader can simultaneously maximize both production oriented methods and those that are
people orientated.

                                       JOHARI WINDOW
                                  Joseph Luft and Harry Ingham

           1. Read each numbered item carefully.
           2. Read the statements marked "A" and "B."
           3. Assign a point value to the A and B statements as follows:
           The total point value for A and B together is five (5) .If statement A is most similar to
           what you would do, mark 5 for A and 0 for B. If A is not wholly satisfactory, but in
           your judgment better than B, mark 4 or 3 for A and 1 or 2 for B. The converse is true.
           If B is best mark 5 for B and 0 for A and so on.

1. If a friend of mine had a "personality conflict" with a mutual acquaintance of ours with whom it
was important for him/her to get along, I would:
_______A. Tell my friend that I felt s/he was partially responsible for any problems with this
other person and try to let him/her know how the person was being affected by him/her.
_______B. Not get involved because I wouldn't be able to continue to get along with both of
them once I had entered in any way.

2. If one of my friends and I had a heated argument in the past and I realized that s/he was ill at
ease around me from that time on, I would:
_______A. Avoid making things worse by discussing his/her behavior and just let the whole
thing drop.

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_______B. Bring up his/her behavior and ask him/her how s/he felt the argument had affected
our relationship.

3. If a friend began to avoid me and act in an aloof and withdrawn manner, I would:
_______A. Tell him/her about his/her behavior and suggest that s/he tell me what was on
his/her mind.
_______B. Follow his/her lead and keep our contact brief and aloof since that seems to be what
s/he wants.

4. If two of my friends and I were talking and one of my friends slipped and brought up a
personal problem of mine that involved the other friend, of which s/he was not yet aware, I
_______A. Change the subject and signal my friend to do the same.
_______B. Fill my uniformed friend in on what the other friend was talking about and suggest
that we go into it later.

5. If a friend of mine were to tell me that, in his/her opinion, I was doing things that made me
less effective than I might be in social situations, I would:
_______A. Ask him/her to spell out or describe what s/he has observed and suggest changes I
might make.
_______B. Resent his/her criticism and let him/her know why I behave the way I do.

6. If one of my friends aspired to an office in our organization for which I felt s/he was
unqualified, and if s/he had been tentatively assigned to that position by the leader of our group,
I would:
_______A. Not mention my misgivings to either my friend or the leader of our group and let
them handle it in their own way.
_______B. Tell my friend and the leader of our group of my misgivings and then leave the final
decision up to them.

7. If I felt that one of my friends was being unfair to me and his/her other friends, but none of
them had mentioned anything about it, I would:
_______A. Ask several of these people how they perceived the situation to see if they felt s/he
was being unfair.
_______B. Not ask the others how they perceived our friend, but wait for them to bring it up with

8. If I were preoccupied with some personal matters and a friend told me that I had become
irritated with him/her and others and that I was jumping on him/her for unimportant things, I
_______A. Tell him/her I was preoccupied and would probably be on edge for a while and
would prefer not to be bothered.
_______B. Listen to his/her complaints but not try to explain my actions to him/her.

9. If I had heard some friends discussing an ugly rumor about a friend of mine which I knew
could hurt him/her and s/he asked me what I knew about it, if anything, I would:
_______A. Say I didn't know anything about it and tell him/her no one would believe a rumor
like that anyway.
_______B. Tell him/her exactly what I had heard, when I had heard it, and from whom I had
heard it.

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10. If a friend pointed out the fact that I had a personality conflict with another friend with whom
it was important for me to get along, I would:
_______A. Consider his/her comments out of line and tell him/her I didn't want to discuss the
matter any further.
_______B. Talk about it openly with him/her to find out how my behavior was being affected by

11. If my relationship with a friend has been damaged by repeated arguments on an issue of
importance to us both, I would:
_______A. Be cautious in my conversations with him/her so the issue would not come up again
to worsen our relationship.
_______B. Point to the problems the controversy was causing in our relationship and suggest
that we discuss it until we get it resolved.

12. If in a personal discussion with a friend about his/her problems and behavior s/he suddenly
suggested we discuss my problems and behavior as well as his/her own, I would:
_______A. Try to keep the discussion away from me by suggesting that other, closer friends
often talked to me about such matters.
_______B. Welcome the opportunity to hear what s/he felt about me and encourage his/her

13. If a friend of mine began to tell me about his/her hostile feelings about another friend whom
s/he felt was being unkind to others (and I agreed wholeheartedly), I would:
_______A. Listen and also express my own feelings to me/her so s/he would know where I
_______B. Listen, but not express my own negative views and opinion because s/he might
repeat what I said to him/her in confidence.

14. If I thought an ugly rumor was being spread about me and suspected that one of my friends
had quite likely heard it, I would:
_______A. Avoid mentioning the issue and leave it to him/her to tell me about it if s/he wanted
_______B. Risk putting him/her on the spot by asking him/her directly what s/he knew about the
whole thing.

15. If I had observed a friend in social situations and thought that s/he was doing a number of
things which hurt his/her relationships, I would:
_______A. Risk being seen as a busy body and tell him/her what I had observed and my
reactions to it.
_______B. Keep my opinion to myself rather than be seen as interfering in things that are none
of my business.

16. If two friends and I were talking and one of them inadvertently mentioned a personal
problem which involved me, but of which I knew nothing, I would:
_______A. Press them for information about the problem and their opinions about it.
_______B. Leave it up to my friends to tell me or not tell me, letting them change the subject if
they wished.

17. If a friend seemed to be preoccupied and began to jump on me for seemingly unimportant
things, and to come irritated with me and others without real cause, I would:
_______A. Treat him/her with kid gloves for awhile on the assumption that s/he was having
some temporary personal problems which were none of my business.

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_______B. Try to talk to him/her about it and point out to him/her how his/her behavior was
affecting people.

18. If I had begun to dislike certain habits of a friend to the point that it was interfering with my
enjoying his/her company, I would:
_______A. Say nothing to him/her directly, but let him/her know my feelings by ignoring him/her
whenever his/her annoying habits were obvious.
   _______B. Get my feelings out in the open and clear the air so that we could continue our
friendship comfortably and enjoyably.

19. In discussing social behavior with one of my more sensitive friends, I would:
_______A. Avoid mentioning his/her flaws and weaknesses so as not to hurt his/her feelings.
_______B. Focus on his/her flaws and weaknesses so s/he could improve his/her interpersonal

20. If I knew I might be assigned to an important position in our group and my friends' attitudes
toward me had become rather negative, I would:
_______A. Discuss my shortcomings with my friends so I could see where to improve.
_______B. Try to figure out my own shortcomings by myself so I could improve.


         Solicits Feedback/Willingness                       Self Disclose/Gives Feedback
          2B                                                   1A
          3A                                                   4B
          5A                                                   6B
          7A                                                   9B
          8B                                                  11B
         10B                                                  13A
         12B                                                  15A
         14B                                                  17B
         16A                                                  18B
         20A                                                  19B
         Total                                               Total

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      Plot your Scores: Solicits Score Goes on the Top Axis (Draw line from top to bottom),
                 Self-Disclosure Goes on Side Axis (Draw line from side to side)
     (Dotted line example of 30, 35) Area under the largest “pane” is indicative of your style.
                              Largest area in example here is Open.

     0          5    10          15     20        25        30        35       40       45        50


                          Open                                        Blind





                      Facade                                        Unknown


     0          5    10          15     20        25        30        35       40       45        50


The Johari Window, named after the first names of its inventors, Joseph Luft and Harry
Ingham, is useful model for describing the process of human interaction. A four paned "window,"
divides personal awareness into four different types, as represented by its four quadrants: open,
hidden, blind, and unknown. The lines dividing the four panes can move as an interaction
progresses so what is revealed, hidden or seen will vary according to the dimension of the pane
at that time.

What we must realize is that the preferred configuration of the panes varies from person to
person and from situation to situation.

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This pane represents free and open exchange of information between the individual and others.

What is revealed in it is public behavior which is available to everyone. The pane increases in
size as the level of trust increases between the individuals involved as more information -
particularly personally relevant information - is shared. What is made available and shared is
personally relevant information that each party finds useful. The window has two-way glass.
There is open exchange of facts, feelings and opinions between two people communicating
through this pane.

Ideally when we are dealing with other people there is an equally open interaction, where the
two public selves are revealed. If you are dealing with someone who has a small public pane
then you are likely to become confused about the mutuality of the relationship.

The size of the open pane is determined by the cultural context in which we are operating. With
superiors, we will have a different type of behavior than when we are with friends or family. But
we can imply openness in some situations by having the behaviors that are consistent with open

The Open/Public Arena relates to things known to myself and others. For example, a person‟s
height, eye color and occupation all fall under the open area. The more you know about
yourself and the more you reveal to others, the larger your open arena. Communication is
open, with minimal defensiveness.


                             Aware                          Unaware
                                                           Blind spot              Moves down
        Aware         Open/Public Arena
                                                      (Bull in China Shop)


                           Façade or
       Unaware                                           Unknown Self
                          Private Self

                                    Feedback Moves Across

BLIND SELF or the Bull in a China Shop

As you work with others, you communicate all kinds of information of which you are unaware,
but others pick up. This is done by verbal cues, mannerisms, the way you say things or the style
in which you relate to others.

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The extent to which you are insensitive to much of your own behavior and what it may
communicate to others can be surprising and disconcerting. For example a person may talk
incessantly about themselves or demand that everyone does something in a particular way.

The blind spot produces "bull-in-a-china shop" behaviors which others find it hard to react to and
are hurt or irritated/agitated by. Precisely what aggravates will depend upon their overall attitude
towards you and their capacity for accommodating your behavior (their tolerance and flexibility).

If people like you they are likely to accept some of your more clumsy behavior. But if people are
under stress they are more likely to focus on the things that we say or does that irritate them.

If they have no affection they distance themselves. Your blind-spot behaviors may be irritants.
You rub them up the wrong way. In a working relationship low affection/esteem for the other and
blind-spot behaviors are a recipe for interpersonal conflict.

Ideally we should be self assessing and check which of our behaviors we might change in order
to achieve better results when dealing with other people.

The blind spot is the window showing things other people know about me, but which I don‟t
know about myself; it is sometimes called the “spinach in the tooth” or “bad breath” window.
Also included here may be such things as physical mannerisms and certain personality
characteristics. (for example, a person who gets angry quite easily but sees him/herself as a
calm individual).

PRIVATE SELF or the Facade

For one reason or another we want to keep this information hidden.

We fear that we would risk too much, exposing those factors which act as source of our
influences/demands and uncertainty. We may develop a facade" because we do not fell
supported at home or at work and we want to protect ourselves from criticism or exposure.

We may keep information secret to support and protect others, to control a situation. Non-
disclosure can be tactically helpful. Tact, diplomacy or even smoldering resentment may feature
with the private self. Keeping your views to yourself with no hint of how you feel about the other
party can be useful behavior. Privacy may protect you and others. The private self is controlled.
Uncontrolled leaks may be untimely or hurtful. It may be irrelevant to reveal content from the
private self even in a trust relationship.

Some times we reveal our private self through leakage. Leakage is when you show your views
inadvertently through gesture expression or non-verbal aspects of communication such as tone
or register. It is possible to disclose your feelings and then you have moved into the public
arena. This may have challenges which you have to address as you have to deal with the
other's response as they deal with the nature of the disclosure. If you decide to move into the
public arena you must ask whether the other person is ready and able to receive such feedback
If they are not then the resulting conflict needs to be managed.

The façade or hidden area relates to things I know about myself, but other people don‟t know,
which means I wish to keep them hidden; this is the “skeleton in the closet” window. It has to do
with our personal, private self, and includes our opinions, attitudes and biases. How much we
keep hidden depends on how close we are to another person; we usually reveal more about

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ourselves to people we trust. Included in the façade window may be such things as previous
bad school or work

Experiences, unwanted personality traits, and negative reactions towards another person. A
variation of this façade is the false façade. This relates to things I think are hidden from the
other person but which really are not. For example, I may dislike another person, yet try to be
nice; however, (s) he sees through my false façade and detects the underlying hostility.


What affects me and us may be below the surface of awareness of both parties.

Early childhood experiences may give rise to aversions learned through experience. We may
have unrecognized resources and traits which are based on these. We all have these
dimensions and most of us do not want them exposed. Sometimes people in a quest to better
understand this dimension undergo various forms of therapy or counseling to deal with what
they see as being problems based in this zone of their personality.

The final window is called unknown because it relates to things neither I nor the other person
know about me - things which are usually hidden in the unconscious. We know the
unconscious exists because we occasionally act out certain behaviors and have trouble tracing
back the reasons for them.


As we self-disclose, Area I (the Arena) extends into Area III (the facade). As we gain feedback
about how others perceive us, Area I extends into Area II (the blind spot). Often by enlarging
both these areas, Area I can extend into Area IV (the unknown). Change in the blind and hidden
areas is possible through revelation and feedback.

And so….

What have you learned about yourself that you think may effect how you structure and teach the

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