3.4 Tabernacle: Exod 25-31, 35-40 APTS-BOT620 Introduction • Two Problems: 1. Many different terms to describe the Tabernacle: 1.1 vdqm = Sanctuary 1.2 d[m lha = Tent of Meeting 1.3 lhah = The Tent; hwhy lhah = The Tent of YHWH 1.4 !kvm = Tabernacle 1.5 twd[h ~kvm = Tabernacle of the Testimony Introduction 2. Two different locations in relationship to the camp with implied differences of function and theology. 2.1 “in the midst of the camp of Israel” (Exod 25.8; 29.42-46) 2.2 “outside of the camp” The Tent of Meeting The Tent of Meeting 1 The Tent of Meeting = d[m lha 1.1 The name: 1.1.1 The “tent of meeting” or “reunion” 1.1.2 d[m = means “the date of an appointed meeting.” 2. Basic Texts: 2.1 Exodus 33.7-11 2.2 Num 11.24-30 2.3 Num 12 2.4 Deut 31.14-23 The Tent of Meeting 3. The Theology of the Tent of Meeting 3.1 A Prophetic Institution 3.2 Oracular Institution 3.3 Political Institution The Tabernacle The Tabernacle 1. Introduction: 1.1 Tent type object which was not meant to last. 1.2 Ex 25-31 and parallel is very complex syntactically. 1.3 The use of technical language which is difficult to understand. Note especially Haran's many discussion in Temples and Temple Service in Ancient Israel. 1.4 One is never meant to forget the portability of the Tabernacle. 2. Construction 2. The Tent: 2.1 General size: 30 cu. by 10 cu. by 10 by. This brakes down into two segments, with the Holy of Holies being a perfect cube of 10 cu. 2.2 Cherubim Curtains: Ex 26.1-6 = Violet, purple, scarlet with cherubim: 28X4 cu. with two series of 5 panels joined by 50 loops by gold clasps (note that the text does not say the usual “pure gold” used for those things that are in the tabernacle). 2.3 Goat's Hair Curtain: Ex 26.7-13 = 30X4 cu. with a total of 11 panels rather than the 10 of the Cherubim. However the same 50 loops but it uses bronze clasps. 2. Construction 2.4 Ram's Skin and Dugong (~yvix'T.): Ex 26.14 = “Each one of them serves a different purpose. Ezekiel mentions both the vve and vx;T; as examples of expensive products in relation to what common people were used to (Eze 16.10). From him we infer that the first was used for wrapping up a head-dress, while with the second sandals were prepared. Similarly the linen is used for hangings in the tabernacle (and the priests use it for clothes), while the skins, being more hard-wearing, are placed on the roof, to act as a covering to the part most exposed to the elements.” [Haran, Temples and Temple Service in Ancient Israel, 163] 2. Construction 2.5 Boards: Ex 26.15-30 (kereshin) 2.5.1 10cu. high, 1 1/2cu. wide; 46 frames; 20X20X6; gold plated; 15 bars for each side with the middle going through; the frames where placed in bases two per frame. 2.5.2 How were these structured? If solid, could they be carried at all? Note the A.R.S. Kennedy's reconstruction in Cross, p. 55, 57. 2. Construction 2.6 Curtains: Ex 26.31-37 2.6.1 Blue, purple, crimson with cherubim to separate Holies of Holies from the Holy place. The description centers on the Ark > Kapporet. 2.6.2 Entrance of tabernacle curtain is similar in material but without cherubim and seems to be made differently. The four entrance pillars mentioned at the same time. 2. Construction 2.7 Court of Tabernacle: Ex 27.9-19 2.7.1 And enclosure of 100X50 cu. 2.7.2 Utilized 5 curtain hangings, 5 cu. high, hook were used to attach it to the 60 pillars with silver clap tops. The front of the curtain hanging was facing the east and was 20 cu. with a multi-colored screen. 2. The Tent • General size: 30 cu. by 10 cu. by 10 by. This brakes down into two segments, with the Holy of Holies being a perfect cube of 10 cu. 2. The Tent 2.2 Cherubim Curtains: Ex 26.1-6 2. The Tent 2. The Tent 2.3 Goat's Hair Curtain: Ex 26.7-13 = 30X4 cu. 2. The Tent • 2.4 Ram's Skin and Dugong: Ex 26.14 2. The Tent • 2.5 Boards: Ex 26.15-30 (kereshin) 2. The Tent • 2.6 Curtains: Ex 26.31- 37 2. The Tent 2.7 Court of Tabernacle: Ex 27.9-19 3. The Theology of the Tabernacle 1. A portable sanctuary of the Presence of the God of Sinai. 2. It is where God dwells in the midst of Israel, esp. their camp. 3. The fact that it was made from a divine pattern is important. (Ex 25.9) 4. The tablets of the Decalogue is placed within the Tabernacle: Tent > Most Holy Place > in Ark > under Kapporeth. 5. The constant reminder of the Holiness of God. The fact that the structures are graded by materials used, by local to the Ark and Kapporeth, and function. Note the description of Ezekiel's Temple verses the Solomonic and Second Temple! 3. The Theology of the Tabernacle 6. The Tabernacle was commanded by God and carried out by a freewill offering (Ex 25.1-9). 7. The detailed recording of the obedience of Moses and the people are crucial. The whole point of the repetition of Ex 25-31 in 35-40 finds it meaning here. 8. The special gifting of Bezael and Oholiab (Ex 31.1- 11 / 36.1-7). 9. The apostasy of Ex 32 is significant for understanding that the institution and the people that service in it are different. The failings of humans cause defilement and the presence of God in the midst of the peoples is threaten, however the purity of the institution does not come from the cult 3. The Theology of the Tabernacle functionaries. It comes from the God who commanded the institution. 10. The conclusion of Ex 40 with the coming of the ka4bo=d of YHWH caps the whole narrative. And sets the stage for the continued story of Israel in the wilderness. 4. The Priestly Theology of the Tabernacle 1. Reconciliation: 1.1 God's existence in the midst of the people is based upon the establishment of a proper relationship with God. 1.2 The role of the Decalogue is important, since it is ultimately the object in the center-stage. (Ark as box) 1.3 Also the Kapporeth as the location of God's meeting with Israel is important as the alternative to a one-sided torah alone view. 1.4 The altar as central in the fore-grounds places the discussion in sacrificial terms. Significant here is not only the descriptive texts of Lev 1-7, Num 19, but also the Feasts of Israel. 4. The Priestly Theology of the Tabernacle 2. Holiness: 2.1 The gradation of locations, materials, functions are significant for the priestly idea of holiness. Douglas' idea of abnormal/normal works in parallel here. 2.2 For a Holy God to dwell with people, there is a demand of holiness. The theology of priestly consecration in Lev 8-10 is rewarding for the perspectives of holiness and God's people, but the texts of Lev 11-16 and the Holiness Codes of Lev 17-27 places the onus on the people themselves. 4. The Priestly Theology of the Tabernacle 3. The Moveable Presence: 3.1 The contrast with the normal ANE religions at this time point to the Nomadic origins. [Note however Haran's argument of the tabernacle and its origins at Shiloh!] 3.2. The moveable Presence parallels the theme of God's guidance and leadership of his people in the wilderness, and exile. Reconstructed Pictures The Ark and the Cherubim The Ark and Egypt Cherubim & the Ancient Near East Cherubim as Thrones Kapporeth 1. Terms 1. !Ara' 1.1 In Gen 50.26 it was the term for Joseph's coffin. 1.2 In 2 Kgs 12.10-11; 2 Chr 24.8-11 it was Jehoiada's money receptacle. 1.3 In the remaining 195X !Ara' refers to the cultic object, the ark. 1.4 Names range from: Ark=X58; Ark of God=X37; Ark of the God of Israel=X7; Ark of Yahweh=X38; Ark of the Covenant=X40; Ark of the Testimony=X12; The Holy Ark=X1; The Ark your strength=X2. 1. Terms 2. kibwto,j 2.1 Heb 9.4; Rev 11.19 2.1 It is also used to the translate Noah's ark in Gen 6.14ff, however the MT uses the specialized term hb'Te. 2. The Ark as a Box 1. Deut 10.1-5: Holder for the Ten Commandment tablets: made of acacia wood 2. Deut 31.24-26: “the book of this torah” placed inside; The Levites are to carry it (v25) like: Num 3.31; 4.5-6; 1 Chr 15.2-10, 14-15, 26; Judg 3-4 3. Ex 25.10-22; 37.1-9: Covenant; God's presence; God's direction 3.1 Ex 25.10; 37.1: Made of Acacia wood; Size: 2.5 cubits long; 1.5 cubits wide; 1.5 cubits deep. 3.2 Ex 25.11; 37.2: “gold inside and out”; “molding of gold” 2. The Ark as a Box 4. Ex 25.12-15; 37.3-7: 4.1 Rings, poles, place in to carry the Ark. 4.2 Ex 25.15: "The poles shall remain in the rings of the ark; they shall not be taken from it." 4.3 1 Kgs 8.8: "The poles where so long that the ends of the poles were seen from the holy place in front of the inner sanctuary; but they could not be seen from outside; they are there to this day.“ 5. Ex 25.16: "You shall put into the ark of the covenant that I shall give you." 6. Exod 25.20: 3. The Ark as a War Palladium 1. Waring in the Wilderness: 1.1 Num 10.35-36 "Arise, O Lord, let your enemies be scattered, and your foes flee before you" "Return, O Lord of the ten thousands of Israel." 1.1.1 Considered problematic by the Masoretes because it is bracketed by the inverted n. 1.1.2 F.M.Cross considered it "holy war ideology." 1.1.3 S. Terrien argues that it was a quote from the Scroll of the Wars of Yahweh. Note that ~wq is often associated with war settings: Judg 7.9, 15; 18.9; Ps 7.7; 44.25. 1.1.4 Divine Warrior Motif: – Ps 68.1, 7-8, 11-12, 17-18 [n.b. the processional in vv24ff] – Judg 5.4-5; Deut 32.2-3 (Ps 68.18); Hab 3.3-6. 3. The Ark as a War Palladium 1. Waring in the Wilderness: 1.2 Num 14.40-45 1.2.1 Note the context is God's judgment for not trusting. Here they now want to go, but without God's leading. 1.2.2 This is symbolized by the fact that both the Ark and Moses did not go (14.44). 1.2.3 Important is the fact that the Ark becomes paralleled to the presence of God in battle. This makes this cult object the same as the phrase, "The battle is the LORD's"! 3. The Ark as a War Palladium 2. The Conquest Narratives: 2.1 Jos 3-4 Crossing the Jordan: 2.1.1 !wra used X15 in these two chapters. [Jordan=X24] 2.1.2 "When you see...you shall set out from your place." 2.1.3 God's presence in guiding and leading. 2.1.4 The form seems to almost a processional. 3. The Ark as a War Palladium 2. The Conquest Narratives: 2.2 Jos 6 The Collapse of Jericho: 2.2.1 !wra is used X9, along with trumpet as key. 2.2.2 Ritual marching with a strong "Holy War Ideology." 2.2.3 Note that the Ark is not mentioned in the Ai first attempt (7.1-5). It is only after words that Joshua falls down before it (7.6)! 2.3 Jos 8.30-35 An Oath: 2.3.1 The writing and reading of the Law establish a covenant people. Note Israel, women, little ones and aliens who resided with them (8.35b). 2.3.2 The Ark is stationed in the middle and represents God's presence. 3. The Ark as a War Palladium 3. Pre-monarchical War Palladium? • 1 Sam 4.1-7.2 Not a magical toy! 3.1 !wra mentioned X31. 3.2 Miller and Roberts argue that the text is paralleled by the ancient Near Eastern idea concerning the capture and return of a god(s) in a battle context. Therefore, the theological center is the "burning issue" of a Philistine victory and Yahweh's role in this historical setting. The victory over Dagon in 1 Sam 5.2-4 and the subsequent return of the Ark establishes a theodicy. 3.3 4.21 = Crucial in terms of the role of the Ark is the name Ichabod. McCarter explains the name as Where is (the) glory? or Alas (for the) glory? 3.4 Note the connection of dbk with Akkadian melammu and puluhtu as Cross puts it, "the refulgent and radiant aureole which surround the deity in his manifestation or theophanies." 4. The Kapporeth - tr,PoK; 1. Exod 25.17-22; 37.6-9 1.1 The meaning of Kapporeth: 1.1.1 The meaning of the kapporeth is debated. Zobel indicates that Herrrmann, von Rad, and Weiser have adopted the rendering, cover plate. This seems to be derived from the Arabic kafara, to cover, i.e., lid, cover. G.J. Wenham comments concerning this etymology, "the plausibility of this etymology depends on kipper meaning to cover sin. If this is rejected, it seems unlikely that kapporet means merely lid. It functioned as a lid for the Ark, but it was much more. It was the place where God's glory appeared and where atonement was made once a year. Note the communication indicated in Ex 25.22. 4. The Kapporeth - tr,PoK; 1.1.2 The Greek rendering, hilasterion (propitiation) may possibly reflect the root kipper to make atonement, yet one wonders if this is not too strongly influenced by Lev 16. 1.1.3 Recently Gorg has argued that kapporeth goes back to the Egyptian kp (n) rdwj, meaning sole of the foot or footplate. 1.2 Size & Material: 1.2.1 Ex 25.17; 37.6 = 2.5 cubits by 1.5; made of pure gold. 1.2.2 rwhj hbz = emphasizes it importance. 4. The Kapporeth - tr,PoK; 1.3 Cherubim: 25.18-20; 37.7-9 1.3.1 Guardian angels of God's presence...note 25.22: Also Gen 3.24; Ezek 41.17-20. 1.3.2 The priestly cherubim are described as having their wings spread upward, covering the kapporeth, while at the same time having their faces directed at each other. 1.4 Leviticus 16 and the Day of Atonement: 1.4.1 Lev 16.2: 22.214.171.124 Prohibition of entering anytime, or else death. 126.96.36.199 Because = "for I appear in the cloud upon the mercy seat." 4. The Kapporeth - tr,PoK; 1.4.2 Lev 16.11-14: 188.8.131.52 v11 mentions "shall make atonement." 184.108.40.206 While the complex "sprinkling" is indicated in v14, and v15. The sprinkling idea is found in Lev 4 where it is used for purification, although here the location is different. Num 19 also contains a sprinkling idea that suggests making one who is defiled, pure. 220.127.116.11 Lev 16.20 indicates a general atoning of the holy place and tent of meeting and altar.... 18.104.22.168 Noteworthy is the kapporeth being identified with the covenant in 16.13. 5. A Throne & A Footstool 1. The Ark of the Covenant of the LORD of hosts, who is enthroned on the cherubim: 1.1 Shiloh and twabc hwhy: 1 Sam 4.4 1.2 2 Sam 6.2, 18; 7.8, 26, 27 1.3 Ps 24.7-10 2. A Cherubim Throne and a Ark as footstool: 2.1 1 Kgs 8.1-13 2.1.1 Cherubim = 1 Kgs 6.23-28 2.1.2 1 Kgs 8.6-8: Ark under Cherubim; poles seen in adjoining room. 2.2 Isaiah 6.1-3 5. A Throne & A Footstool 2.3 1 Chr 28.2 "for the ark of the covenant of the Lord, for the footstool of God"; Ps 132.7"Let us go to his dwelling place; let us worship at his footstool." 2.4 But note: Isa 66.1 "Heaven is my throne and the earth is my footstool; what is the house that you would build for me, and what is my resting place?" 2.5 Enthronement Psalms: 47; 93; 95-99. 6. What Happened to the Ark? 1. "Shishak may have removed it (1 Kgs 14.26), Manasseh may have replaced it with his image of Astarte (2 Chr 33.7), and then Josiah restored it (35.3), though it is most likely that it was destroyed or stolen during Nebuchadnezzar's invasion. Jer 3.16-17 may imply the existence of the ark, and the legend of 2 Macc 2.4 is related this passage in Jeremiah." [Davies, "Ark of the Covenant," IDB, p 224] 6. What Happened to the Ark? 2. 2 Macc 2.4: "It was also contained in the same writing, that the prophet, being warned of God, commanded the tabernacle and the ark to go with him, as he went forth into the Mountain, where Moses climbed up, and saw the heritage of God. And when Jeremy came thither, he found a hollow cave, wherein he laid the tabernacle, and the ark, and the altar of incense, and so stopped the door. And some of those that followed him came to mark the way, but they could not find it. Which when Jeremy perceived, he blamed the, saying, As for that place, it shall be unknown until the time that God gather his people again together, and receive them unto mercy."