Michael Slanders 2

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					  Emerging Clean Coal
    Technologies:
Limiting the Environmental Impact of
       Coal Power Generation


                   Michael Slanders

                   Office of Clean
                   Energy Systems,
                   US Department
                   of Energy
                 Presentation Overview

             I. US/World Electricity Outlook
             II. Clean Coal Technologies as a Solution
             III. Meeting R&D Challenges
                    1. Gasification
                    2. Advanced Combustion
                    3. Carbon Capture and Storage
             IV. Demonstrating Clean Coal’s Potential
                   1. FutureGen
                   2. Clean Coal Power Initiative (CCPI)


12-11-2007
Slanders                    EPA Region 4, Atlanta, GA      2
                                     U.S. & World
                                  Electricity Outlook
                   U.S.                                                            World
                                   Renewables
                                       9%

                                           Natural Gas
             Coa                              14%
               l
             53%


                                       Nuclear
                                        21%
             Oil
             3%
         41% increase from 2005-2030                                       85% increase/yr. from 2004-2030

               Challenge: Meet the increasing national/worldwide demand
                        while addressing global climate change
                   Sources: International Energy Outlook, 2007: Fig. 60;
12-11-2007                  Annual Energy Outlook, 2007: Fig. 53 & 2006: Table 8
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                   Clean Coal Technologies
                        as a Solution
      Near-Zero Emissions
             - Remove all environmental concerns
              over the use of coal with regard to
              criteria pollutants and greenhouse                 R&D Challenges
              gas emissions (CO2)                                1. Limit
      Emerging Clean Coal Technologies (CCT)                       Environmental
            - Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle                Impact
              (IGCC)
            - Ultra-Supercritical Combustion                     2. Improve Cost,
            - Oxy-fuel Combustion                                   Efficiency, &
                                                                    Reliability
      Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS)
            - Stabilize greenhouse gases in the
               atmosphere through safe and permanent
               sequestration

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Slanders                             EPA Region 4, Atlanta, GA                  4
                           Clean Coal’s Path to
                           Near-Zero Emissions
                                                Carbon
                                          Capture and Storage

                          Capture                                         Storage




              Advanced                                                               Large-Scale
                                     FutureGen                   CCPI
             Combustion                                                               Field Tests



                                         Core R&D Program
             Advanced     Advanced                                                    Carbon
                                       Fuel Cells        Fuels          IGCC
             Research     Turbines                                                  Sequestration




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Slanders                                 EPA Region 4, Atlanta, GA                             5
                          Overview of
                      Advanced Gasification
  Advanced Gasification Features
     • Partial oxidation rather than
       complete combustion
     • Formation of a combustible
       “syngas” that can be cleaned
       of potential pollutants
     • “Combined Cycle”
       power generation
       (combustion & steam)
     • Hydrogen production
     • Marketable byproducts                                IGCC Flow Diagram, Source: Colorado School of Mines




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Slanders                               EPA Region 4, Atlanta, GA                                   6
                        Meeting Gasification
                         R&D Challenges
    Emerging Technologies: IGCC

    Limiting Environmental Impact
           1. Develop high-temperature syngas
              shift technologies for hydrogen
              combustion
    Improving Cost, Efficiency, & Reliability
          1. Lower technology capital costs
                 - Gasification
                 - Air Separation Units
                 - Hydrogen Turbines              IGCC Power Plant, Polk County. TECO Energy
                 - Fuel Cells
          2. Develop membrane technologies for H2/CO2 separation
          3. Demonstrate near-zero IGCC feasibility at large-scale
          4. Reduce maintenance/operation costs

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                          Overview of
                      Advanced Combustion

  Advanced Combustion Features

     • Capable of enhancing existing
       power generation facilities
     • Reliable processes and
       generation methods
     • Higher efficiencies
     • Lower specific emissions




12-11-2007                              Oxy-Fuel Flow Diagram, Source: www.ccsd.biz
Slanders                           EPA Region 4, Atlanta, GA                          8
             Meeting Advanced Combustion
                    R&D Challenges
    Emerging Technologies: Ultra-supercritical
                           Oxy-fuel
                                                                                                Emissions from Coal
                                                                                                   Power Plants
    Limiting Environmental Impact                                                          5
                                                                                               4.4
           1. Enhance current flue gas cleanup




                                                                  Pollutants (lb/MM Btu)
                                                                                           4
                - Flue Gas Desulfurization (SOx)                                                                       1970
                - Selective Catalytic Reduction (NOx)                                      3                           1997
                - Electrostatic Precipitation (PM)                                                                     2005
           2. Develop advanced low NOx burners                                             2
                                                                                                     1.4
                                                                                                                 1.1
                                                                                                           0.8
                                                                                           1
    Improving Cost, Efficiency, & Reliability                        0.58
                                                                          0.39
                                                                               0.5


         1. Reduce the costs of:                    0
                                                                                      0.03

                                                           Sulfur Nitrogen     Particulate
              - High-temperature and                      Dioxide  Oxides        Matter                                           E

                high-strength materials
              - Large-volume CO2 capture
         2. Enhance low-cost membrane technologies for Air Separation Units
         3. Demonstrate at large-scale

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Slanders                              EPA Region 4, Atlanta, GA                                                               9
     Meeting Carbon Capture and Storage
              R&D Challenges
     Emerging Technologies: Capture- Advanced Selexol, Membranes,
                                     Advanced CO2 Compression
                            Storage- Geologic Formations,
                                     Enhanced Oil Recovery
     Limiting Environmental Impact
            1. Monitor sites to insure permanent storage
            2. Develop sequestration options most suited
               for particular regions
                         - Regional Partnerships
                         - Carbon Sequestration
                           Leadership Forum (CSLF)
     Improving Cost, Efficiency, & Reliability
          1. Improve capture methods
          2. Demonstrate at large-scale
                                                               Geologic Sequestration Paths




12-11-2007
Slanders                           EPA Region 4, Atlanta, GA                            10
             Demonstrating Clean Coal’s
               Potential: FutureGen
                            Objectives of the FutureGen Project:

                              Integrate IGCC, CCS, and hydrogen
                              production technologies to gain
                              acceptance of the near-zero emissions
                              coal concept
                              Prove the effectiveness, safety, and
                              permanence of large-scale CO2
                              sequestration
                              Validate the engineering, economic, and
                              environmental viability of coal-based near-
                              zero emission technologies for
                              commercial readiness by 2020.




12-11-2007
Slanders              EPA Region 4, Atlanta, GA                    11
                     Demonstrating Clean Coal’s
                         Potential: CCPI
                Great River Energy                       Excelsior Energy
             Lignite Fuel Enhancement                         IGCC            Wisconsin Electric Power Co.
                   $13.5M – DOE                            $36 M – DOE         TOXECON Multi-Pollutant
                   $31.5M – Total                        $2,156 M – Total               Control
                                                                                     $25M – DOE
                                                                                     $50M – Total
                NeuCo, Inc. Integrated
                Optimization Software
                     $8M – DOE
                    $18M – Total                                                        WMPI PTY., LLC
                                                                                         Coal-to-Clean
                                                                                        Fuels & Power
                                                                                         $100M – DOE
                                                                                         $612M – Total


                                                                                    Western Greenbrier
                                                                                 Clean Coal Co-Production
                                                                                       $107M – DOE
              Pegasus Technologies                                                     $214M – Total
             Adv Sensor / Optimization
                Hg / Multi-pollutant
                   $6.1 M – DOE          U. of Kentucky Research Foundation           So. Co. Services
                  $12.2 M – Total            Multi-Product Coal Utilization        IGCC-Transport Gasifier
                                                      $4M – DOE                        $294 M – DOE
                                                      $9M – Total                      $844 M – Total


12-11-2007
Slanders                                       EPA Region 4, Atlanta, GA                                 12
                        Summary Remarks

         Coal will continue to play a large role in domestic/worldwide power
         generation
         Clean Coal Technologies offer the potential for coal power production
         with near-zero emissions and limited environmental impact
         While ultra-low emission technologies have been, and will continue to
         be, demonstrated, R&D currently focuses on improving performance
         efficiencies and reducing costs through technology advances
         Further large-scale projects such as FutureGen and those
         demonstrated in CCPI are needed to gain acceptance of clean coal
         technologies’ ability to achieve near-zero emissions.



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             Technology Improvements
                to Meet Challenges




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                                                Polk Emissions Improvements

                                          2.5
                                                   2.07
     Emissions (pounds per million Btu)




                                           2
                                                               SO2
                                          1.5
                                                                 1.2                       0.6 to 1.2
                                                                                                          NOx
                                           1

                                                                                                            0.47
                                          0.5                                                                           0.07
                                                                               0.1                                    (15 ppm)

                                           0
                                                Older Coal   Fleet Avg.   TECO CCT       Older Coal     Fleet Avg.   TECO CCT
                                                   Plant                    Plant           Plant                      Plant

12-11-2007
Slanders                                                                  EPA Region 4, Atlanta, GA                             17
                                          Wabash Emissions Improvements

                                                   3.1
     Emissions (pounds per million Btu)




                                          3

                                                           SO2
                                          2

                                                                                                 NOx
                                          1                                                0.8


                                                                 0.1                                   0.15

                                          0
                                              Before CCT    After CCT            Before CCT       After CCT

12-11-2007
Slanders                                                       EPA Region 4, Atlanta, GA                      18
                National SO2 Emissions

                   1989-91                                          2004-06




12-11-2007   Source: http://www.epa.gov/castnet
Slanders                                EPA Region 4, Atlanta, GA             19
             DOE Budget by Organization




12-11-2007
Slanders              EPA Region 4, Atlanta, GA   20

				
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