The Newsletter of the IPENZ Transportation Group Urban Design—the

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The Newsletter of the IPENZ Transportation Group Urban Design—the Powered By Docstoc
					 Issue No. 108                           December 2005

           Urban Design—the theme for the future

  The Newsletter of the IPENZ Transportation Group

Roundabout No. 108                             December 2005
                                   Table of Contents

Contents                                                                       Page

Branch Secretaries                                                               3

Chairman’s Chat                                                                  4

Editorial                                                                        5

Snoopy                                                                           6

Management Committee Feedback                                                    6

Farewell to Mike Gadd                                                            7

Fraser Island                                                                    9

Regional Roundup                                                                10

New Members                                                                     11

2005/2006 Budget                                                                12

Situations Vacant                                                               14

Urban Design—What’s This All About?                                             15

Urbanism Down Under Conference                                                  16

Is There a Traffic Engineer in the House?                                       20

The Sharp End                                                                   21

The Village in the City:Transit and the Original Urban Suburban Idea            22

Liveable Streets                                                                24

The Light Stuff                                                                 27

Signs of the Times                                                              28

Suggested Readings From TRB                                                     30

IPENZ Conference Feedback                                                       33

Fundamentals of Traffic Engineering Course 13-17 February 2006                  34

Master of Engineering in Transportation                                         35

Conference Calendar                                                             38

Management Committee                                                            39

Application for Membership                                                      40

Roundabout No. 108                                   2                 December 2005
                                Branch Secretaries
Auckland/Northland Branch
Megan Tibby
Sinclair Knight Merz
PO Box 9806
Tel: 985-3649
Fax: 913 8901

Waikato / BOP Branch
Bill McMaster
Branch Secretary
Senior Transport Planner
Environment Waikato
PO Box 4010
Ph: 07 856 0555 x8815
Fax: 07 856 0551

Central Branch
Eliza Sutton
Branch Secretary
C/- TDG Ltd
PO Box 30-721
Ph: 04 569 8498 Fax: 04 569 2398

Canterbury/West Coast Branch
David Scarlet
Branch Secretary
Land Transport New Zealand
PO Box`13 364
Ph: 0-3-9642 8474 Fax 0-3-9642855

Southern Branch
Don Hill,
Branch Secretary
Dunedin City Council
P O Box 5045
Ph 03 474 3585                              Editor
Fax 03 474 3451                           Yvonne Warnaar
                                            Land Transport New Zealand
                                            PO Box 13 364
                                            Ph 03 964 2842
                                            Fax: 03 9642855

Roundabout No. 108                      3                             December 2005
                                        Chairman’s Chat
The end of another year is rapidly      been advanced for the reduction in         urban design issues. I believe that
approaching. It has certainly been a    the status of Professional Engi-           by doing this, and interacting with
busy year for me; being Head of         neers, including the small propor-         other professions (e.g. planners
Civil Engineering at Canterbury, as     tion of Engineering and Technology         and architects) and the community,
well as Group Chairman, does not        graduates compared with lawyers            we will be making an important first
leave a lot of free time for other      and accountants in NZ, relative to         step towards raising the profile of
things. Nevertheless, the Group         many other countries. I wonder             the Transportation profession. We
has made substantial progress dur-      about the role of the Engineering          will, however, need to be sensitive
ing the year, largely thanks to the     and Technology degree curricula,           to the technical and non-technical
efforts of the rest of the Manage-      which have generally tended to be-         concerns of the other professions
ment Committee. One issue which         come more focused on technical             and the community.
has been under discussion for a         matters, until fairly recently. I have
few years now, namely whether the       told my students for many years            As a protocol signatory, we are ex-
Management Committee should             that technical competence is neces-        pected to prepare an ‘action plan’.
continue to rotate around the main      sary but not sufficient to be a good       Please consider helping with this
centres at three year intervals or      Transportation Engineer; one               task and participating in the group’s
should be located in one city and       needs to be aware of the social/           Urban Design Special Interest
comprise members from around the        economic/political context of trans-       Group (details are explained else-
country, has been resolved. The         portation, and to be willing and able      where in this edition of Round-
recent AGM in Auckland decided in       to have a dialogue with interested         about, which has as its theme Ur-
favour of the former arrangement,       parties who will very often not have       ban Design). I hope that you will
with Branch Chairs being members        a knowledge of the technical as-           read the articles on urban design in
ex officio. Names and contacts of       pects of transportation engineering.       this edition, and will take up the
all Management Committee mem-           Failure to do so is likely to result in    challenge to raise the profile of the
bers are shown on page 39.              our input being discounted or re-          Transportation Group by engaging
                                        jected.                                    with the other professions and the
There has in recent years been a                                                   community in a sensitive and re-
lot of discussion about the need to     Many of you will have heard of the         spectful manner, so we may play
raise the profile of the Transporta-    Urban Design Protocol developed            an important role in resolving urban
tion profession, so that our exper-     by the Ministry for the Environment.       design issues.
tise is taken into account during the   The discussion of the Urban Design
development of transport policies,      Protocol in the news media seems           Finally, on behalf of the Manage-
at the national, regional and local     to be focused on the quality and           ment Committee, I wish you all an
levels. It should be noted that         appearance of new buildings in our         enjoyable festive season and a
IPENZ has been grappling with the       urban areas. This is undoubtedly           good year in 2006.
problem of the reduced status of all    important, but it is just as important
types of Professional Engineer in       that the role of the land-use and          Alan Nicholson
NZ. Some of us can remember the         transport systems in achieving an
time when organisations such as         urban environment that is both sus-            (Note: the comments expressed
City Councils were run by the City      tainable and pleasant is recog-           here, and in the articles supplied by
Engineers and Town Clerks, but it       nised. The Management Committee           individuals within the magazine, are
is becoming increasingly difficult to   decided that we should become a           not necessarily those of the Transpor-
find Professional Engineers in the      signatory to the Urban Design Pro-        tation Group. In particular, if you dis-
top echelons of such organisations.     tocol, and to take an active role in      agree with any, please feel free to
                                        ensuring transport matters are            write in and tell us!!) (Ed).
A wide range of explanations have       given due weight in the debate on

 Roundabout No. 108                                        4                                    December 2005
Firstly, I’d like to give a very big thank    somewhere else, and if we want          high-rise apartment, you wanted to
you to those who contributed to this          people to want to live in new high-     live in a ‘terrace-style’ home, what we
magazine, my regular suppliers of             density urban developments we           would call flats. If you lived in a ter-
info for this magazine, Ian Appleton          need to meet their other needs as       race home, you could only afford a
and David Scarlet; those who pro-             well as mobility. That may mean         free-standing home by either being a
vided articles on urban design, and           higher quality construction. The        millionaire, shifting to a small village,
especially to Tony Francis for his trib-      Christchurch Press recently re-         or emigrating. Certainly many of our
ute to Mike Gadd. Christmas is a              ported on the huge problem that is      European and British immigrants
time we hopefully spend with our              noise pollution in British buildings—   come here for more space, not nec-
loved ones, and for those who have            being able to hear the neighbours’      essarily to reproduce their home envi-
lost a friend or family member in the         arguments, television, even their       ronment. I don’t disagree that some-
past years, this is a time to remember        plumbing. Sure, it’s great to be        thing has to be done to control urban
the good times you had together.              close to what’s happening, but          sprawl, and deal with our environ-
                                              sometimes after a hard day’s work       mental and transport issues, but we
I went to Melbourne a few weeks ago,          you want peace and privacy in your      need to make sure we are not just
and had the experience of being               own home, and that’s easier on a        foisting ideologies on the general
driven around in a car with satellite         1/4 acre section, or 10 acre lifestyle  public without carefully considering
navigation. Once we had got over the          block, unless our building standards    how they will accept these changes.
teething troubles of humans not un-           are good enough.                        We have the chance here to take the
derstanding how the smart systems                                                     best from both worlds, let’s make the
worked (still required the paper street      And just because something is inex- most of it.
directory to decide which suburb we          pensive to build, doesn’t mean it
were going to), and excepting the            needs to be unimaginative. It would It certainly was interesting to see how
temporary diversions such as no en-          be good to see more innovative con- much enthusiasm the issue of urban
                                                                                      design raised, and hopefully some of
try into certain streets at peak time,       struction to complement the improve-
                                                                                      you will feel inspired to write to the
we certainly benefited enormously by         ments the roading professionals have Editor.
this technology. The system was              introduced over the years, and it will
very patient when we got lost and            be great seeing the roading and con- Finally, if you’re travelling this Christ-
overshot our turn-offs (“at the next         struction practitioners getting together mas, remember, everyone else on the
possible opportunity, do a u-turn, at        to really meet the needs of their cli- road is an idiot. You don’t want to
the next possible opportunity...”), and      ents, the general public.                end up like the poor sods below.
for the directionally challenged is a                                                 Take care, have a wonderful Xmas
wonderful assistance. I look forward         When I lived in Holland there was a and New Year, catch you in ‘06.
to the day when I get a car of my own        certain level of aspiration for your Cheers
with one of these systems in it.             home environment. If you lived in a Yvonne Warnaar (Editor)

 This issue of Roundabout focuses
 on urban design, and we have a
 series of interesting articles on this
 topical subject, starting on page 15.
 Naturally as transportation profes-
 sionals, we focus on roading and
 related land-use problems. How-
 ever, we also need to remember
 that for most people the roads are
 only a means to get from home to

  Roundabout No. 108                                            5                                    December 2005
  • Chris Freke has recently taken         Year award                               Partnerships & Programmes to
    up the position of Director of En-                                              Peter Croft’s Networks Team in
                                         • Ian Clark (ex Opus), David Horn
    vironment Management at                                                         Policy & Planning Group.
                                           (ex TDG) and Peter Theiler (ex
    Manukau City with Leigh Auton          TDG) have joined Flow Trans-           • John Bolland has just left
    The CEO designate.                     portation Specialists Limited,           Booz Allen after 6+ years and
  • Jeremy Hosking has recently            with Ian becoming a third Direc-         set up on his own.
    joined SKM as a Senior Trans-          tor alongside Bronwyn Coomer-          • After 18 years combined service,
    portation Engineer from Transit        Smit and Angie Crafer.                   Axel Wilke and Warren Lloyd
    New Zealand                          • Ian Appleton from Land Trans-            have left Christchurch City Coun-
                                           port NZ has moved from the Per-          cil to set up a traffic engineering
  • Matthew Ensor is one of 3 final-
                                           formance Monitoring Team in              consultancy ‘Traffix’.
    ists for Young Engineer of the

                                     A few snaps from the 2005 conference More pics of the
                                     conference on the Transportation Group website

3M Award winner Graham Do-                                                              “Ahoy, me hearties”
herty (on left) receives his prize
from Greg Brown, Managing
Director 3M NZ Ltd
                                                                                    “Good tucker, eh!”

                     Management Committee Feedback
 • October’s meeting recommended, and November’s                preview in future Roundabouts.
   confirmed, that branch chairs be put on the national        • Don McKenzie to formally invite the Southern Branch
   committee mailing list. Also suggested they be in-            to take up the next rotation of the Management Com-
   vited to join in with group meetings, by telephone or         mittee.
   in person
                                                               • Michael Russell to prepare presentation on his time
 • Discussion on Central Branch western corridor sub-            in Bhutan, and present to the Auckland Branch, plus
   mission, agreed that local matters should be handled          write a full report on the experience.
   by local branches, and national committee just sub-
   mit on nationally relevant issues.                          • Good progress is being made on the next IPENZ
                                                                 Transportation Conference, to be held in Queens-
 • 2005/2006 budget accepted.                                    town.
 • The group history (by Malcolm Douglass) is proceed-         • Wayne Osmers presented a draft Policy manual, to
   ing well, hopefully will be able to give some sneak           be discussed at the next committee meeting.

  Roundabout No. 108                                       6                                  December 2005
                                 Farewell to Mike Gadd
                                                                               which assisted the region in develop-
                                                                               ing the Master Transportation Plan
                                                                               and under the guidance of City Engi-
                                                                               neer Peter Scoular produced the
                                                                               'Red Book ' covering an outline
                                                                               'Christchurch Development' plan
                                                                               which overall was well received. This
                                                                               led in turn to the second review of
                                                                               the City Planning Scheme.

                                                                               To assist it make some difficult deci-
                                                                               sions the Council invited the then
                                                                               leading British traffic and planning
                                                                               consultant Colin Buchanan to visit. In
                                                                               1966 he pronounced that the con-
                                                                               cepts underlying the transport plan
                                                                               were sound and the one-way streets
                                                                               in the centre city were essential. With
                                                                               this assurance the Council adopted
                                                                               its roading policy and Mike was a
                                                                               very committed member of the team
                                                                               to implement these difficult and fre-
                                                                               quently unpopular, projects. This
                                                                               also included the 1970 re-design of
                                                                               Cathedral Square.

                                                                               In the development of the new arte-
                                                                               rial network Mike influenced, along
Mike Gadd – A Pioneer Traffic Engi-     tingham England on 25 July 1932.       with John Ince the later City Engi-
neer                                    When Mike first arrived in New Zea-    neer, the major reconstruction, wid-
                                        land, he worked for the Ministry of    ening and landscaping of essential
When you drive along the one-way        Works as the concrete engineer on      routes such as Brougham/Jerrold St/
streets in Christchurch, perhaps not-   the Benmore power project.      He     Opawa Road, Ensors/Aldwyns Road
ing how the lights usually turn green   joined the Christchurch City Council   divided carriageways and many oth-
as you approach them, think of Mike     in January 1962.                       ers.
Gadd, a pioneer Christchurch traffic                                           In 1969 he became the City’s Traffic
                                        Mike was the design engineer for the
engineer. Mike was the Christchurch                                            Engineer and later the Traffic Man-
                                        twin bridges over the Avon River on
City Council traffic engineer from                                             ager. For over twenty years he led
                                        Fitzgerald Avenue and the curving
1969 until he retired in 1994 and was                                          and enthused his staff, as he led the
                                        four lane road alongside the river,
responsible for many of the traffic                                            country with new traffic engineering
                                        the Ferry Road roundabout (at the
improvements in Christchurch during                                            ideas. He had a major influence on
                                        bottom of the Tunnel Road), the
that time. Mike died in Methven,                                               the pedestrianisation of the city cen-
                                        Opawa Road and Beckford Road
South Canterbury on 11 August                                                  tre, both in Cathedral Square and in
                                        bridges over the Heathcote River.
2005.                                                                          the City Mall (in Cashel Street / High
                                        In 1964-69 Mike was a lead member
Michael Laurence Gadd born in Not-                                             Streets). His influence made the city
                                        of the City Council's planning group

  Roundabout No. 108                                     7                                 December 2005
centre a better place for pedestri-     Safety Co-ordinating Committees in       Mike was a member of the Execu-
ans and the one-way street system       almost every council in the country      tive of the Local Authority Traffic
allowed motorists to go around it.      and every Council has a Road             Institute (Trafinz) for over 15 years,
                                        Safety Co-ordinator. Mike was the        and was made a Life Member when
After the first pair of one-way
                                        main instigator of community road        he retired from the City Council. He
streets was introduced in 1968,
                                        safety in New Zealand, but, as so        helped shape and form transport
more followed in 1970, 1971 and
                                        often in his life, he was happy to set   legislation in New Zealand, appear-
1973. During the early 1970s, un-
                                        something up, see it adopted and         ing before Select Committees. He
der Mike’s leadership, Christchurch
                                        let others carry it on. The fact that    made submissions to a parliamen-
developed an Area Traffic Control
                                        Mike thought of the idea first has       tary select committee in 1989,
System, which was highly regarded
                                        often been lost in history.              which had an influence on the pre-
around Australasia and served the
                                                                                 sent land transport legislative
city very well, until it was replaced   Some of the first ‘black spot’ engi-
                                                                                 framework. He also wrote the initial
in the early 1990s by ‘SCATS’           neering in New Zealand was under-
                                                                                 NZ Guide to Pedestrian Crossing
which was developed in Sydney.          taken in Christchurch.       This in-
                                                                                 Facilities, which was published by
                                        volved investigating the sites of fre-
Mike also persuaded the Council to                                               Trafinz.
                                        quent road crashes and then under-
introduce traffic calming in the sub-
                                        taking remedial work. He was also        Mike was active in the Institution of
urbs to secure greater safety and
                                        involved in the introduction of road     Professional Engineers, New Zea-
improved environments for these
                                        safety audits. They are now part of      land (IPENZ), being made a Fellow
suburban locations.
                                        project development on major road-       of the institution in1983. He served
Mike was always on the lookout for      ing projects in New Zealand.             on the management committee of
ways to do things differently and                                                the Transportation Group of IPENZ
                                        Mike had a major influence on plan-
better – he was a true pioneer. He                                               from 1984-86.
                                        ning for cyclists in Christchurch. He
enthused his staff and then left
                                        led a team which produced ‘A re-         Mike had this wonderful way of
them to get on with the job. He
                                        port on cycling in metropolitan          dealing with people who did not
worked in the same job for well
                                        Christchurch, past, present and          agree with him. He laughed with a
over twenty years, retiring in March
                                        future’ in 1979.                         twinkle in his eye, perhaps
1993. He was well respected by
                                                                                 shrugged his shoulders.          He
elected members as well as his          One further lasting legacy to Mike’s
                                                                                 strongly believed in working with
colleagues and staff.                   innovative thinking and enthusiasm
                                                                                 people, getting them all to work to-
                                        is the Christchurch Tramway which
His concern for the Christchurch’s                                               gether.
                                        returned to the central city in 1995.
high crash rate led to Mike working
                                        Mike was a member of the Coun-           He will be remembered for his
with John Densem to produce
                                        cil’s Tourist Transport sub-             cheerful manner, his ability to wan-
Roadshow, an innovative road
                                        committee which from the late            der around the office motivating his
safety multi-media stage show for
                                        1980’s had investigated a number         staff, his way of enthusing those he
high school students. It played in
                                        of options for tourist related trans-    worked with, his creative ideas and
Christchurch in 1982, then toured
                                        port initiatives. He co-chaired the      his ability to discuss philosophical
the country, playing to 250,000 high
                                        Council staff project team that de-      ideas in a way that everybody could
school students in 1983. It was the
                                        veloped the proposal for the tram        understand. Mike will be missed by
largest theatrical show to tour New
                                        route and system which operates          traffic engineers in New Zealand
Zealand and a world first in road
                                        today.                                   and around the world as well as by
safety education. This led to the
                                        After Mike retired from the City         his family and those privileged to be
establishment of the first Road
                                        Council, he continued to work as a       his friends.
Safety Co-ordinating Committee in
                                        traffic engineering consultant, de-
Christchurch and to the appoint-                                                 Tony Francis, 26 August 2005
                                        spite his worsening health, until
ment of the first Road Safety Co-
                                        shortly before he died.
ordinator. There are now Road

 Roundabout No. 108                                       8                                   December 2005
Tripping about on Fraser                are massive ferns, and palm trees.      beaches, which is OK when the
Island (or What I did on my             The rainforest have trees like giant    tide is out but tricky with an incom-
                                        brush box, satinay and kauri.           ing tide. I noticed that the drivers
                                        There are wetlands and wildflow-        avoided dry sand and travelled
Ian Appleton                            ers. How could all this grow on an      close to the water’s edge, though
                                        island of sand?                         they avoided the incoming waves.
After the ITE Annual Meeting in
Melbourne in August, my wife & I        The lakes are quite acid – on the
had a holiday at Coolum on the          ph scale they are about 4. That
Sunshine Coast, north of Brisbane.      doesn’t mean much to me but we
One day we took a trip to Fraser        were told it was safe for swimming.
Island, it was the highlight of the     I tried it and it was a little on the
holiday.                                cool side. After the swim my skin
                                        felt smooth – I guess the acid had
Fraser Island is one of the world’s     stripped a layer of dead skin off.
last remaining subtropical rainfor-
ests and the largest sand island in     We saw many species of birds. I’m
the world. Sand is the main feature     no expert on birds but I’m told they    I have never driven on 90 Mile
of this World Heritage listed island.   were ospreys, falcons, kites,           Beach but I imagine it is much the
It is about 125km long and covers       oystercatchers and many more.           same. The beaches are treated as
an area of about 160,00 hectares.       We saw a kingfisher and some            roads and had regular speed limits.
The island has developed over           pelicans up close.                      The Police did a “roadside” check,
millions of years from sand washed                                              what a great place for duties. Driv-
down to the sea from the east           Fraser Island is famous for dingos.     ing here is not for the faint hearted
coast of Australia.                     Unfortunately they have attacked        and is pretty tough on vehicles.
                                        humans. We didn’t see any. We           Our tour guide says their trucks
                                        did see some wallabies.                 last 3 years.

                                        Aboriginal tribes lived on the island   If you ever have a holiday on the
                                        for over 5,000 years. Their Dream-      Sunshine Coast, Fraser Island is
                                        time legends named the island           worth the early wake-up call.
                                        K’gari meaning “Paradise”. The
                                        island was later discovered
                                        (which I think is a curious use
                                        of the word) by Captain Cook
                                        and named after Eliza Fraser
                                        who was shipwrecked there in

                                        There is a transport compo-
                                        nent of this story. Transport to
                                        and on the island is 4WD terri-
As it is a sand island I was sur-
                                        tory. We travelled on a 15
prised to find water flowing through
                                        seater bus/truck in a convoy of
clear streams and dozens of crys-
                                        three. Much of the route is along
tal clear fresh water lakes. There

Roundabout No. 108                                       9                                  December 2005
        Regional Roundup -News From the Branches
Auckland/Northland                        and then get to them on-time every
                                          day. Most of the focus of the UK's
Auckland Group’s main item for the        Social Exclusion Unit has been on
next month is their Christmas Func-       public transport, trying to remove bar-
tion which will be held at the            riers to entering the workforce and
Voyager Restaurant and Bar at the         everyday society.
Waipuna Hotel and Conference Cen-          Canterbury/West Coast
tre in Mt Wellington on 22 November
                                           The Canterbury / West Coast
                                           Branch had a presentation on 28th
                                           October from Troels Andersen,
                                           from Odense in Denmark, on cy-
Tony Brennand of Greater Wellington        cling facilities, concepts and how
Regional Council spoke to the Central      cycling is promoted in Den-              "A big corporation recently hired sev-
branch in September about the West-        mark.     Commuter cycling        was    eral cannibals.
ern Corridor Study. Tony's talk pro-       clearly more engrained in their na-
vided an interesting insight into how      tional culture than it is here in New     "You are all part of our team now",
the Western Corridor Study fits in with    Zealand. The branch held its An-         said the hr rep during the welcoming
the National and Wellington Regional       nual General Meeting on 10th No-         briefing.
Land Transport Strategies. Much            vember followed by a presentation
publicity has been given to the study's    from Jill Atkinson of Environment        "You get all the usual benefits and
conclusion that the 'coastal route' of     Canterbury on the topic of "Public       you can go to the cafeteria for some-
SH1 should be upgraded rather than         Transport in greater Christchurch -      thing to eat, but please don't eat any
building the Transmission Gully Mo-        Key success factors and future           of the other employees".
torway. This conclusion has gener-         challenges". The existing commit-
ally been well received by engineers       tee was re-elected, with two new          The cannibals promised they would
and the Central Branch are currently       committee members, Nigel Williams        not.
preparing a submission along those         and James Park..
                                                                                Four weeks later their boss remarked,
                                          Southern                              "you're all working very hard, and I'm
In October, Dr Karen Lucas of the
                                                                                quite satisfied with you. However,
University of Westminster spoke to
                                                                                one of our engineers has disap-
the group about Accessibility Plan-       The September meeting was held on
                                                                                peared. Do any of you know what
ning in the UK. Her talk described        Wednesday 21 September at 5.30pm
                                                                                happened to him?"
some of the ways that planning and        in the Clifford Skeggs Gallery. Ron
operating the transport system can        Minnema gave feedback on the re-
                                                                                The cannibals all shook their heads
contribute to social exclusion. Com-      cent Transportation Group Confer-
                                                                                no. After the boss had left, the leader
bating this involves stepping back        ence and key matters raised. The
                                                                                of the cannibals said to the others,
from overall net economic analysis        normal refreshments were provided.
                                                                                "which one of you idiots ate the engi-
and considering whether the same
marginalised groups are always the        In October Mike O'Cain of Transit and
'losers' in the overall scheme. Some      Wayne Curran of Works Infrastructure
                                                                                A hand raised hesitantly, to which
examples included indirect or unreli-     presented on "Snow and Avalanche
                                                                                the leader of the cannibals continued,
able bus services between low cost        Programme State Highway 94.
                                                                                "you fool !!! For four weeks we've
housing areas and industrial areas
                                                                                been eating managers and no one
making it hard for people to find jobs

  Roundabout No. 108                                        10                                    December 2005
                                       New Members
Welcome to New Members of the IPENZ Transporta-
                 tion Group
                                                        Mr Mike Tottman, Transit NZ, Christchurch
The Management Committee of the group at recent meet-
                                                        Mr Nigel Downing, Transit NZ, Auckland
ings (September, October and November 2005) approved
                                                        Mr Paul Potter, MWH NZ Ltd, Whangarei
membership applications from the following 23 people.
                                                        Mr Peter Bathgate, Transit NZ, Auckland
Welcome to the group!
                                                        Mr Richard Firth, Transfield Services, Auckland
                                                        Mr Robert Douglas-Jones, North Shore City Council
Mr Andrew Fleming, Transit NZ, Auckland
                                                        Mr Rob Napier, MWH NZ Ltd, Christchurch
Mr Asish Kumar, Opus International Consultants, Auck-
                                                        Ms Sarah Fitzgerald, Beca, Tauranga
                                                        Mr Tim Mueller, Opus International Consultants, Auck-
Mr Craig Moriarty, Manukau City Council
Miss Donna Liu, Beca, Auckland
                                                        Mr Tony Clayton, Opus International Consultants, Puke-
Mr Helmut Marko, Tauranga City Council
Mr Jit Fen Tock, Beca, Auckland
Mr Joe Metcalfe, Sinclair Knight Merz, Wellington
                                                        Know someone who might want to join the Group? Give
Mr John Culliford, Wellington City Council
                                                        them a copy of the membership form found on the back
Miss Karlene Craig, Beca Infrastructure Ltd, Auckland
                                                        cover of any Roundabout.
Mrs Kathryn Musgrave, Transit NZ, Auckland
Mr Lance Wright, Coastline Markers, Auckland
                                                        Andrew Macbeth
Miss Linda Irwin, Opus International Consultants, Puke-
                                                        IPENZ Transportation Group Membership Secretary
                                                        c/o MWH New Zealand Ltd,
Mrs Melanie Parsons, Opus International Consultants,
                                                        PO Box 13-249, Christchurch
                                                        Phone (03) 343-8756

  Roundabout No. 108                                  11                               December 2005
                                         2005/2006 Budget
Opposite is the budget for the current  under the professional development An increased allowance has been
financial year ending 30 September      category.                           made for submission honoraria, re-
2006. For comparison, the 2003/04                                           flecting the increased activity in this
                                        In practice, the Management Commit-
and 2004/05 final accounts are also                                         area.
                                        tee has not been meeting the set
shown. Note that the 2004/05 ac-
                                        level of expenditure in the past.   The Group has since October 2004
count includes income and expendi-
                                                                            been paying a quarterly honorarium
ture for the Wellington workshop,       On the income side, most Traffic
                                                                            of $500 (incl. GST) to the Group Ad-
whilst the Transportation Conference    Management Workshops (now Trans-
                                                                            ministrator due to the high workload
does not form part of this year’s       portation Conference) performed fi-
                                                                            of that position.
budget.                                 nancially better than budgeted.
                                                                            Membership has been increasing
                                        As a consequence, Group funds have
The following notes explain aspects                                         steadily and stands at about 750 at
                                        doubled from September 1997
of the budget:                                                              the moment, with income increasing
                                        ($73,000) to 2005 (ca $150,000).
                                                                            from this source. No changes are
The budgeted loss for the coming        The Management Committee has proposed to the TG membership fees.
financial year is $10,000 (like last accepted increased costs for the The IPENZ service fee payable by
year). This reflects the desire of pro- Group history project.              members is not part of our budget.
viding more services for members

                            How to tell if you’re driving too fast

  Roundabout No. 108                                    12                                 December 2005
                                                             Final        Final
IPENZ TRANSPORTATION GROUP                                   Account      Account          BUDGET
Budget 2005/06                                               2003/2004    2004/2005        2005/2006
                                                             Year to      Year to          Year to
Item                                                         30-Sep-04    30-Sep-05        30-Sep-06


Member subscriptions                                         $ 15,615     $     17,150     $     17,600
2003 TMW surplus                                             $ 12,305
2004 TMW income                                                           $    102,559

2005 TC surplus                                                                            $      6,200
2006 TC repayment of float                                                                 $      9,000
Interest                                                     $    6,594   $      9,474     $      6,500
Advertising & Sundry                                                      $        365

TOTAL INCOME                                                 $ 34,514     $    129,548     $     39,300


Travel, meeting expenses                                     $       49   $      1,120     $        900
Branch grants                                                $    1,500   $      1,200     $      1,300
Focus Group grants                                           $      600                    $        550
Group Administrator honorarium                                            $      2,000     $      1,800
Professional development:
Visiting speakers, seminars                                  $    1,500                    $      1,800
Study grants, awards                                         $      750                    $      5,300
Tertiary study: student support                                                            $      2,700
Career Promotion                                                                           $      4,000
Award & Prizes - members                                                  $      2,382     $      1,000
Education - members                                                       $        525     $      1,800
Roundabout print & post                                      $    4,893   $      5,947     $      6,600
Roundabout honoraria                                         $    1,406   $      1,201     $      1,500
Tech. Paper assistance                                                    $        500     $      1,000
Website                                                                                    $       200
Newsletters, circulars                                                                     $        200
Submissions honoraria                                        $    1,445   $      1,700     $      3,500
History project (writing, editing)                                                         $      4,000
Conferences and workshops:
2003 TMW and Conference expenditure                          $    1,146
2004 TMW and Conference expenditure                          $      851    $    88,103
2005 TC expenditure                                                       -$     3,100     $      1,300
2005 Conference Honorarium                                                                 $        500
2006 TC payment of float                                                                   $      9,000

Transfer to investment                                       $ 15,000     $     40,000
Contingency / unspecified                                                                  $       300
Sundry expenditure                                           $    672
TOTAL EXPENSES                                               $ 29,812     $    141,578     $     49,250

opening balance                                               $ 5,736      $    10,438     -$     1,592
income                                                        $ 34,514     $   129,548      $    39,300
expenditure                                                  -$ 29,812    -$   141,578     -$    49,250
closing balance                                               $ 10,438    -$     1,592     -$    11,542
short term deposits                                           $ 120,000    $   160,000      $   160,000
total TG funds                                                $130,438     $   158,408      $   148,458
Notes: Up to 2004/05 including GST. 2005/06 excluding GST.
2004/05 includes conference turnover

   Roundabout No. 108                                        13                          December 2005
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                       for further details.

  Roundabout No. 108                                  14                               December 2005
    Urban Design – What’s This All About?
Urban design is the theme of this edition of “Roundabout”. As noted in the Government’s Urban Design Protocol
(Ministry for the Environment 2005), “urban design seeks to ensure that the design of buildings, places, spaces and
networks that make up our towns and cities, work for all of us, both now and in the future.”

In December last year the Transportation Group made a submission to the Ministry for the Environment (MfE) sup-
porting the draft Urban Design Protocol. We identified a number of areas in the protocol where the role of transporta-
tion should have been identified or highlighted and some of these concerns were addressed in the final protocol,
which was published in March this year. The Transportation Group was one of 78 founding signatories to the proto-
col, which currently has over 100 signatories as shown in the table below.

        Type of            Number of     Sample of Organisations with a Transportation Focus or Interest
     Organisation          Signatories
  Central Government           17        Land Transport NZ, Ministry of Transport, NZ Police, Transit NZ
  Local Government             24        All of these. Some of the larger ones are: Auckland City, Auckland Regional,
                                         Christchurch City, Dunedin City, Environment Canterbury, Environment Wai-
                                         kato, Hamilton City, Local Government NZ, Manukau City, North Shore City,
                                         Timaru District, Waitakere City, Wellington City
  Developers, Investors        7
  Consultants                  27        Beca, MWH, Opus, Roger Boulter Consulting, Wes Edwards Consulting
  Professional Insti-          7         IPENZ, IPENZ Transportation Group, NZ Institute of Architects, NZ Institute of
  tutes                                  Surveyors, NZ Planning Institute
  Educational Institutes       6
  Sector Organisations         15        Christchurch Civic Trust, Committee for Auckland, Cycling Advocates’ Network,
                                         Living Streets Aotearoa, Sustainable Cities Trust, Town Centres Association of
  Total                       103

There are several articles in this edition of Roundabout on urban design. Take the time to read these, and check out
the new urban design section of our website. You will find there our December 2004 submission, our draft Urban
Design Action Plan (currently open for comment from members), a link to the MfE Urban Design website and various
other urban design resources.

There are two mandatory actions required of protocol signatories. They must prepare an Urban Design Action Plan.
In addition, signatories must appoint an Urban Design Champion – “someone influential at a senior level who can
promote and champion urban design, and who can challenge existing approaches throughout the organisation.”

The Management Committee will be appointing an Urban Design Champion before the end of 2005, so please con-
sider nominating someone for this role, or volunteering yourself. I have accepted the role of interim urban design
champion (to satisfy MfE) while we go through a more robust selection process, but will be happy to have someone
more appropriate take on this leadership role within the group. Nominations should be sent to Don McKenzie, Ad-
ministrator of the Transportation Group.

We have also established an Urban Design Special Interest Group (UDSIG) to help implement our action plan and to
contribute to discussion about urban design issues within the Transportation Group. If you’re interested in learning
more about urban design or want to be involved, contact me.

Andrew Macbeth

  Roundabout No. 108                                         15                                      December 2005
                    Urbanism Down Under Conference
August 2005, Wellington.

Tim Hughes

 I am naturally suspicious of any         the design of buildings, places,          in other words.)
 label that ends in “ism”. The ex-        spaces and networks that make up
 pression suggests “dogma”. I went        our towns and cities, and the way         Growth issues include:
 with some apprehension into this         people use them. It ranges in scale       “How to design better suburbs on
 alien world of architects and plan-      from a metropolitan region, city or       the edge of towns and cities, how to
 ners, with its own theory, concepts,     town down to a street, public space       successfully intensify in our inner
 language and suspicion of traffic        or even a single building. Urban          suburbs” and avoid existing prob-
 engineers. Then I noticed the con-       design is concerned not just with         lems of:
 ference was to be opened by the          appearances and built form but with       “Traffic congestion, unsustainable
 Minster of Foreign Affairs. But it       the environmental, economic, social       energy use, overloaded urban infra-
 wasn’t so bad. The Minister was          and cultural consequences of de-          structure, a lack of distinctive iden-
 really there in his capacity as Minis-   sign. It is an approach that draws        tity, social isolation, and reduced
 ter of Justice, championing new          together many different sectors and       physical activity with its associated
 draft guidelines for Crime Preven-       profession, and it includes both the      problems such as obesity, diabetes
 tion through Environmental Design        process of decision making as well        and heart disease.
 (CPTED). There was also one              as the outcomes of design.”
 other traffic engineer present plus a                                              Key Urban Design Qualities – the
 handful of transport planners.           Why urban design?                         seven “C”s. (antonyms for “sin -
 There was one speaker from MOT                                                     bad”?)
                                          “Quality urban design is important
 on Transport Policy. Speakers                                                      The urban design protocol identifies
                                          for everybody because our lives are
 agreed that getting the transport                                                  seven essential design qualities
                                          connected through a common built
 system right is key to successful                                                  that together create quality urban
                                          environment. We all live and work
 urban design.                                                                      design:
                                          in buildings, and use streets, public
                                          spaces, transport systems, and
 The Urban Design Protocol.
                                          other forms of urban infrastructure.      •Context: seeing buildings, places
                                          Quality urban design creates              and spaces, as part of whole towns
 The protocol recognises the impor-                                                 and cities.
                                          places that work and places we
 tance of transport in urban design.
                                          use and value”
 Credit must be given to Simon                                                      •Character: reflecting and enhanc-
 Whiteley and his former Transfund                                                  ing the distinctive character, heri-
                                          “Quality urban design produces
 NZ staff for representing the trans-                                               tage and identity of our urban envi-
                                          benefits at a city-wide level as well
 port issues on the advisory group.                                                 ronment.
                                          as at the scale of neighbourhoods
 The IPENZ Transportation Group
                                          and individual buildings or spaces.       •Choice:     ensuring diversity and
 has signed up to the Urban Design
                                          For example, a well designed trans-       choice for people.
 Protocol as has the MOT, Land
                                          port network integrated with land
 Transport NZ, and Transit NZ. Our
                                          use improves accessibility and mo-        •Connections: enhancing how
 profession needs to remain fully                                                   different networks link together for
                                          bility, contributes to a better quality
 involved.                                                                          people.
                                          of life, encourages healthier life-

 What is Urban Design? The pro-
                                          styles, uses less non-renewable           •Creativity: encouraging innova-
                                          energy, and contributes to im-
 tocol expresses it this way:                                                       tion and imaginative solutions.
                                          proved economic perform-
 “Urban design is concerned with
                                          ance.” (The NZ Transport Strategy         •Custodianship: ensuring design

  Roundabout No. 108                                        16                                   December 2005
is environmentally sustainable, safe    rate due to the way traffic dispersed    would be tempted to apply main
and healthy collaboration: com-         over many roads and conflicted at        street treatments to routes that in
municating and sharing knowledge        the crossroads. I was also aware         my opinion are too far up the road
across sector, professions and with     that by spreading traffic across         hierarchy.
communities.                            many roads they spread the result-
                                        ing environmental conflicts between      Joined up thinking
                                        land use and traffic. It is important
Urbanism Down Under                                                              This fine sentiment was an oft re-
                                        that when we look back with nostal-
                                                                                 peated theme, but how do we get
The conference consisted of the         gia to the rectangular grid, that we
                                                                                 communication across the profes-
usual plenary sessions, featuring       don’t forget the reasons why we
                                                                                 sional divides? If transport papers
an impressive line up of overseas       forsook it, and address them in our
                                                                                 are presented at a planning confer-
experts. Parallel sessions were         designs. So I made sure to discuss
                                                                                 ence, planners don’t attend, (for a
used for local papers and case          this issue with the speakers in pri-
                                                                                 similar reason we stopped having a
studies, and two workshops cov-         vate before raising it at the conclud-
                                                                                 transport stream at the IPENZ con-
ered “Crime Prevention through          ing forum.  Most of these                ference). The year of the built envi-
Environmental Design” and the Flat
                                        speakers indicated that the              ronment is run by architects and is
Bush greenfields development in
                                        safety problem had not to                solely about buildings. The two traf-
Manukau city. There were no pa-
                                        their knowledge been stud-               fic engineers at the conference
pers published at the conference
                                                                                 were there only because they have
but it is intended to publish them in   ied in the evaluations of the
                                                                                 picked up some responsibilities to
due course.                             case studies, and generally              support the urban design champion
                                        agreed that networks could be            at Land Transport NZ. The IPENZ
Key issues from the conference:
                                        made too permeable to traffic. We        transportation group urban design
It is not possible to do justice to a   also agreed that the pedestrian net-     champion, Andrew Macbeth could
three day conference in a few           work needs to be much better con-        not justify the commitment of three
pages, so I will just mention some      nected than the traffic network. I       days, though he did get to the
themes and issues that resonated        suggested that the safest system         champions workshop on the follow-
with me.                                would involve highly connected pe-       ing Monday.
                                        destrian networks and a generally
Joined up networks.                     distributed traffic network. One way     Traffic engineer “neanderthals”
                                        of ensuring a rectangular grid net-
This was alluded to in a previous                                                The architects and planning profes-
                                        work is safe, is to control every
roundabout article by Roger Boulter                                              sions were as fond of slinging off
                                        crossroad within a neighbourhood
who was also at this conference.                                                 about traffic engineers we are
                                        with a roundabout of effective traffic
There were several international                                                 known as we are of them. We were
                                        calming design. In my view this
gurus presenting at the conference                                               told that some of us are progressive
                                        should be a requirement for all
who put up diagrams showing im-                                                  and enlightened, but others are
                                        crossroads in our subdivision codes
permeable neighbourhood street                                                   “neanderthals”. In response at the
                                        with corner splays to suit. It was
networks fed from external arterial                                              final forum I quoted Earl Blu-
                                        agreed that their needs to be more
roads by a few collectors that di-                                               menauer, the US congressman for
                                        dialogue and study of this issue.
verged into local streets and termi-                                             Oregon who was the driving force
nated in culs de sac. These were                                                 behind the Portland experiment. In
                                        It should be noted that the concept
inherently “bad”. By way of ex-                                                  his closing address at the Walk 21
                                        of road hierarchy was supported
treme contrast, were rectangular                                                 conference, he said as best as I
                                        and not under challenge. The
grids.   These were highly con-                                                  can recall it: ““Don’t blame the traf-
                                        rooms and corridors approach
nected and permeable and inher-                                                  fic engineers – we were asking
                                        seems largely intact with the focus
ently “good”. I have seen these                                                  them the wrong questions. If we
                                        on the circulation within neighbour-
grid networks all over New Zealand                                               ask them and empower them to
                                        hood rooms and the design of the
in my road safety studies and they                                               provide modal choice and to tame
                                        lesser corridors, though many
were invariably areas of high crash                                              traffic they will do it.” We are good

 Roundabout No. 108                                      17                                   December 2005
at solving problems - that is what        bad development to the ex-                sities and less urban sprawl, and
engineers do. Society
                   has now                tent that the rules have antici-          this is now being promoted in urban
tasked us with different                                                            growth strategies. These strategies
                                          pated the problems and are
                                                                                    identify locations around transport
problems to solve and we                  enforced. They do not ensure              nodes as locations for high density
need to adapt our thinking                good outcomes. The fundamen-              redevelopment. They also place
to the new paradigms, or                  tal problem is that only a small and      urban growth boundary restrictions
we risk extinction of the re-             often unrecognised part of the            with design standards for peripheral
spect we need to effectively              benefits of good design accrue to         greenfield developments. However
                                          the developer, so they persist with       developers are reluctant to build to
do our jobs.
                                          existing low risk practice. Waitakere     higher densities, despite district
                                          was held up as an example where           plans permitting or even mandating
RMA process
                                          in some locations they have moved         it.
Another challenge for joined up           to minimum building heights (4 sto-
thinking is the RMA process. The          ries) with quality design assured by
                                                                                    Selling good design
whole process depends on the              building performance standards.
identification, assessment and            But they still rely on developers de-     While many are now committed to
management of environmental ef-           ciding to seize the opportunity this      the “motherhood and apple pie”
fects. We have not been particularly      provides by proposing quality out-        objectives of the Urban Design Pro-
successful in providing joined up         comes.                                    tocol, and the conference was
guidance to our own profession in                                                   largely a symposium for the con-
this area. The assessment of the          Government as developer                   verted, much of society remains to
urban design and transport sustain-                                                 be convinced that higher density
                                          There was much discussion at the
ability implications of District                                                    and less sprawl will be any better
                                          conference about the need for pub-
Scheme provisions and resource                                                      than what we have now. Percep-
                                          lic sector leadership supported by
consents is a difficult matter requir-                                              tions based on past examples of
                                          funding that can lead by its own
ing expert support. It is not efficient                                             poor social outcomes for higher
                                          development activities and leverage
for instance for individual local au-                                               density welfare housing need to be
                                          others to invest in better outcomes.
thorities to perform their own RMA                                                  overcome. Most of the public with
                                          For some developments a public
section 32 analysis of their trans-                                                 whom we consult cannot even un-
                                          authority may act as developer. For
port and urban design require-                                                      derstand plans of their existing en-
                                          others it may facilitate joint venture
ments. There should be a central                                                    vironment. An example was given
                                          with modest contribution that lever-
pool of expertise available to assist                                               of a display where few of those who
                                          ages public benefits, e.g. road con-
with research and advice that will                                                  attended could identify the location
                                          trolling authorities in Australia enter
withstand environment court scru-                                                   of their own house on the plans of
                                          into joint ventures to redevelop land
tiny. Britain has a national urban                                                  the existing situation. They cannot
                                          alongside road corridors to land
design advisory group that can be                                                   convert our abstract words and jar-
                                          uses that are compatible with the
called in to independently assess                                                   gon to visualise a better future.
                                          road hierarchy. Incentives can also
proposals. I understand Auckland                                                    They need pictures, models or ride
                                          be used such as relaxed require-
now has an advisory committee on                                                    through computer animations.
                                          ments for parking, height and bulk
urban design.
                                          etc. For heritage buildings the
                                                                                    Public Transport investment
                                          model used in Christchurch was
Regulating developers                                                               While it may seem obvious, there is
                                          recommended, where a trust has
We need joined up thinking with           funds to buy, develop appropriately       a “chicken and egg” which comes
those who commission, and fund            and on-sell heritage buildings prof-      first, problem with transit oriented
changes to the urban fabric. Regu-        itably.                                   development. Developers won’t
lation, while necessary, is not suffi-                                              commit to providing high density
cient to ensure good urban design.        Sprawl and Density                        development, without a quality pub-
RMA controls only prevent                                                           lic transport service already in
                                          Most speakers promote higher den-

 Roundabout No. 108                                         18                                  December 2005
place, but funding commitment to        rating the quality of public spaces      motor traffic movement in a “predict
the transport corridor and service is   and the environmental footprint of       and provide roads” world. Some of
hard to achieve prior to the demand     buildings - including the CO2 gener-     our clients don’t understand this
being established. A commitment to      ated by travel to and from them.         new framework and we need to
transport infrastructure is prerequi-   This may link in with proposed work      patiently sell the benefits and val-
site to planning for good urban         for tools to rate the walkability of     ues of quality urban design.
form.                                   pedestrian environments. We also
                                        need to develop indicators that will     Other actions that would support
Several speakers suggested an           measure progress in providing for        the protocol are suggested below.
incremental approach for public         urban sustainable transport.             Some could be done directly by the
transport provision and that we                                                  Transportation Group, some in part-
should concentrate on good service      Tools                                    nership with others, and for others
levels rather than technology. For                                               we could advocate for and support
                                        Urban design planning uses trans-
instance as demand builds, begin                                                 our members working in their vari-
                                        port models. These were developed
with smaller commuter buses, aim-                                                ous professional capacities.
                                        when the questions we were asking
ing to get frequency to ten minutes
                                        related to predicting and providing
or below, then increase the capac-                                               Suggestions for action include:
                                        roads for motor vehicles given vari-
ity of the vehicles e.g. double deck
                                        ous land use scenarios. We now           •Develop quality education mate-
or articulated buses, then bus rapid
                                        need them to answer different            rial, tools, technical guidelines for
transit and rail. This requires plan-
                                        questions in relation to modal share     transport professionals, including
ning to reserve the right of way for
                                        such as walking and cycling, travel      transport effects assessment.
the later options.
                                        demand management, travel be-
                                                                                 •Review existing curriculum for pro-
                                        haviour change effects and the way
Parking                                                                          fessional education at all levels.
                                        land use changes in response to
Parking provision is often at the       transport provision. Perhaps the         •Conduct forums, seminars and
centre of conflicts over the applica-   tools are not appropriate for these      workshops in collaboration with
tion of urban design and sustain-       new questions.                           other disciplines.
able transport. For high density
                                                                                 •Support demonstration projects
residential developments some pre-      The challenge for IPENZ Trans-
senters advocated removing re-          portation Group and the profes-          •Develop an award scheme ( like
quirements for off street parking,      sion                                     the 3M awards) aimed at quality
and leaving all parking on street.                                               urban design
For shops, some advocated against
                                        The only commitment required by          •Develop appropriate planning in-
requiring shops to be set back be-
                                        us as signatories of the Urban De-       struments and tools such as proc-
hind parking areas. This reminded
                                        sign Protocol is to appoint a cham-      esses for assessing the quality of
me of the old conundrum about re-
                                        pion, and Andrew Macbeth has al-         development proposals and streets
quirements for parking at pubs. The
                                        ready been appointed (for now            for all their users.
old MOT policy took the approach
that until we devise a way of pre-                                               •Integrate quality urban design into
                                        Developing a broad professional
venting people from driving from                                                 all our technical guidelines.
licensed premises they will need to                                              •Set up a special interest email
provide parking. Parking provisions     We need to have a clear and united
is obviously a difficult issue that     view of how we can best contribute
requires dialogue.                      to urban design objectives as part
                                        of the altered NZTS objectives to
Assessing quality                       which we all now work. Some parts
                                        of the profession are slow to adapt
If you can’t measure it you won’t
                                        and still give the impression we still
manage it. Perhaps an overstate-
                                        live to provide for safe and efficient
ment, but there is effort going into

 Roundabout No. 108                                      19                                   December 2005
             “Is there a traffic engineer in the house?”
Roger Boulter

Reflections on the Urbanism Down Under conference
Wellington, 17 – 19 August 2005.

 “Is there a traffic engineer in the   IPENZ Transportation Conference)          more between an “origin” and a
              house?”                  call urban designers “tree-huggers”,      “destination”. For one, the quality of
                                       and similarly muse why they have to       the experience of the space is of
                                       muck up traffic efficiency and safety     primary importance; for the other,
What is “Urbanism”? Not much           with raised tables and visibility-        the efficiency of movement through
different from what I studied in my    blocking, non-frangible planters and      the space.
UK “Urban and Regional Planning”       trees? On both sides, there’s more
degree course back in the ‘70s –       mystification than negativity.            The “grids versus cul-de-sacs” old
except in NZ it seems to be domi-                                                chestnut reared its head at the con-
nates by architects and landscape      Pondering why we had such a di-           ference. If you walk, a grid works
architects. This, along with “urban    vide, I gorged myself on a surfeit of     best because of your distance limita-
design”, have become amazingly         erudite presentations, and after a        tion, so we hear a lot about
“trendy” in the last few years.        while I thought I might be onto           “connectivity” and “permeability”.
                                       something. We can’t simply say (as        They have a point – cities with a lot
At a pinch, I could (and sometimes     sometimes supposed) that urban            of “footfall” tend to have high com-
do) style myself an “urban designer”   designers consider land use and           mercial turnover, and people do
– having studied design methodol-      engineers transport – both in fact        business there largely because it’s a
ogy,      devised      “enhancement    aim to be holistic. No, it’s to do with   nice place to do business.
schemes” for “character areas”, and    scale.
more recently signed up to the Gov-                                              Grids,      however,      turn  classic
ernment’s “Urban Design Protocol”,     An engineer will start at the macro       “corridors       and     rooms”    and
and shaken Prince Charles’s hand       level, with arterial route networks.      “segregation by function” concepts
at the launch last March.              They may talk of “completing the          on their head. Maximising interac-
                                       motorway network” or if a bit             tion opportunities on the street –
 “Urbanism Down Under” was the         “greener” about providing metropoli-      people in contact and dialogue with
Australia – New Zealand gathering      tan rail systems and plentiful bus        people – may be a prime goal of
of “the great and the good” in this    lanes – but always work from a            urban designers, but for engineers
field. Traffic engineers are few and   macro level downwards. “Architect-        it’s “side friction” and an impediment
far between here, but thought I’d      types” on the other hand, will start      to both “safety” and “efficiency”.
find more than Tim Hughes and Lyn-     with buildings, interaction between
don Hammond. Where were the            them, and the quality of life in public   Classic theory – in documents such
engineers?                             spaces (streets, parks, vistas, etc) –    as the 1963 Traffic in Towns study –
                                       local level upwards.                      did want foot-based spaces (the
Poor architects – why, oh why, they                                              “environmental areas”), but only with
mused in presentations, did “the       Ask an architect about a street, and      the through movement taken out of
engineers” (spoken of as an alien      they will talk of the “quality of life”   it and put onto arterial networks –
breed) have to impose this or that     within the space (often experienced       and based on the premise that
big road through otherwise lovely,     on foot). Ask an engineer, and they       there’d be a lot more movement in
intimate, people-friendly CBDs? I’ve   will talk about the level of service of   the (then) future (our present) to
heard engineers at our own Traffic     the movement (usually motorised)          cope with. Urban designers tend to
Management Workshop (now the           not so much within the space, but         want the two brought back together

 Roundabout No. 108                                      20                                    December 2005
again (and it’s not only them – the       roading in terms of land take, and       would) a city with a lot less cars, and
commercial sector has for decades         impact on local, human-scale activ-      more walking, cycling and public
fought the through/ local movement        ity. Although the freedom to drive is    transport, we must move from the
distinction, out of concern about los-    sometimes seen as a basic right,         present to that future carefully so as
ing “passing trade”).                     would you rather live in a Copenha-      not to jolt the city with a strangling
                                          gen or a Los Angeles? If “peak oil”      gridlock.
Classic “corridors and rooms” theory      really does start to bite, we may
has a trip starting on a local road (in   wish we hadn’t saddled ourselves         Grids might work, safety-wise, if all
a “room”), progressing via a collec-      with car dependency and long, mo-        the traffic moved slowly (the reason
tor to an arterial (a “corridor”), mak-   torway-borne, travelling distances.      why speed tables, although seen by
ing the main part of the journey, and                                              some as “accidents waiting to hap-
then going back down the hierarchy        However, imagine plonking a grid-        pen”, actually work) – but this
again. To urban designers, moving         based street layout on cities which      means accepting a major drop in the
up and then down a roading hierar-        we have built, over the past four        amount of traffic (less mobility, al-
chy in this way is simply bothersome      decades, around “corridors and           though not necessarily less accessi-
if you’re essentially focusing from       rooms” principles. We have built our     bility – if we make fewer trips, com-
the local area “upwards”.                 cities around forecast mass car use,     bine trips, walk and cycle a lot more,
                                          and no doubt by providing for it         and meet our needs over shorter
Urban designers, on a metropolitan        we’ve helped fuel its growth, but we     distances). But this is a very funda-
scale, tend to think of public trans-     can’t just reverse this because some     mental change, and a big “ask” for
port for transport beyond walking         architect-type tells us it is good for   many.
distance – not surprisingly, as it is     us to do so. We’d get gridlock over-
arguably more efficient than arterial     night. Even if we would prefer (as I

                                           The Sharp End
By Nigel Williams

 It is encouraging to see Govern-         ment doesn't stack up in dollar          we can stand around waving the
 ment, Regions, Local Authorities         terms, then that money simply            flags of Policy, Design Guides and
 and all the relevant professions         goes and plays somewhere else.           Professional Training until we are
 putting their collective shoulders to    As it should.                            blue in the face. Until a Developer
 the wheel of Sustainable Urban                                                    who has already Done the Sums
 Development [SUD].                       Yet once the sketch plan of the          comes and asks us to facilitate her
                                          development is on the back of an         dream, SUD ain't going anywhere
 From my perspective in a plan-           envelope and the numbers look            anytime soon.
 ning+surveying+traffic (me)              OK, the ability of the planning proc-
 +engineering company that devel-         ess and professional skills to           So our challenge is to paint a truly
 ops thousands of urban and rural-        change the format is very limited        inspiring picture of genuine Sus-
 residential lots a year, I am well       indeed.                                  tainable Development that will ex-
 aware of the Golden Rule of Devel-                                                cite not the politicians but the
 opment, viz.:- Its the Developer's       The issues of Societal Form,             mums and dads of suburbia, for it
 Gold that makes the Rules.               Strong Sustainability and (as a ser-     is their views that swing the Mar-
                                          vant to the previous two) Accessi-       keting equation, and that will in
 And I don't mean that in any sort of     bility are all addressed within the      turn allow us to shape a better and
 disparaging way. The process that        developer's Marketability compo-         mores sustainable future.
 leads to SUD outcomes is driven          nent of the development equation.
 by conventional and responsible          So in spite of our growing profes-
 fiscal calculations. If a develop-       sional awareness of SUD issues,

  Roundabout No. 108                                        21                                   December 2005
       The Village in the City: Transit and the Original
                                                Suburban Idea
Chris Harris

                                             to older suburbs with narrow             works of Howard are the origin of
A COMMON RESPONSE to the                     crooked lanes like Ponsonby, as the      town planning as we know it. How-
sprawl, congestion, monotony and             sort of thing we should get back to.     ard’s ideas were particularly influen-
pollution of the car-oriented suburbs        Nor is the wider concept a new one       tial in Europe. But if this is so, then
that have grown up since the 1950s           either. A diagram in State Housing in    we have to ask why these ideas
has been to propose a more                   New Zealand (1949) shows a tran-         have not been translated so easily
‘villagey’ suburban form, in which           sit-oriented town centre for Glen In-    from the page to practice in English-
housing would be clustered near rail-        nes, complete with pedestrianisa-        speaking countries. Or to put it an-
way and busway stations. Known to            tion, apartments and a parkland          other way, why Howard was some-
its supporters as ‘smart growth’, this       strip. Around 1950, just as today,       thing of a prophet without honour in
type of growth would make the car            Auckland had an urban growth             his own country.
less of a necessity for suburbanites         boundary, that in those days limited     One problem for English-speaking
and would also increase the space            development outside the central          town planning is that it has focused
available for parkland between the           isthmus to coastal strips. The 1951      too much on ideal physical forms
urban villages. Also called ‘transit         Outline Development Plan for Auck-       and not enough on the institutions
oriented development’ (TOD) after            land was highly critical of what it      required to make things happen. We
the American term for public trans-          called “sprawl” and “permissive zon-     are all familiar with the plans and
port, this type of proposal should be        ing.”                                    reports that go nowhere, because of
familiar enough to need little further                                                a lack of commitment to address
introduction.                                In fact the concept of suburban vil-     fragmented ownership and other
                                             lages linked by transit constitutes      institutional obstacles to planning.
A number of myths have grown up              the original recipe for suburbanisa-     So important were the institutional
about smart growth, however. One             tion, pursued in the days when the       preconditions of planning that How-
is that it is all about ‘intensification’.   train was the only option. The princi-   ard drew only a few diagrams, and
In fact, smart growth is not                 ples of smart growth were first laid     referred to his scheme as an
‘intensification’ but an alternative         out over a century ago, in Ebenezer      “absence of plan.” By this he meant
vision of suburbia. Instead of three-        Howard’s two great works To-             if the institutions were got right, the
bedroom detached houses accessi-             Morrow: A Peaceful Path to Real          results would follow. Howard’s insti-
ble only by car or the very occa-            Reform and Garden Cities of To-          tutional recipe was for the municipal-
sional bus, there are a range of den-        morrow. Howard sketched a network        ity to buy up the land at rural values
sities and housing types focusing on         of railway lines with town centres at    and build new satellite towns from
town centres linked directly by excel-       the intersections of the lines, which    scratch. Land would be leased to
lent public transport. The town cen-         he called a “railway system and not      suburbanites for a “rate-rent,” virtu-
tres are pedestrianised, rather than         a railway chaos.” As much as the         ally all of which would be spent on
sacrificed to car parking. Off road          plans themselves, Howard empha-          public amenities rather than on the
cycling is made easier via the park          sised the need for planning powers,      enrichment of speculators. Other
networks.                                    not only to define the railway routes,   early planners argued that a similar
                                             areas of intensification and parkland    result could be achieved by a strong
Another myth is that these ideas are         for all time but also to recapture the   system of capital gains taxation for
new and radical. In fact they are not.       increase in land value near the rail-    ‘betterment’. In a betterment system,
Some smart growth advocates point            way stations. In many ways the           capital gains resulting from nearby

  Roundabout No. 108                                           22                                    December 2005
public improvements are clawed           along the Tawa line and in the Hutt        for Auckland. They had less impact
back by the municipality to pay for      Valley, was subdivided. This work          on Wellington, a slower growing city
the improvements. Those who can-         was done by the same government            where a large amount of money had
not pay the tax are bought out at the    department, until 1943 the Railways        already been spent on the railways
value that applied before the im-        Department and after 1943 the Min-         by 1953.
provements were made.                    istry of Works. In Auckland, an east-      Today we are trying to get back to
                                         ern railway semicircle was also built      the transit-oriented town planning
In continental European countries        between the two World Wars and             that applied everywhere before the
such as Sweden and Germany, land         surrounded by large areas of state         1950s. Ironically, this work is pro-
banking in the public domain was         housing development, in Orakei,            ceeding most rapidly in Auckland in
already widely practiced for a variety   Glen Innes and Panmure. This was           some of the old State Housing ar-
of historical reasons, and so it was     the first stage of a circular rail route   eas, such as Panmure and Glen
easy to put plans like Howard’s into     that was ultimately supposed to go         Innes. In effect this is taking up
practice. In English speaking coun-      through Mount Roskill, Mount Albert        where New Zealand left off in 1953.
tries the ownership of land on the       and Grey Lynn as well, collecting all      However, precisely because of the
urban fringe was often more frag-        inward commuters from the west,            overwhelming historical association
mented, and the owners were also         north and south and distributing           of transit oriented development with
loath to give up potential capital       them between the CBD and Pen-              land tenure issues, at some point
gains. Interestingly enough, early       rose.                                      these will have to be confronted
New Zealand was receptive to the                                                    more explicitly than urbanists have
idea of recapturing rising land values   However, post-War America devised          done to date. Although 1940s New
within the planned settlements to        an alternative method of suburbani-        Zealand went down the State Hous-
pay for railways and other amenities,    sation in which car registration and       ing route, in Europe, a middle way
in spite of widespread private owner-    fuel taxes were recycled to pay for        has often been pursued between the
ship of land. As with Howard, and        urban roads. This allowed suburbs          individual and the state, so that there
also with the Europeans, the rea-        to be developed without having to          is a complete spectrum of tenure
sons for this combined idealism and      worry about focusing development           possibilities. The local municipality is
practicality.                            onto railway stations, taxing capital      often far more influential a housing
                                         gains or consolidating land titles.        provider than in New Zealand, or
New Zealand’s first Town Planning        New Zealand would adopt this               even in the UK. Building societies in
Act of 1926 featured a betterment        method of suburbanising in the             which the tenants own shares are
capital gains tax, levied at a rate of   1950s, with 1953 the critical year of      also major players in Sweden and
50% of increased land value due to       decision The 1926 betterment tax           the Netherlands. A recent govern-
planning schemes such as railway         was abolished in 1953 while in the         ment report has warned of the need
construction. Half of all the capital    same year a highway fund, the Na-          for 100,000 new rental properties in
gains on the land value of a property    tional Roads Fund, was set up. From        Auckland by 2016. Should we set up
from rezoning for more intensive         1953 onward the government also            something along European lines, to
development under the Act had to         shifted the focus of its housing effort    develop this number of transit-
be repaid immediately, or over the       from State Housing to Group Hous-          oriented units in Auckland’s trans-
next twenty years at 4.5% interest.      ing, a system of guarantees to pri-        port corridors? I suspect that How-
                                         vate builders and purchasers. In the-      ard would think that was rather a
During the 1930s and 1940s, large        ory, road tax could still have been        good idea.
amounts of private land would also       diverted to rail and other forms of
be bought up at rural values, with       public transport, but lobbying by          Notes
cheap Reserve Bank finance, for          road users appears to have pre-            Robert Cervero (1998), The Transit
new State Housing settlements.           vented this both in the USA and in         Metropolis (Island Press).
Wellington’s electrified suburban        countries that adopted its policies,       Frank Rogers (1963), The influence
railways were installed at the same      such as New Zealand. The effects of        of political theories in the Liberal
time as the farmland around them,        this policy shift were very significant    period, 1891-1912; Henry George

 Roundabout No. 108                                        23                                     December 2005
and John Stuart Mill, in R Chapman        phy        on      URL:       http://     (Wellington: Centre for Housing Re-
and I. Sinclair (eds) Studies of a .                        search New Zealand).
Small Democracy: Essays in Hon-           The Shape of Things to Come, NZ
our of Willis Airey (Pauls Book Ar-       Ministry of Works, 1946
cade, for the University of Auck-         Chris Harris (2005) Slow train com-
land), pp. 153-174.                       ing: The New Zealand state
Graham Bush (1995) Local Govern-          changes its mind about Auckland
ment and Politics in New Zealand          Transit, 1949-56, Urban Policy and
(2nd edn) (Auckland University            Research 23(1), pp. 37-55.
Press), p. 30. See Russell’s biogra-      DTZ New Zealand (2005), Housing
                                          Tenure Aspirations and Attainment,

                                          Liveable Streets
Wes Edwards

Over recent years there has been increasing inter-
national interest in improving the residential street envi-
ronment for a variety of reasons. Locally the recent
publication of the NZ Urban Design Protocol and the
Crime Prevention through Environmental Design pro-
ject (Ministry of Justice) are beginning to influence sub-
division and street design.

Residential areas based on liveable neighbourhood
principles provide street forms with a high degree of
inter-connectivity that are more amenable to walking
and cycling encouraging alternate transport modes.
                                                               Other research has found that pedestrians have a sig-
Through careful attention to street cross-section, street
                                                               nificantly higher chance of surviving a collision with a
layout, and features such as small reserves, liveable
                                                               vehicle at lower speeds. According to a 1992 survey by
neighbourhoods encourage community interaction be-
                                                               Durkin and Pheby published in Traffic Management and
tween residents improving security and liveability.
                                                               Road Safety, the chances of a pedestrian surviving a
                                                               traffic accident increase from 60% at 50 km/hr to 95%
These roading forms generally have narrower carriage-
                                                               at 30km/hr.
ways with shorter block lengths and features such as
sharp bends that naturally reduce vehicle speeds to the
                                                               Street Layout
level appropriate for the environment. Vehicle move-
                                                                A key aspect of producing liveable neighbourhoods is
ment must still be provided for, but this provision is bet-
                                                                 the overall street layout in an area. Speeds must be
ter balanced with the need for walking, cycling, and
                                                                kept low through appropriate layout design but it is im-
engendering a community.
                                                               portant to not overly hinder movement and accessibility.

Liveable neighbourhood principles have also been
shown to significantly improve road safety. A UK study
                                                               It is generally desirable to avoid cul de sacs in favour of
found that traffic calming schemes can reduce child-
                                                                  looped crescents or through roads as these provide
hood injuries from road accidents by up to 15%1
                                                                 more flexibility of movement, reduce the need to turn
                                                                 service vehicles, and provide better options for move-
A United States study2 found that crash rates are highly
                                                                  ment when exceptional events such as road mainte-
correlated to carriageway width, with narrower slow
                                                                              nance or emergencies occur.
streets being safer.

 Roundabout No. 108                                           24                                 December 2005
  This form of roading also provides far better connec-
 tivity for pedestrians and cyclists with increased secu-
rity. The provision of services such as refuse collection
and public transport is also far better on a series of con-
 nected through and loop roads than in a number of cul
                         de sacs.

Carriageway Width
The second key aspect of producing liveable
neighbourhoods is paying close attention to carriage-
way width. In low-volume streets the aim should be to
reduce the carriageway width as far as practicable.
                                                                                       Photograph 1
It is also important to realise that carriageway width and
street layout are intrinsically linked and only two as-
pects of the subdivision design proc

Local Examples
The street shown in Photograph 1 is a residential street
typical of many streets in New Zealand serving a mod-
est number of properties. The street has a carriageway
width of 11m with parking permitted on both sides of
the carriageway. This street provides little incentive for
motorists to travel at an appropriate speed, and repre-
sents a significant distance for pedestrians to cross.

At the lowest end of the roading hierarchy it is possible                              Photograph 2
to provide Shared Surface Streets where the carriage-
 way is shared by cars, pedestrians and cyclists. The
most common example of a Shared Surface Street is a
  common driveway serving a few houses. As long as
vehicle speeds and volumes are low and a few key pa-
 rameters are met these streets can operate very well.
Carriageway widths can be in the 2.4 to 3.5m range for
short distances and as long as Fire Service access re-
                quirements can be met.

The street in Photograph 2 provides access to sixteen
properties in a loop around a common reserve. No
footpaths are provided. Pedestrians can step into a
                                                                                       Photograph 3
driveway to allow cars to pass.

The street in Photograph 3 is a private way serving nine           Photograph 4 shows a small cul de sac serving 14 prop-
dwellings. Communal parking is provided in angled                  erties. This street has a 5.5m wide carriageway with no
parking bays located in small groups along the street.                                     footpaths.
The way is double-ended and runs between two minor
public streets, and has a 5.0m carriageway.
                                                                   When traffic volumes increase it is necessary to provide

 Roundabout No. 108                                           25                                   December 2005
a little more carriageway width and a footpath for pedes-
trians. By placing parking in indented bays the perceived
width is kept narrow to influence traffic speeds and the
crossing distance for pedestrians is reduced.

Carriageway widths of 5.5m or less (excluding parking)
are common for these streets.

Photographs 5, 6, and 7 all show minor residential streets
in Auckland. All of these streets are through streets serv-
ing a number of houses. Each street has a footpath on
one side of the street.

                                                                                   Photograph 6

                       Photograph 4
The streets in Photographs 5 and 6 have a 4.8m or 5.0m
carriageway with indented parking bays on one side.
                                                                                   Photograph 7
Parking is also permitted against the kerb on the side of
the street opposite the indented bays.
                                                               Recommended Reading
                                                               Two good references for street layout and cross-section
Other streets have a 5.5m carriageway and are intended
                                                               design are the United Kingdom Design Bulletin 32 from
to have kerbside parking on one side only.
                                                               the UK Dept of the Environment, Transport and the Re-
                                                               gions, and the Western Australia Liveable Neighbour-
                                                               hoods Traffic Management Guidelines from the Western
                                                               Australian Planning Commission.

                                                               1. Liabo, K. and Curtis, K. Traffic calming schemes to
                                                               reduce childhood injuries from road accidents. What
                                                               Works for Children Group, April 2003.
                                                               2. Report by Peter Swift, Swift and Associates. New Ur-
                                                               ban News June 2003

                                                               Wes Edwards
                                                               Phone: (9) 820-9273
                      Photograph 5

  Roundabout No. 108                                          26                               December 2005
                                     The Light Stuff

  The caption? “When fleas go unchecked” I liked the image of even the fleas into high density de-

                                        Darwin Awards
                         Or “New ways for cars to bring out the worst in people”

         How do we get it down?...

                                                           The Kiwis made the international news when 3
                                                           New Zealanders were reported in World Highways
                                                           as setting their car on fire while trying to steal fuel
                                                           from a farm. The men siphoned diesel fuel into
                                                           their petrol driven car and when it refused to start
                                                           decided to inspect the fuel pipe using a cigarette

                                                                 … And how do we bring it back up?

Roundabout No. 108                                 27                                    December 2005
                     Signs of the Times

Roundabout No. 108           28           December 2005
Roundabout No. 108   29   December 2005
                         Suggested Readings From TRB

A quick trawl through the latest TRB newsletter contains the following links which might be of interest to folks here.
I’ve particularly highlighted the second, “incorporating TDM into the land development process”. It’s 142 pages, but
my glance through suggested a fair bit of interesting reading, and a possible complement to the urban design we are
promoting—what comes first, changing environment will change behaviour, or will a change in behaviour lead to a
desire for a changed environment?

                                                                  HEAVY VEHICLE SPEED COMPLIANCE: REVIEW
 WAY PRICING DECISIONS                                            ->
 ->                  Australia’s National Transport Commission has re-
                                                                  leased a report that reviews a range of regulatory
 TRB’s National Cooperative Highway Research Pro-                 measures that could be undertaken in order to in-
 gram (NCHRP) has issued a request for proposals to               crease compliance of heavy vehicles with roadway
 develop a decision-making framework that includes                speed limits. The report provides background informa-
 descriptions and evaluation of methods and analytical            tion on heavy vehicle speeding, reviews the current
 tools for establishing pricing policies and practices and        regulatory approach on speed compliance of heavy
 for predicting their impacts on travel behaviour and             vehicles in Australia, and presents a range of potential
 congestion.                                                      policy options that can help to address this issue.

 MENT PROCESS                                                     RICA
 ->                  ->

 The University of South Florida has released a re-               The World Bank's Transport and Urban Development
 port that examines how to incorporate transporta-                Department has released a report on the results of
 tion demand management (TDM) strategies into the                 rail privatization in Africa. The report examines the
 land development process. The report documents                   impact of privatization on operational efficiency, ser-
 efforts to secure TDM strategies as part of develop-             vices, investments, impacts on the poor, and more.
 ment approvals, summarizes the long-range plan-                  The report is one of a series of independent reviews
 ning groundwork that frames the land development                 of rail privatization experience commissioned by the
 process, provides several case study examples                    World Bank.
 from Florida and nationwide, and identifies institu-
 tional barriers to the use of TDM as part of the land            OECD IN FIGURES 2005: FACTS ON MEMBER
 development process.                                             COUNTRIES
 [I only skimmed through this, but saw enough to want
 me to go back and have a more in-depth look at all 142           The Organization for Economic Cooperation and De-
 pages. Would appreciate a comment from any urban                 velopment (OECD) has released the latest issue of its
 design gurus—is TDM as important as urban design,                figures brochure that includes data on OECD coun-
 does it complement it, or does one assist the other to           tries in the areas of transport, energy, environment,
 happen?]                                                         and more.

  Roundabout No. 108                                         30                                   December 2005
  MENT ON PUBLIC TRANSPORTATION RIDERSHIP                       UME 41, NUMBER 3        

  The Florida Department of Transportation has re-              'Tackling Midsize City Congestion' is the theme for
  leased a report that examines how transit-oriented            the latest issue of the Texas Transportation Institute's
  development affects travel behaviour in terms of              Texas Transportation Researcher.
  mode share, number of vehicle trips (VT), and vehicle
  miles of travel (VMT). The report suggests that land          AUSTRALIAN AND NEW ZEALAND ROADFACTS
  use may be less important than other factors in af-           2005
  fecting mode choice, VT, and VMT. According to the  
  report, income, attitudes and preferences, and auto
  ownership are among potentially more important fac-           Austroads has released the latest issue of Road-
  tors.                                                         Facts, which includes information on the Australian
                                                                and New Zealand road systems and their use.
  RED-LIGHT RUNNING AND LIMITED VISIBILITY                      Austroads is the association of Australian and New
  DUE TO LTVS, USING THE UNIVERSITY                             Zealand road transport and traffic authorities.
  The Florida Department of Transportation has re-    
  leased a report that examines the utility of a driving
  simulator to address select traffic engineering opera-        The European Road Federation has released the
  tions and safety issues. Using the driving simulator,         latest issue of its electronic quarterly newsletter that
  the report evaluates the effect of a new pavement             addresses European road transport issues.
  marking design on red-light running at signalized in-
  tersections; and assesses how light truck vehicles
  (LTVs) affect horizontal visibility from the passenger
  cars that follow them, and estimate the potential for
  rear-end collisions. The report also estimates the
  potential for red-light running of passenger cars that
  follow large-size vehicles.

The person who sent me this article said it had his nomination for the most obscure, dense and incomprehensible
transportation paper in 2005. However, if anyone wants a copy I will be happy to send them one.

Mulitobjective Entropy Transportation Model with Trapezoidal Fuzzy Number Penalties,
Sources and Destinations.

Abstract: In this paper, we have considered a mulitobjective transportation problem with an additional entropy objec-
tive function. Here the cost coefficients of objective functions, the source, and destination parameters are trapezoidal
fuzzy numbers. Entropy objective function in transportation problem is used by Shannon’s measure of entropy and
this multiobjective transportation problem has been solved by the fuzzy programming technique.

  Roundabout No. 108                                       31                                   December 2005
                               Radical New Tire design by Michelin
Look, Ma, No air! Check these out.

Thought you might like to see the next generation of tires. They had a pair at the Philadelphia Car show. Attached
are pictures of the new Michelin tires.

These tires are airless and are scheduled to be out on the market very soon.

The bad news for law enforcement is that spike strips will not work on these tires.

  Roundabout No. 108                                     32                                  December 2005
             Conferences, Workshops, Courses etc
IPENZ   Transportation               and bronze rules that make          traffic is managed in the Auck-
                                     bridging the gap easier.            land region and to see the opera-
Conference 2005
                                                                         tion of the moveable lane barrier
                                     The “Pirates of the Caribbean”      on the Auckland Harbour Bridge.
The IPENZ Transportation Con-
                                     themed conference dinner on the     The final tour saw some of the
ference was held at the Hyatt
                                     Monday night was held at the        current roading and passenger
Regency in Auckland on 4 – 7
                                     Floating Pavilion in the Viaduct.   transport projects in the Auckland
September 2005. The theme for
                                     The wonderful costumes, singing     region including the Dominion
this year’s conference was
                                     and games made it a night to re-    Road Bus Lane, the Real Time
“Bridging the Gap” and encour-
                                     member!                             Passenger Information System
aged knowledge sharing be-
                                                                         and the Upper Harbour Duplicate
tween organisations in the Trans-
                                     The 3M Traffic Safety Innovation    Bridge.
portation industry. More than
                                     Award 2005 was won by Graham
220 people attended the Confer-
                                     Doherty (MWH NZ Ltd), Stanley       The Technical Conference con-
ence as delegates, speakers,
                                     Chesterfield and Kevin Locke        sisted of a number of high quality
sponsors or exhibitors.
                                     (Transit New Zealand), Julian       technical papers and notes. The
                                     Chisnall (Land Transport New        award winners were Tim Brown,
Dick Hubbard, Mayor of Auck-
                                     Zealand), and Howard Lang           Ian Clark, Peter Evans, and Leon
land City gave the opening ad-
                                     (RSL) for the “Coast Road Me-       Wee for the New Zealand Auto-
dress for the Conference. He
                                     dian Barrier” which involved the    mobile Association Award for
spoke about the transport chal-
                                     provision of a Wire Rope Barrier    Best Paper, Matt Ensor for the
lenges facing the country and the
                                     on a crash prone section of Cen-    Chairman’s Prize for best Techni-
important role transportation en-
                                     tennial Highway (SH1 north of       cal Note, and Aaron Roozenburg
gineers have to change “the way
                                     Wellington). The runners up for     for both the Management Com-
we approach transport”. Mayor
                                     the award were John Smith           mittee’s prize for Best Presenta-
Hubbard also discussed the need
                                     (Fulton Hogan), Ray Edwards         tion and the Young Authors
to develop sustainable integrated
                                     (Higgins Contractors Ltd), Sean     Award for those 35 years and
transport solutions and recog-
                                     O’Neill (Works Infrastructure),     under.
nised the need for vision, leader-
                                     and Marcin Goluchowski
ship, and co-operation.
                                     (University of Auckland) for the    The Auckland/Northland Branch
                                     “Best Practice for the Use of       Committee passes on our special
Roly Frost, General Manager
                                     Truck Mounted Attenuators”.         thanks to all presenters, atten-
Network Operations for Transit
                                                                         dees, sponsors and exhibitors for
New Zealand and President of
                                     There were three quite varied       helping to make the Conference
IPENZ gave the keynote address
                                     technical tours on the Tuesday      successful.
on the Monday morning. He
                                     afternoon of the conference.
spoke about bridging the gap be-
                                     There was a tour to the Central     We look forward to next year’s
tween clients and consultants in
                                     Motorway Junction (CMJ) site to     Conference in Queenstown.
his presentation on “what every
                                     see the construction of the new
consultant should know about
                                     motorway links, and a trip to the   Liz Angell, on behalf of the
their client”.  In summarising,
                                     Auckland Regional Traffic Man-      IPENZ Transportation Confer-
Roly spoke about the gold, silver
                                     agement Unit (TMU) to see how       ence 2005 Committee.

Roundabout No. 108                                  33                              December 2005
       Conferences, Workshops, Courses continued
                                    Fundamentals of Traffic Engineering Course
                                              13-17 February 2006
The University of Canterbury and the University of Auckland are pleased to jointly offer a five-day course covering the
Fundamentals of Traffic Engineering. This will be the 11th time this course had been offered, the previous one was
held in Auckland in February 2005. The same format will be followed as in 2005, and will include material on Trans-
port Policy, Transport Sustainability and Travel Demand Management.
Course objectives
The objectives of the course are to:
•     provide participants with a solid grounding in the fundamentals of traffic engineering
•     develop participants’ practical skills and knowledge of how and when they should be applied
•     cover the theory of good traffic engineering practice
•     enable participants to recognise and deal effectively with situations where standard methods are unlikely to
      work well
•     provide an overseas perspective on alternatives to current practice in New Zealand.
The course is to be presented by:
   Alan Nicholson, University of Canterbury
   Roger Dunn, University of Auckland
   Wolf Homburger, formerly University of California Berkeley, USA,Editor of the textbook ‘Fundamentals of Traffic
   Engineering’, (15th Ed.)
Who Should Attend?
The course will benefit practicing engineers, technicians, planners and designers with little or no formal training in
traffic engineering and planning.
Previous participants have been from a range of occupations such as
•     Transport Analysts
•     Road Safety Analysts
•     Resource Planners
•     Engineering Consultants
•     Design Engineers & Technicians
In addition to handout notes for each lecture, all participants will be given a copy of: “Traffic Engineering & Manage-
ment” (Institute of Transport Studies, Department of Civil Engineering, Monash University, Australia), Volumes 1 and
2 (2003).
School of Engineering
University of Canterbury
Creyke Road
Fee: $1800 + GST .
To register Interest contact:
Libby Newcombe
Professional Short Courses Programme
University of Canterbury
Private Bag 4800, Christchurch
Phone: 03 364 2082
Fax: 03 364 2057
Enrolment can be done on-line at

  Roundabout No. 108                                        34                                  December 2005


ENTR604 (Pavement Management Systems)
Contact for further info: Mofreh Saleh
Block 1: Mon 20 Feb - Wed 22 Feb (incl. Dr Seósamh Costello, Auckland)
Block 2: Mon 3 Apr - Wed 5 Apr (incl. Prof Martin Snaith, Birmingham)
Content: Pavement management concepts, levels and functions; data requirements; evaluation of functional and
structural performance; intervention criteria; deterioration models; rehabilitation and maintenance strategies and pri-

ENTR602 (Accident Reduction & Prevention)
Contact for further info: Glen Koorey
Block 1: Mon 27 Feb - Wed 1 Mar (incl. Prof Bhagwant Persaud, Toronto)
Block 2: Mon 8 May - Wed 10 May
Content: Impact on society; data analysis and interpretation; hazardous location identification; road environment fac-
tors; problem diagnosis; treatment options; treatment selection; economic appraisal; evaluation and monitoring;
safety auditing.

ENTR601 (Traffic Management)
Contact for further info: Andre Dantas
Block 1: Mon 13 Mar - Wed 15 Mar
Block 2: Mon 22 May - Wed 24 May (incl. Prof Mike Taylor, Adelaide)
Content: Transport economics; travel demand and supply management; congestion pricing; transport policy formula-
tion; policy instruments and effects; traffic management modelling.

SECOND SEMESTER COURSES (Jul-Oct, dates still to be finalised):
ENTR603 (Advanced Pavement Design)
Contact for further info: Mofreh Saleh
Content: Stresses, strains and deflections in flexible and rigid pavements; pavement materials characterization;
mechanistic and mechanistic-empirical design methods; pavement performance and evaluation.

ENTR605 (Transport Planning and Modelling)
Contact for further info: Andre Dantas
Content: Planning legislation; land use planning models; travel demand modelling and prediction; economic ap-
praisal; environmental impact assessment; public transport planning and operation.

ENTR606 (Advanced Traffic Engineering)
Contact for further info: Glen Koorey
Content: Traffic flow modelling; queuing theory and its application; network analysis; network reliability analysis; ad-
vanced traffic information and control systems; designing for cyclists and pedestrians.

For further information:

  Roundabout No. 108                                        35                                   December 2005

Civil 661 – Highway and Pavement Engineering
Course Co-ordinator and lecturer: Dr. Seósamh Costello. Other lecturer: Mr Doug Wilson .
Extended lecture mode, probably on Mondays, 8.00am - 11.00am, in Rm3.502.
Course Outline: Primarily a condensed course with extensive reading.
A range of selected topics in highway and pavement engineering, which will provide a basis for extension into further
Restricted: not possible with Civil360 and/or Civil461.

Civil 761 – Traffic Safety and Planning
Course Co-ordinator and lecturer : Associate Professor Roger Dunn
Guest Lecturers from industry
Extended mode, day of week and times to be determined
Course Outline: A course, which complements Civil 760 with emphasis on safety and planning : traffic signals and
operations, two lane highways, arterial roads and their management .
Prerequisite CIVIL460 or CIVIL660 (or equivalent).

Civil 766 – Road Management Systems
Course Co-ordinator: Dr. Seósamh Costello
Guest lecturer: Professor Martin Snaith University of Birmingham, UK
Lectures: Block mode, 14th-16th March and 11th-13th April in Eng1.307 from 9am to 5pm.
Course Outline: The planning, administration and management of the construction and maintenance of roads. An
understanding of maintenance management systems, including the principles, methods and techniques of pavement
deterioration modelling and the multi-year programming of works with reference to RAMM, HDM and dTIMS.
Prerequisite CIVIL360 or CIVIL661 (or equivalent).

Civil 768 – Studies in Transportation 1 – Accident Reduction and Prevention
Course Co-ordinator and Lecturer: Mr. Doug Wilson
Guest lecturers: Professor Bhagwant Persaud, Toronto, Canada and Glen Koorey, University of Canterbury.
Lectures: Block mode, dates to be determined
Course Outline: Road safety and crash analysis, accidents, exposure and risk, accidents and stochastic processes,
accident reduction and prevention, data analysis and interpretation, hazardous location identification, road environ-
ment factors, evaluation studies, road surface characteristics and surface friction and road safety auditing.

Civil 770 – Transport Systems Economics
Course Co-ordinator and lecturer: Dr. Judith Wang
Lectures: Extended mode, probably on Thursdays, 2.00pm – 5.00pm.
Course Outline: A course of selected topics on transport economics. It begins with an overview of travel demand
and travel costs, followed by various topics including efficient pricing of transport services; policy measures to allevi-
ate traffic congestion and other transport-generated externalities.

Civil 660 – Traffic Engineering and Planning
Course Co-ordinator and lecturer: Dr. Judith Wang Other lecturer: Associate Professor Roger Dunn

Lectures: Extended mode, probably on Thursdays, 3.00pm – 6.00pm.

  Roundabout No. 108                                        36                                   December 2005
Course Outline: Primarily a condensed course with extensive reading.
A range of selected topics in traffic engineering and transportation planning which will provide a basis for extension
into further studies.
Restricted: not possible with Civil361 and/or Civil460.

Civil 762 – Transportation Planning
Course Co-ordinator: Dr. Judith Wang Other lecturer: Associate Professor Roger Dunn
Lectures: Extended mode, probably on Tuesdays, 2.00pm – 5.00pm.
Course Outline: Selected topics from: Land use, transport and travel. Land transport strategies, polices and tech-
niques. Trip generation and parking demand. Public transport usage and other modes. Data surveys. Forecasting
techniques. Analytical models for trip generation and attraction, distribution, assignment and modal split. Model and
network tests. Operational, economic and social evaluations and assessment of environmental effects.
Prerequisite CIVIL460 or CIVIL660 (or equivalent).

Civil 765 – Infrastructure Asset Management
Course Co-ordinator: Mr. Doug Wilson. Guest lecturers from industry
Lectures: Extended mode, day of week and times to be determined
Course Outline: Integration of Planning and Infrastructure Asset Management, Resource Management, Institutional
issues and Legal requirements. The process of undertaking Asset Management Plans and specific Asset Manage-
ment techniques across all infrastructural assets using the 'International Infrastructure Asset Management Manual '.

                 IPENZ Transportation Group Website
  Just a quick reminder of our website, and some of the things you can find there.

  •     IPENZ Workshop—Presentations, abstracts, technical papers, photos etc
  •     Up and coming conferences
  •     Group Submissions
  •     Old Roundabouts
  •     Who’s Who
  and more

  Roundabout No. 108                                       37                                  December 2005
                                          Conference Calendar
National Conferences

Title                                         Location                   Dates                   More Info

                                                                                                 2nd week of October 2006, dates to be con-
IPENZ Transportation Conference               Queenstown

International Conferences

Title                                         Location                   Dates                   More Info

2006 Annual Meeting of the Association of     Savannah, Georgia, USA 27-29 March 2006            Contact: Association of Asphalt Paving
Asphalt Paving Technologists (AAPT)                                                              Technologists, 4711 Clark Ave Suite G,
                                                                                                 White Bear Lake, MN 551110, USA

12th International Winter Road Congress       Turin, Itlay               27-30 March 2006

3rd Conference on Future Urban Transport      Gothenburg, Sweden         2-5 April 2006

International Seminar on Maintenance of Ru-   Rabat, Morocco             20-21 April 2006
ral Roads: Stakes and Perspectives

9th International Symposium on Heavy Vehi-    The Pennsylvania State     18-22 June 2006
cle Weights and Dimensions                    University in University                 
                                              Park, PA
Urban Transport 2006: Urban Transport and     Prague, Czech Republic     12-14 July 2006
the Environment in the 21st Century

IABMAS'06 - International Conference on       Porto, Portugal            16-19 July 2006
Bridge Maintenance, Safety & Management

ICAP Quebec 2006: 10th International Confer- Quebec, Canada              12-17 August 2006       Contact: International Society for Asphalt
ence on Asphalt Pavements                                                                        Pavements, 4711 Clark Ave, Suite G, White
                                                                                                 Bear Lake, MN, USA 55110 - Phone: +1-
                                                                                                 651-2222-1128 - Fax: +1-651-293-9193

International Conference on Short and Me-     Montreal, Quebec, Can-     23-25 August 2006
dium Span Bridges                             ada

3rd IRF/SARF Regional Conference For Africa ICC Durban, KwaZulu-         11-13 September         Contact the Secretariat - Cilla Taylor Confer-
                                            Natal, South Africa          2006                    ences --- PO Box 82, IRENE, 0062 South
                                                                                                 Africa --- Tel: +27 (0)12 667-3681 - Fax: +27
                                                                                                 (0)12 667-3680 - Email:
Austroads 6th Bridge Conference - Bridging    Perth, Western Australia   12-15 September
the Gap                                                                  2006                    austroadsbridgeconference/index.html

3rd World Congress on Emulsions               Lyon, France               3-6 October 2006        http://www.cme-

3rd International Symposium Networks for      Stuttgart, Germany         5-6 October 2006
Mobility 2006

22nd ARRB Transport Research Conference       Canberra, Australia        22-26 Oct; 29 Oct - 2 http://
                                                                         Nov 2006      

2007 Annual Meeting of the Association of     San Antonio, Texas,        12-14 March 2007        Contact: Association of Asphalt Paving
Asphalt Paving Technologists (AAPT)           USA                                                Technologists, 4711 Clark Ave Suite G,
                                                                                                 White Bear Lake, MN 551110, USA

9th International Conference on Low-Volume    Austin, Texas, USA         24-27 June 2007

Roundabout No. 108                                                  38                                           December 2005
                                   Fax 03 332 8885
Dr Alan Nicholson
                              Yvonne Warnaar
                                                                      (Roundabout Editor)
Department of Civil Engineering
                                   Dave Gamble                        Land Transport New Zealand
University of Canterbury
                                   TrafficPlan Ltd                    P.O. Box 13-364, Christchurch
Private Bag 4800, Christchurch
                                   PO Box 5140, Dunedin
                                   Ph 03 467 5285 (wk)                Ph 03 964 2842 (wk)
Ph 03 364 2233 (wk)
                                   Fax 03 467 5284                    Fax 03 964 2855
Fax 03 364 2758

Don McKenzie                       Andrew Macbeth
(Administrator)                                                       Also co-opted onto the committees
                                   (Membership Secretary)
                                                                      are the branch chairs
Traffic Design Group               MWH New Zealand
PO Box 13-835, Christchurch        PO Box 13-249, Christchurch
                                                                      Auckland/Northland : Bruce Cona-
Ph 03 379 2404 (wk)                Ph 03 343 8756 (wk)                ghan
Fax 03 379 3406                    Fax 03 343 8738                    (;             an-
                              Waikato/Bay of Plenty : Ian Cox
Axel Wilke
                                   m                                  (;
                                   Wayne Osmers                       Central : Glen Prince
PO Box 25297, Christchurch
                                   (Submissions Co-ordinator)         (;
Ph 027 77 44 73
                                   Land Transport New Zealand
                                   P.O. Box 13-364, Christchurch      Canterbury/West Coast : Paul Kane
Mike Blyleven                      Ph 03 964 2840 (wk)
(Focus Group Liaison)              Fax 03 064 2855
Transit NZ                         Wayne.osmers@landtransport.govt.
PO Box 1479, Christchurch          nz
Ph 03 366 4455 (wk)
Fax 03 365 6576                    Tony Spowart   (Special Project – Group Fund-
Susan Cambridge
                                   Transit NZ
(Awards Co-ordinator)
                                   PO Box 1479, Christchurch
Francis and Cambridge
                                   Ph 03 366 4455 (wk)
PO Box 12-255, Christchurch
                                   Fax 03 365 6576
Ph 03 332 2722 (wk)
Fax 03 332 8885
                                   Stuart Woods
                                   Christchurch City Council
Tony Francis
                                   PO Box 237, Christchurch
(TMW Liaison)
                                   Ph 03 941 861 (wk)
Francis and Cambridge
                                   Fax 03 941 8864
PO Box 12-255, Christchurch
Ph 03 332 2722 (wk)

Roundabout No. 108                                39                              December 2005
                                                      IPENZ Transportation Group
                                                               APPLICATION FOR MEMBERSHIP
 APPLICANT’S FULL NAME (please print):

 ( Mr / Mrs / Miss / Ms / Dr ) .............................................................................................................................................................................

 Preferred First Name:                         ...................................................................              Date of Birth – for office use only:....................................

 TELEPHONE (Work):                              ...................................................................             (Home – optional):...............................................................

 FAX: .......................................................          E-MAIL: ............................................................................................ Home / Work (delete one)

 EMPLOYER & ADDRESS:                           .............................................................................................................................................................................


 CURRENT POSITION:                             .............................................................................................................................................................................

 HOME ADDRESS:                                  ............................................................................................................................................................................


 Prefer mail sent to: Home / Work (delete one)
 ACADEMIC QUALIFICATIONS and recent work experience (briefly): ...........................................................................................................



 Are you now, or have you ever been, a member of IPENZ? No / Yes (If yes, please provide IPENZ number): ...............................................

 Are you now, or have you ever been, a member of affiliated IPENZ groups No / Yes (If yes, please list): ......................................................

 Membership Class                      Annual Fee         Please select ( ) one class
 1. Member                                $25.00
                                                                                               You will be invoiced separately by IPENZ –
 2. Unemployed member                     $12.50
                                                                                                         send no payment now.
 3. Retired member                        $12.50
 4. Full time student member              $00.00
 Notes:    All members except full time students to pay IPENZ service fee of $26.67 if not already a member of IPENZ or another affiliated
           IPENZ group; all fees exclusive of GST.
 PRIVACY: Please advise whether you are willing to have your name, position, organisation and Transportation Group branch listed on the
 members’ only part of the Transportation Group website: Agree / Disagree (delete one)

 Applicant’s Signature:                                                                                        Date:

 REFERENCE – Please nominate an existing Transportation Group member to act as a referee for your membership application.

 REFEREE’S NAME: ( Mr / Mrs / Miss / Ms / Dr ) ....................................................................................................................... (please print)

 Referee’s Signature: ........................................................................................

 Contact Phone: ................................................................................................                                              Date: ....................................................

 SEND APPLICATION TO:                                Andrew Macbeth                                                                                           Enquiries: Phone
 (03) 343-8756
                                                     Membership Secretary, IPENZ Transportation Group
                                                     c/o MWH New Zealand Ltd

                                                     PO Box 13-249, CHRISTCHURCH

Roundabout No. 108                                                                                             40                                                                      December 2005

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