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					     Incidence and Mortality                                                                                                                         U.S. Colorectal Cancer Incidence
     Rate Trends                                                                                                                60
     Colorectal cancer is the third most common

                                                                                                      Incidence per 100,000
     cancer in both men and women and the third                                                                                 50

     leading cause of cancer-related mortality in                                                                               40
     men and women in the United States. Over the
     past decade, colorectal cancer incidence and                                                                               30

     mortality rates have decreased in all populations,                                                                         20
     except that mortality rates have increased in
     American Indians and Alaskan Natives. Until
     age 50, men and women have similar incidence                                                                                 0
     and mortality rates; after age 50, men are more                                                                                  1985           1989         1993             1997       2001               2005
     There are striking differences between racial and                                                                                               U.S. Colorectal Cancer Mortality
     ethnic groups in both incidence and mortality.                                                                             50

     Mortality rates for Hispanics, Asians, Pacific
                                                                                                      Mortality per 100,000

     Islanders, American Indians, and Alaskan
     Natives are lower than those for whites or
     African Americans.                                                                                                         20
     It is estimated that approximately $8.4 billion is                            1
     spent in the United States each year on treatment
     of colorectal cancer.                                                                                                        0
                                                                                                                                      1985           1989         1993             1997       2001               2005
     Source for incidence and mortality data: Surveillance,
     Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) Program and the
     National Center for Health Statistics. Additional statistics                                                                 Whites        Hispanics*                 African Americans
     and charts are available at                                                                         Asians/Pacific Islanders*                American Indians/Alaskan Natives*
                                                                                                              *Incidence and mortality data not available before 1992.
      Cancer Trends Progress Report (http://progressreport., in 2004 dollars, based on methods described
     in Medical Care 2002 Aug; 40 (8 Suppl): IV-104–17.

                                                                                                                                      NCI Colorectal Cancer Research Investment
     Trends in NCI Funding for                                                                                                                          $4.7B          $4.8B          $4.7B     $4.8B            5
     Colorectal Cancer Research                                                                                                 300

                                                                                                                                        $261.6M        $262.0M                                $258.4M
                                                                                                                                                                    $253.1M                                      4
     The National Cancer Institute’s (NCI’s) investment                                2                                        250                                                 $244.1M

     in colorectal cancer research decreased slightly
                                                                                                          Millions of Dollars

                                                                                                                                                                                                                     Billions of Dollars

     from $261.6 million in fiscal year 2003 to                                                                                                                                                                  3

     $258.4 million in fiscal year 2007.                                                                                        150

     Source: NCI Office of Budget and Finance (http://obf.                                                                                                                                                       2                                                                                                              100
      The estimated NCI investment is based on funding                                                                                                                                                           1
     associated with a broad range of peer-reviewed scientific                                                                   50
     activities. For additional information on research planning
     and budgeting at the National Institutes of Health, see                                                                      0                                                                              0                                                                                                          2003           2004           2005           2006      2007
                                                                                                                                                                   Fiscal Year
                                                                                                                                                               Colorectal Cancer Funding      Total NCI Budget

Developed by NCI’s Office of Science Planning and Assessment (OSPA) with assistance from SAIC. Snapshots can be found online at:
Examples of NCI Activities                                  What You Need to Know About™
Relevant to Colorectal Cancer                               Cancer of the Colon and Rectum
•	 Five	gastrointestinal	cancer-specific	Specialized                              This booklet discusses possible
   Programs of Research Excellence (SPOREs) are                                   causes, symptoms, diagnosis,
   moving results from the laboratory to the clinical                             treatment, and rehabilitation. It
   setting.                          also has information to help patients
                                                                                  cope with colorectal cancer.
•	 NCI’s	 Colorectal Cancer Mortality Projections
   website provides data on the impact of risk                                  Risk factors for colorectal cancer
   factor reduction, increased early detection, and                             include: age over 50, colorectal
   increased access to optimal treatment on future                              polyps, family history of colorectal
   colorectal cancer mortality rates. http://cisnet.                            cancer, genetic alterations, personal                        history of cancer, ulcerative colitis or Crohn’s disease,
                                                             diet, and cigarette smoking.
•	 NCI’s	 Transdisciplinary Research on Energetics
   and Cancer (TREC) centers are collaborating               rectal
   to reduce cancer incidence, morbidity, and
                                                             Information specialists can also answer questions about
   mortality associated with obesity, low levels of          cancer at 1-800-4-CANCER.
   physical activity, and poor diet. Two of the four
   TREC centers focus on colorectal cancer. http://           edge cancer etiology and carcinogenesis program.                             One study in the program is focusing on the role
•	 The	 Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian               of various inflammation-related gene products in
   Cancer Screening Trial (PLCO), a large-scale               colon carcinogenesis.
   clinical trial, is determining whether specific            asp?labid=790
   cancer-screening tests reduce deaths from these         •	 Th e 	 C e n t e r s f o r E x c e l l e n c e i n C a n c e r
   cancers.         Communication Research support interdisciplinary
   groups/ed/programs/plco                                    research on cancer communications, including
•	 The	 Colon Cancer Family Registry is an                    studies on how patients, cancer survivors, and the
   international infrastructure of investigators              public seek information on colon cancer and on the
   conducting population and clinically based                 development of tailored messages promoting fruit
   interdisciplinary studies on the genetic and               and vegetable intake among African Americans.
   molecular epidemiology of colon cancer and its   
   behavioral implications. http://epi.grants.cancer.      •	 The	Colon and Rectal Cancer Home Page provides
   gov/CFR/about_colon.html                                   up-to-date information on colorectal cancer
•	 The	 Cancer and Inflammation Program is                    treatment, prevention, genetics, causes, screening,
   conducting research that combines NCI’s expertise          testing, and other topics.
   in inflammation and immunology with its cutting-           cancerinfo/types/colon-and-rectal

Selected Advances in Colorectal Cancer Research
•	 An	international	research	team	identified	a	link	       •	 The	 fecal	 immunochemical	 test,	 a	 new	 fecal	
   between the expression patterns of microRNAs,              occult blood test, has shown promising results for
   a class of biomolecules, and the progression of            detecting colorectal cancers. http://www.cancer.
   colon cancer.             gov/ncicancerbulletin/NCI_Cancer_Bulletin_092507/
   pressreleases/ColonMicroRNAHarris                           page4#c
•	 Several	single	nucleotide	polymorphisms	(SNPs),	        •	 High	levels	of	circulating	vitamin	D	are	associated	
   or changes in a single subunit of DNA, on                  with a lower risk of death from colorectal
   chromosome 8 (8q24) can significantly increase             cancer.
   a person’s risk of colon cancer. http://www.cancer.         NCI_Cancer_Bulletin_110607/page4
                                                                                                      Last updated September 2008

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