BTEC FIRST DIPLOMA IN PUBLIC SERVICES Advice on the delivery by redheadwaitress

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									               BTEC FIRST DIPLOMA IN PUBLIC SERVICES
              Advice on the delivery of the CVQO Workbook part of
                    ‘Unit 3 Uniformed Public Service Fitness’
                               Relevant pages of              Level of Question
Questions                      Resource Book
1a                             6-9                            Pass
1b                             10                             Merit
2a                             11                             Pass
2b                             12 - 14                        Merit
3a and b                       15 & 16                        Merit
4a and b                       19, 22-24                      Pass
5a                             24 - 25, 28 - 30               Pass
5b                             26                             Merit
6a and b                       27                             Pass
7a                             19                             Merit
7b                             19. 20 – 26, 28 - 35           Distinction
7c                             19, 20-26, 28 - 35             Distinction



To gain a PASS in the Workbook part of Unit 3, all Pass questions (1a, 2a, 4a, 4b, 5a, 6a and 6b) must be
answered correctly.

To gain a MERIT in the Workbook part of Unit 3, all Pass questions (1a, 2a, 4a, 4b, 5a, 6a and 6b) and
all Merit questions (1b, 2b, 3a, 3b, 5b and 7a) must be answered correctly.

To gain a DISTINCTION in the Workbook part of Unit 3, all Pass questions (1a, 2a, 4a, 4b, 5a, 6a and
6b), all Merit questions (1b, 2b, 3a, 3b, 5band 7a) and both Distinction questions (7b and 7c) must be
answered correctly.


NB – amendment to page 11 of the Resource Book. First 2 bullet points for Simple Carbohydrates
should read together as one function - ‘these are easy to digest to provide a fast source of energy’. First 2
bullet points for Complex Carbohydrates should read together as one function – ‘these take longer to
digest than simple carbohydrates to provide a more sustained source of energy than simple carbohydrates’.




Jun 06                                                                                              1 of 17
                    LESSON PLANS FOR UNIT 3

                                 QUESTION 1
  SUBJECT        Unit 3 Public Service Fitness
  LESSON TITLE   Question 1- Human Body Systems and Effects of Training
  DURATION       30 minutes
  EQUIPMENT      Workbook Resource Book pages 6 - 10
                 Workbook pages 5 – 7
  OPTIONAL       OHTs of diagrams on pages 6 - 9
  EXTRAS         OHP and power source
                 screen
  AIM            By the end of the lesson cadets should be able to:
                     o Produce annotated diagrams describing the respiratory, cardio-
                        vascular, muscular-skeletal and digestive systems.
                     o Explain the short and long-term effects of exercise on the major body
                        systems
  LESSON         OPTIONAL – set up OHP to show the four body systems.

                 Respiratory System – system involved in getting oxygen into the body, and
                 carbon dioxide out.

                 Main parts:
                 Trachea – carries air from the mouth to the lungs and vice versa, held open
                 by horseshoe shaped rings of cartilage
                 Alveoli – air sacs in lungs, where gaseous exchange occurs (oxygen moves
                 from alveoli into blood, and carbon dioxide moves from blood to alveoli).
                 Ribs – bones surrounding and protecting the lungs, involved in breathing
                 movements.
                 Intercostal muscles – contract to move ribs up and out when breathing in, to
                 increase volume of lungs so air rushes in.
                 Diaphragm – sheet of muscle under ribs – flattens when breathing in to
                 increase volume of lungs. Domes upwards when breathing out to decrease
                 volume of lungs so air rushes out when mouth opens.

                 Cardio-vascular system – system involved in pumping blood around the
                 body.

                 Heart - a muscular pump, divided into 2 halves. The left hand side pumps
                 oxygenated blood around the body. The right-hand side pumps
                 deoxygenated blood up to the lungs, to get rid of the carbon dioxide and
                 collect oxygen.
                 Aorta –artery (blood vessel with thick elastic walls) which carries
                 oxygenated blood from the left hand side of the heart around the body.
                 Pulmonary vein – Vein (blood vessel with thinner muscular wall) which
                 carries oxygenated blood from the lungs back to the heart.

                 Capillaries – blood vessels with walls that are only one cell thick. Connect

Jun 06                                                                                  2 of 17
         arteries to veins. Thin walls allow nutrients and oxygen to pass from the
         blood into the cells, and carbon dioxide and wastes to pass from cells into the
         blood.

         Muscular-skeletal system – involved in movement. Skeleton supports the
         body, the muscles move the skeleton.

         Protection :
         Skull or Cranium – protects brain
         Ribs – protect lungs and heart and helps with breathing movements
         Pelvic girdle – protects reproductive organs and bladder
         Orbit – protects eyes
         Vertebral Column – supports the body in an upright position.


         Digestive System – breaks down large, insoluble food particles into small,
         soluble ones.

         Stomach – muscular sack where food is held for up to several hours. Food is
         churned here to make a liquid called chyme. Hydrochloric acid is added to
         kill bacteria and help give an acidic environment for the enzyme protease to
         work.
         Small Intestine – part of digestive tract where most of the digestion by
         enzymes occurs. Digested food is also absorbed through the walls into the
         blood so the body can use it.
         Pancreas – feather-shaped organ that produces digestive enzymes.
         Liver – produces bile helping digest fats. Plays a major role in metabolism.
         Also involved in glycogen storage, drug detoxification and performing and
         regulating various biochemical reactions.
         Large Intestine – where water is reabsorbed from the left over food.

         Effects of Training on the body – fitness training has both short and long-
         term effects of the body. These are mainly beneficial effects. page 10 in the
         Resource Book highlights these effects.

         This page should emphasise to the cadets the benefits of exercise. They
         should be able to think about how they feel at the end of training and link this
         to the short term effects, such as:
         increased heart rate- to pump more blood around the body to carry oxygen
         and nutrients to the cells for respiration
         increased rate of breathing – to get more oxygen into the blood
         increased blood flow to the muscles – to carry the nutrients and oxygen to
         those cells that are working hard.

         Then if they think about how their body changes when they have been
         training for a while. These changes include:
         Resting heart rate decreases – because the size of the heart has increased
         and the muscle is more powerful, more blood gets pumped each time the heart
         contracts, therefore the number of times it needs to contract per minute
         decreases.
Jun 06                                                                            3 of 17
                          Blood supply to the muscles increases – the muscles have got bigger and are
                          used more, therefore the blood supply to the muscles increase to meet with
                          the increase in demand of nutrients and oxygen.
                          Number of red blood cells increases – the number of blood vessels has
                          increased and there is more demand for oxygen, therefore there is an increase
                          in red blood cells so more oxygen can be carried around the body.
                          The efficiency of the respiratory system increases – because the lungs
                          increase in size, and the muscles used in breathing have increased in size,
                          therefore more air is taken in with each breath.
                          Skeletal muscles increase in size – due to an increase in use.
                          Ligaments and Tendons increase in strength – due to an increase in use
                          More glycogen (stored carbohydrate) and oxygen stored in the muscles –
                          to reduce the risk of fatigue.
                          More enzymes in the muscles – therefore improving the efficiency of
                          respiration (release of energy).
  WORKBOOK                1a – pages 5 and 6 of the Workbook. Each of the diagrams has 6 labels on it
  QUESTIONS               (labelled A – F). The cadet must use the diagrams in the Resource Book
                          (pages 6 -9) to label each with the correct name. The information above in
                          the lesson plan will help them give the function of each of the parts.
                          1b – page 7 in the Workbook. One short term effect is needed for each of the
                          cardio-vascular, respiratory and muscular-skeletal system – these are given in
                          the notes above. 3 long term effects are needed for the cardio-vascular
                          system, 1 long term effect for the respiratory system, and 4 for the muscular-
                          skeletal system. Again this information is given in the notes above. All
                          information to answer 1 b is also given on page 10 of the Resource Book.
  SUM UP                  The cadets should now be able to label each of the 4 main human body
                          systems, and give functions for the main parts.
                          They should also be able to recognise the importance of training and the
                          effects on the 4 main body systems.
  KEY POINTS              Correct names and functions are needed for each label on the 4 diagrams to
                          gain a Pass for 1a.

                          1 short and 3 long- term effects for the cardio-vascular system, 1 short and 1
                          long-term effect for the respiratory system, and 1 short and 4 long-term
                          effects for the muscular-skeletal system are needed to gain a Merit for 1b.

                          A Merit cannot be awarded for question 1 unless la and 1b are answered
                          correctly.
  COMMENTS
  (to be filled in by
  staff teaching lesson
  for their own future
  use)
  IMPROVEMENTS
  (to be filled in by
  staff teaching lesson
  for their own future
  use, and to feed
  back to CVQO)
Jun 06                                                                                            4 of 17
                              QUESTIONS 2 & 3
SUBJECT           Unit 3 Public Service Fitness
LESSON TITLE      Question 2 and 3- Nutrition
DURATION          40 minutes
EQUIPMENT         Workbook Resource Book pages 11 - 16
                  Workbook pages 8 - 10
OPTIONAL EXTRAS   Examples of food for each nutritional group (examples are given on page 11
                  of the Resource Book). These could be:
                  Simple carbohydrates – white bread / chocolate
                  Complex carbohydrates – granary bread / brown pasta
                  Fats – peanuts / cheese
                  Protein – can of tuna / kidney beans
                  Minerals – milk / tinned salmon
                  Vitamins – apple / yogurt
                  Water – fruit / squash
                  Fibre – bran flakes / cabbage

                  Paper plate with pictures on it to show an example of the correct proportion
                  of food groups in a meal, according to the food pyramid.
AIM               By the end of the lesson cadets should be able to:
                      o Describe the purpose and function of each food group.
                      o Explain the importance of good nutrition to health.
LESSON            OPTIONAL - could lay examples of foods out and see if cadets can put them
                  into the correct groups. Also can discuss how one food can contain several
                  nutritional groups within it.

                  A balanced diet is important to health. A good diet will include all the
                  following nutrient groups:
                  Carbohydrates – 2 types – simple and complex, complex being better for
                  you on the whole. Simple carbohydrates – easy to digest to provide a fast
                  source of energy; complex carbohydrates – take longer to digest to provide a
                  more sustained source of energy. With both types of carbohydrate excess
                  can be stored as glycogen or fat.
                  Protein – for growth, repair and maintenance of the body. Used in
                  production of hormones and enzymes. Helps produce antibodies to fight
                  infection. Can be used for energy, as a last resort.
                  Fat – a concentrated source of food energy, so good for storage, but does not
                  supply immediate energy. Surrounds and protects vital body organs,
                  insulates the body and provides fat soluble vitamins.
                  Fibre – maintains a healthy digestive system, prevents constipation.
                  Water – needed for body fluids and chemical reactions in the body, for
                  temperature regulation, to transport nutrients around the body, to lubricate
                  joints, to maintain blood volume and for excretion of wastes.
                  Vitamins - regulate the maintenance and growth of the body. Involved in
                  control of chemical reactions in cells.
                  Minerals – needed for growth, involved in the control of body processes and
                  are essential parts of body fluids..
Jun 06                                                                                   5 of 17
         If you do not follow a balanced diet, it can lead to various diseases. Below
         are six of the most common:
         Hypoglycaemia – this is low blood sugar. If you eat a meal containing a lot
         of simple carbohydrates then it means a lot of insulin needs to be produced.
         If a lot of insulin is produced it can cause a crash in blood sugar levels after
         the high peak.
         Diabetes – if you eat a lot of refined sugars over a sustained period of time
         then you can increase your risk of diabetes by putting strain on your pancreas
         (where insulin is made). Eventually it could lead to not enough insulin being
         produced, so glycogen is not stored, and you have problems controlling
         blood sugar levels. This can be very dangerous.
         Obesity – this is when you are substantially overweight. Environmental
         factors such as overeating, poor nutrition and lack of exercise can increase
         the risk of obesity.
         High cholesterol – this can be caused by eating too many ‘bad’ fats. These
         fats can build up in the blood and cause hardening and narrowing of the
         arteries. Environmental factors such as lack of exercise, being overweight,
         drinking too much alcohol and eating too many animal fats can increase the
         risk of high cholesterol.
         High blood pressure – this is dangerous as it can lead to strokes, heart
         attacks, kidney failure and eye damage. Lifestyle choices, such a being
         overweight, smoking, lack of exercise, eating too much salt, drinking too
         much alcohol and eating too many saturated fats can increase blood pressure.
         Heart disease – this occurs when not enough nutrients and oxygen get to the
         heart muscle. Environmental factors such as being overweight, lack of
         exercise, drinking too much alcohol, eating too much salt, eating too many
         saturated fats, smoking and being stressed can increase the risk of heart
         disease. All these factors can restrict blood flow through the arteries and
         increase the chances of blood clots.

         Discuss what the cadets think would be a healthy meal. Look at the food
         pyramid on page 15 of the Resource Book. Discuss the correct proportions
         of food.

         Look at what should make up the largest proportion (Group 5) – bread,
         cereal, rice and pasta. Preferable these should be of the brown variety,
         which contain complex carbohydrates, giving a more sustained energy
         release. This group also provides fibre, protein, iron (important for
         haemoglobin to carry oxygen around the body) and B vitamins (needed for
         growth, general maintenance of health and energy release).

         The next groups up (Groups 3 and 4) are fruit and vegetables. These are
         good sources of vitamins and minerals. They also provide fibre.

         Then comes meat, fish, beans, eggs, nuts, milk, yogurt and cheese (Groups 1
         and 2). These are important in the provision of protein, vitamins and
         minerals.

         The peak of the pyramid is made up of the foods with the least nutritional
         value – jams, butter etc. These should be used sparingly.
Jun 06                                                                           6 of 17
                            Explain that the Food Pyramid is used to help people evaluate their own
                            diets to make them as balanced as possible.

WORKBOOK                    2a on page 8 of the Workbook needs the ‘function’ column completing. The
QUESTIONS                   table on page 15 of the Resource Book will help with this, as will the notes
                            above.

                            PLEASE NOTE – AMENDMENT REQUIRED IN RESOURCE BOOK.
                            The first two bullet points for simple carbohydrates should go together as
                            ONE function, therefore reading ‘these are easy to digest to provide a fast
                            source of energy’. The first two bullet points for complex carbohydrates
                            should read together as ONE function, therefore reading ‘these take longer to
                            digest than simple carbohydrates to provide a more sustained source of
                            energy than simple carbohydrates’.

                            2b on page 9 of the Workbook needs the cadet to look at three diseases
                            which can be caused by poor nutrition. 3 diseases need to be named and
                            then an explanation of why poor nutrition can lead to each of these
                            diseases has to be given. Information to answer this question is given above,
                            or on pages 12 - 13 of the Resource Book.
                            3a – the cadets need to complete what type of foods (e.g. bread, meat, milk
                            etc.) are found in each group of the food pyramid. The information for this
                            is at the top of page 15 of the Resource Book, and also in the notes above.

                            3b – the cadets need to explain why the food pyramid was developed by
                            nutritionists. This is explained at the beginning of page 15 of the Resource
                            Book and in the last paragraph in the ‘lesson’ above.
SUM UP                      At the end of this lesson, the cadets should be aware of the importance of
                            good nutrition, why each nutrient group is necessary and what a balanced
                            diet is.
KEY POINTS                  Correct functions are needed for each nutrient in the table to gain a Pass for
                            2a.
                            Three named diseases resulting from poor nutrition need to be described in
                            2b to gain a Merit.
                            A Merit cannot be awarded for question 2 unless 2a and 2b are answered
                            correctly.
                            The whole of question 3 needs to be completed correctly in order to gain a
                            Merit for this question.
COMMENTS
(to be filled in by staff
teaching lesson for
their own future use)
IMPROVEMENTS
(to be filled in by staff
teaching lesson for
their own future use,
and to feed back to
CVQO)

Jun 06                                                                                               7 of 17
                                 QUESTION 4
  SUBJECT        Unit 3 Public Service Fitness
  LESSON TITLE   Question 4 – components of fitness
  DURATION       20 minutes
  EQUIPMENT      Workbook Resource Book page 19
                 Workbook page 11
  OPTIONAL       Access to the internet such as:
  EXTRAS         www.fitness-training.net/introduction/10

  AIM            By the end of the lesson the cadets should be able to:
                     o Explain the components of fitness relating them to a public service
                        fitness test.
  LESSON         Fitness can be looked at through many different components. Most people
                 will have an area they are particularly strong at.

                  Skill related fitness includes: agility, balance, co-ordination, power,
                 reaction time and speed. These are all things that you can naturally be good
                 at, but with training you can improve all areas.

                 Health related fitness is made up of the following: cardiovascular
                 endurance, muscular strength, muscular endurance, flexibility, body
                 composition and ability to cope with stress. Again all these components can
                 be improved with training.

                 Service fitness tests are designed to check the level of a variety of the above
                 components. Examples include:

                 Bleep test and shuttle run – to test cardiovascular endurance, muscular
                 strength, muscular endurance, agility, power, speed.
                 Long distance marches in full kit – cardiovascular endurance, muscular
                 strength, muscular endurance, power, speed, and ability to cope with stress.
                 Press-ups – muscular strength, muscular endurance, power.
                 Sit and reach test – flexibility
                 Fat callipers – body composition
                 Beam work – balance and co-ordination
                 Sit-ups – muscular strength, muscular endurance, power
                 Pull-ups – upper body muscular strength, endurance and power.

  WORKBOOK       4a – page 11 of the Workbook. Five boxes need to be ticked to pick out the
  QUESTIONS      components of fitness. page 19 of the Resource Book and the notes above
                 will help.

                 4b – page 11 of the Workbook. Each of the three parts of the fitness test
                 tests at least 3 components of fitness. These components need to be named
                 in the relevant boxes



Jun 06                                                                                    8 of 17
  SUM UP                  By the end of this lesson the cadet should recognise the components of
                          fitness. This will help them when they have to put together a personal
                          training programme.
  KEY POINTS              Both parts of question 4 need to be completed correctly in order to gain a
                          Pass for this question.
  COMMENTS
  (to be filled in by
  staff teaching lesson
  for their own future
  use)
  IMPROVEMENTS
  (to be filled in by
  staff teaching lesson
  for their own future
  use, and to feed
  back to CVQO)




Jun 06                                                                                           9 of 17
                                 QUESTION 5

  SUBJECT        Unit 3 Public Service Fitness
  LESSON TITLE   Question 5 - Designing a personal training programme.
  DURATION       60 minutes
  EQUIPMENT      Workbook Resource Book page 24 – 26, 28 - 30
                 Workbook page 11 - 13
  OPTIONAL       Access to the internet to look at different styles of personal training
  EXTRAS         programmes.
                 www.hoptechno.com/book11.htm

                 ‘Fit for the Best’ Army video
  AIM            By the end of the lesson the cadets should be able to:
                     o Plan a training programme to improve their own performance in a
                          public service fitness test.
                     o Explain the methods used when planning a fitness training
                          programme.
  LESSON         The cadets have to imagine the scenario that they applied to join the service
                 of their choice, but when they took the fitness test they failed it. They now
                 have 3 months to get themselves up to fitness before they retake the test.
                 They need to learn how to develop their own fitness training programme.

                 When designing a Personal Training programme several things need to be
                 taken into consideration:

                 Frequency – of the exercise sessions per week. This depends on the
                 training goals set, current state of health and fitness, and time constraints.
                 As performance increases, then frequency of training should increase.
                 Always allow for recovery between sessions.

                 Intensity – this is how hard you exercise, e.g. the pace you run, the amount
                 of weight you lift or the heart rate count.

                 Types – of training. These can include:
                 Circuit – when a series of exercises (8 – 10) are arranged in a circuit. Each
                 exercise concentrates on stressing specific muscle groups. It is important to
                 order the exercises to alternate the muscle groups being worked, to allow
                 for recovery.
                 Interval – this is used for both aerobic and anaerobic training. Periods of
                 work are interspersed with periods of recovery. It is popular as it allows
                 variety in the workout and allows quality work to be maintained. Onset of
                 fatigue is delayed due to the recovery periods, so more work can be
                 undertaken. Examples of intervals used in training are running 10 lots of 60
                 metres in 8 seconds, with 90 seconds recovery; 10 lots of 200m in 30
                 seconds with 90 seconds recovery; 5 lots of 400 m in 80 seconds with 160
                 seconds recovery.
                 Fartlek – this combines continuous and interval training. Running is done
                 over whatever distance and speed the athlete wishes. Intensity is varied and
                 occasionally running is carried out at high intensity levels. This works both
Jun 06                                                                                   10 of 17
         the aerobic and anaerobic systems. E.g. the Gerschler Fartlek for getting fit
         quickly, when combined with steady running training:
         10 minute warm up jog
         3 lots of : stride hard for 30 seconds, jog 90 seconds, then repeat with 15
         seconds less in the recovery jog each time (i.e. 30-90, 30-75, 30-60, 30-45,
         30-30, 30-15)
         10 minute warm down jog.
         Endurance (continuous) – this is when exercise is carried out in a steady,
         normally aerobic way. Examples include:
             1. Running at 70 – 80% of maximum heart rate, at a 10km pace for 30
                 – 45 minutes. This burns glycogen and is aerobic. Useful for 10km
                 to marathon runners. Improves the cardiovascular system and
                 increases number of capillaries to muscles.
             2. Running at 80 – 90% of maximum heart rate, at a 5km pace for 10 –
                 20 minutes. This burns glycogen and is anaerobic. Useful for 5km
                 to marathon runners. Improves the cardiovascular system, increases
                 number of capillaries to muscles, improves glycogen burning, and
                 improves lactate tolerance and removal.
             3. Running at 90 – 100% of maximum heart rate, at an 800/1500 m
                 pace for 1-5 minutes. This burns glycogen and is anaerobic. Useful
                 for 800m to 5km. Improves glycogen burning and improves lactate
                 tolerance and removal.
         Resistance – this can either be by using your body weight, using free
         weights or using resistance machines.
         Flexibility – moving a joint to just beyond its point of resistance and
         holding it for 10 seconds. By working the muscles, ligaments and tendons
         around a joint, flexibility can be increased. The session should last at least
         10 minutes and should be carried out after warming up, or during the cool-
         down. The areas to be worked on need to be identified and the stretches
         need to be done at least 3 times a week, but improvement should be seen
         within 5 – 6 weeks.

         Time - how long the training session will last. It is important to remember
         the relationship between intensity and duration. If you over-stress your
         aerobic system too much then you will have to finish the training session
         earlier than you may wish. Increasing the duration of training is another
         way to cause overload.

         When designing the programme it needs to:
           1. be specific to the fitness test the cadet is working towards
           2. Be progressive so they do not burn themselves out. Do not make
               the programme too difficult to start with, build it up gradually.
           3. Involves overload to improve performance - but make sure it is at a
               level where the cadet can manage the intensity of the exercise while
               keeping good form and posture. As the body responds by improving
               performance, the work rates and loads can be increased gradually.
           4. relevant to the fitness test
           5. Made up of sessions of suitable duration (time) – these can
               obviously be increased, as performance improves. This is another
               way to be progressive and increase overload.
Jun 06                                                                           11 of 17
                           SPORT (see page 26 of Resource Book)
                          The training needs to remain directed at the fitness test and the cadet needs
                          to be focussed on their personal goal. The training programme needs to be
                          realistic and interesting, to keep the cadet focussed. A good diet is essential,
                          as is hydration. Sports drinks and bars should not be needed for sessions
                          less than 2 hrs per day – just stick to a healthy, well balanced diet with
                          plenty of water to drink. Warming up, stretching and cooling-down are
                          very important to avoid injury. Blend workouts to avoid injury, fatigue,
                          over-training and boredom by using a variety of workout types. Combine
                          strength with aerobic workouts to improve the ability to burn energy while
                          developing muscle groups.

  WORKBOOK                Question 5a on page 12 of the Workbook – daily workouts need to be
  QUESTIONS               written in column 3, then the relevant box ticked in the 2nd and 4th columns
                          – no more than one box in each of column 2 and 4 need be ticked for each
                          day. TWO REST DAYS can be included in the week’s plan – on these
                          days only ‘rest day’ needs to be ticked in column 4. Examples of workouts
                          are given on pages 28 -30 of the Resource Book.

                          Qu 5b – mnemonic ‘SPORT’ needs to be explained, either using notes
                          above of Resource Book page 26
  SUM UP                  At the end of this lesson cadets should be able to plan their own personal
                          training programme that they would be able to carry out to improve their
                          fitness ready to pass the test for their specific service.
  KEY POINTS              A suitable, complete personal training programme needs to be designed to
                          gain a Pass in 5a

                          An explanation for each point in SPORT (specific, progressive, overload,
                          relevant, time) needs to be given to reach a Merit in 5b.

                          Both 5a and 5b need to be completed correctly to get a Merit for question
                          5
  COMMENTS
  (to be filled in by
  staff teaching lesson
  for their own future
  use)
  IMPROVEMENTS
  (to be filled in by
  staff teaching lesson
  for their own future
  use, and to feed
  back to CVQO)




Jun 06                                                                                             12 of 17
                                QUESTION 6

  SUBJECT        Unit 3 Public Service Fitness
  LESSON TITLE   Question 6 – Health and Safety when planning a personal training
                 programme
  DURATION       20 minutes
  EQUIPMENT      Workbook Resource Book page 27
                 Workbook page 14
  OPTIONAL       Access to the internet such as:
  EXTRAS         www.bbc.co.uk/schools/gcsebiesize/pe/fitness/

  AIM            By the end of the lesson cadets should be able to:
                    o Describe the factors of health and safety which could affect the
                         cadet’s own personal training programme
  LESSON         The cadets need to look at their personal training programme and think
                 about the possible health and safety issues involved with it.

                 The following aspects need to be thought about:

                    1. Equipment used – this needs to be appropriate for the training. It
                       needs to fit properly and be secure. You should check your own kit
                       (e.g. cycling helmet is in good condition) and the general equipment
                       (e.g. weight machine set up properly).
                    2. Facilities – these need to be checked for hazards, e.g. gym floor not
                       wet, no barbed wire on the pitch.
                    3. Weather – react accordingly –e.g. do not run up hills if weather is
                       poor, wear sun block if sunny.
                    4. Environment – think and react accordingly – do not run alone at
                       night, don’t play on a frozen pitch.
                    5. Illness – you should not train if ill, especially if you are ill from the
                       throat down.
                    6. Existing Injury –see a sports therapist or physiotherapist if
                       necessary. Avoid stressing injury any further.
                    7. Clothing – wear appropriate clothing for the training and the
                       conditions, e.g. sun hats in sunny weather, luminous vests at night,
                       running spikes when ground very muddy and slippery.
                    8. Warm-ups – specific to the type of training. These are essential to
                       avoid injury to muscles and tendons.
                    9. Cool-downs – this helps with the recovery process, by starting to
                       remove built up lactic acid. This helps avoid stiffness and pain.




Jun 06                                                                                   13 of 17
  WORKBOOK                Question 6a on page 14 of the Workbook - five boxes need to be marked to
  QUESTIONS               show which are important areas to look at in your training as far as health
                          and safety is concerned. page 27 of the Resource Book helps answer this
                          question.

                          Question 6b on page 14 of the Workbook – the cadet chooses three out of
                          the five areas they marked in 6a, and describe how they can affect the health
                          and safety of their training programme. Page 27 of the Resource Book helps
                          answer this question.
  SUM UP                  At the end of this lesson cadets should be able describe the factors of health
                          and safety which could affect their personal training programme.
  KEY POINTS              Five factors should be marked in 6a and descriptions for three of the
                          marked factors need to be given in 6b to reach a Pass for question 6.
  COMMENTS
  (to be filled in by
  staff teaching lesson
  for their own future
  use)
  IMPROVEMENTS
  (to be filled in by
  staff teaching lesson
  for their own future
  use, and to feed
  back to CVQO)




Jun 06                                                                                           14 of 17
                                 QUESTION 7

  SUBJECT        Unit 3 Public Service Fitness
  LESSON TITLE   Question 7 – analysing, evaluating and improving performance.
  DURATION       40 minutes
  EQUIPMENT      Workbook Resource Book page 19 - 31
                 Workbook page 15 and 16
  OPTIONAL       Access to the internet such as:
  EXTRAS         www.hoptechno.com/book11.htm

  AIM            By the end of the lesson cadets should be able to:
                    o Analyse their own performance in a public service fitness test.
                    o Recommend improvements to their own performance in a public
                        service fitness test.
                    o Evaluate their own performance on completion of the training
                        programme.
  LESSON         Having completed a public service fitness test the cadet now has to analyse
                 and evaluate their performance. They then have to think how they could
                 improve their own performance.

                 To analyse their performance in a public service fitness test they need to
                 identify their major strengths and weaknesses in their performance. These
                 need to be identified with the principles of health and fitness in mind
                 (agility, balance, co-ordination, power, reaction time and speed,
                 cardiovascular endurance, muscular strength, muscular endurance,
                 flexibility, body composition and ability to cope with stress).

                 For evaluation of their performance, the cadet needs to identify the reasons
                 for the weaknesses. These could include not performing the training session
                 properly, not putting the time in, doing the wrong exercises, not working on
                 the correct muscle groups, incorrect nutrition, poor hydration,

                 For improving their performance they need to think about a realistic goal
                 for their major weaknesses, a timescale and a method of achieving those
                 results. They need to apply the theory they have learnt as far as anatomy
                 and physiology is concerned. They also need to consider psychological
                 aspects. They need to consider specific exercises for each weakness, such
                 as:
                 Agility
                 Balance
                 Coordination
                 Power
                 Reaction time
                 Speed – Interval training, with bursts of working at high intensity.
                 Continuous training - running at 90 – 100% of maximum heart rate, at an
                 800/1500 m pace for 1-5 minutes. This burns glycogen and is anaerobic
                 Cardiovascular endurance – cycling, jogging, running (continuous,
                 Fartlek or interval training), swimming, rowing – which put stress on the
                 cardiovascular system. The session should last 40 – 60 minutes on average.
Jun 06                                                                                  15 of 17
              At least 4 sessions a week, for at least 12 weeks to significantly improve
              this area.
              Muscular endurance – circuit training, working at maximum for 1 minute
              at each of the 8 stations, with 30 secs – 1 min recovery time, returning to
              each station three times during the training session.
              Muscular strength – resistance training, overloading movements and
              allowing appropriate recovery between individual exercises and training
              sessions; train 3 times a week for at least 10 weeks. Circuit training,
              working at maximum for 30 seconds with a 30 second recovery period, with
              about 8 stations, each being visited 3 times.
              Flexibility – stretching a joint to just beyond its point of resistance, holding
              for a minimum of 10 seconds and the flexibility session lasting for a
              minimum of 10 minutes. A warm- up should be performed first to get the
              blood flowing to the muscles. Flexibility sessions should be performed at
              least 3 times per week for at least 5 weeks.
              Body composition – nutrition and type of training need to be considered
              here. To reduce body fat, less fat (especially saturated) and less
              carbohydrate (especially simple) need to be consumed. Increase the
              amounts of lean protein and vegetables in the diet for the feeling of
              satisfaction. Longer training sessions at lower intensity (aerobic) burn fat
              more readily.
              Agility – use the ‘agility ladder’ technique. Mark out a ladder, initially with
              just 3 – 4 boxes in it. Gradually increase the complexity of the activities in
              the boxes of the ladder.

              Checking of progress needs to be done, by testing those components that
              were identified as weak, and testing regularly (every 3 weeks) if there is any
              improvement over the 12 weeks of training.

              Muscular strength – vertical jumps and grip strength.
              Muscular endurance – chin-ups and sit-ups
              Cardiovascular endurance – Queen’s College step test
              Speed – 30 metre sprint
              Flexibility – sit and reach test
              Body composition – Skinfold measurement
              Agility – Illinois Agility Run

  WORKBOOK    Question 7a on page 15 of the Workbook – two strengths and two
  QUESTIONS   weaknesses need to be identified and written down in the table. page 19 of
              the Resource Book will hep with this.

              Question 7b – the cadet needs to say why they think they have these two
              weaknesses.

              Question 7c – The cadet needs to suggest ways to improve each weakness,
              and also suggest ways in which they can assess the improvement over the
              12 week training period. Testing methods can be found at the end of the
              Resource Book.


Jun 06                                                                                 16 of 17
  SUM UP                  At the end of this lesson cadets should be able to identify their strengths and
                          weaknesses in relation to their public service fitness test, evaluate their
                          performance and suggest ways to improve on their weaknesses.
  KEY POINTS               To gain a Merit in 7a the cadet must identify two strengths and two
                          weaknesses in their own performance in a public service fitness test.

                          To gain a Distinction in 7b the cadet needs to explain why they think they
                          have these weaknesses

                          To gain a Distinction for 7c the cadet needs to suggest ways in which to
                          improve their two identified weaknesses and also suggest ways in which to
                          check on their progress during the 12 weeks.

                          7a, 7b and 7c all have to be answered correctly to get a Distinction for
                          question 7.
  COMMENTS
  (to be filled in by
  staff teaching lesson
  for their own future
  use)
  IMPROVEMENTS
  (to be filled in by
  staff teaching lesson
  for their own future
  use, and to feed
  back to CVQO)




Jun 06                                                                                            17 of 17

								
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