# Formulae in AL Physics

Document Sample

```					                           Useful Formulae in Advanced Level Physics
v 2
A1.   a=       = w 2r          centripetal acceleration
r

A2.   a = w 2c                 simple harmonic motion

A3.   L = Iw                   angular momentum of a rigid body

dL
A4.   .T =                     torque on a rotating body
dt

1 2
A5.   E=       Iw              energy stored in a rotating body
2

T
B1.   v=                       velocity of transverse wave motion in a stretched string
m

E
B2.   v=                       velocity of longitudinal wave motion in a solid
r

B3.   n = tan q p              refractive index and polarizing angle

lD
B4.   d=                       fringe width in double-slit interference
a

B5.   d sin q = nl             diffraction grating equation

u - u0
B6.   f '= f (        )        Doppler frequency
u - us

I2
B7.   10 log10 (      )        definition of the decibel
I1

Gm1 m2
C1.   F=                       Newton’s law of gravitation
r2

GM
C2.   V =                      gravitational potential
r

C3.   r3 / T2 = constant       Kepler’s third law

Q
C4.   E=                       electric field due to a point charge
4pe 0 r 2

Q
C5.   V =                      electric potential due a point charge
4pe 0 r

1
V
C6.    E=                        electric field between parallel plates (numerically)
d

Q e0 A
C7.    C=     =                  capacitance of a parallel-plate capacitor
V   d

C8.    Q = Qo e -t / RC          decay of charge with time when a capacitor discharges

C9.    Q = Qo (1 - e -t / RC )   rise of charge with time when charging a capacitor

1
C10.   E=     CV 2               energy stored in a capacitor
2

C11.   I = nAuQ                  general current flow equation

rl
C12.   R=                        resistance and resistivity
A

C13.   F = BQu sin q             force on a moving charge in a magnetic field

C14.   F = BI‫ ﺎ‬sin q             force on a current carrying a conductor in a magnetic field

BI
C15.   V=                        Hall voltage
nQt

m0I
C16.   B=                        magnetic field inside a long straight wire
2pr
m 0 NI
C17.   B=                        magnetic field inside long solenoid
l
m 0 I1 I 2
C18.   F=                        force per unit length between long parallel straight current
2pr
carrying conductors

C19.   T = BAN sin f             torque on a rectangular current carrying coil in a uniform
magnetic field

C20.   E = BANw sin wt           simple generator e.m.f.

Vs  N
C21.      » s                    ratio of secondary voltage to primary voltage in a transformer
Vr N r

C22.   E = - LdI / dt            e.m.f. induced in an inductor

1 2
C23.   E=     LI                 energy stored in an inductor
2

C24.   X L = wL                  reactance of an inductor

2
1
C25.   XC =                      reactance of a capacitor
wC

C26.   P = IVCOS q               power in an a.c. circuit

C27.                        RL   voltage gain of transistor amplifier in the common emitter
DVout / DVin = - b
RB
configuration

C28.   Vo = Ao (V+ - V- )        output voltage of op amp (open-loop)

Rf
C29.   A=-                       gain of inverting amplifier
Ri

Rf
C30.   A = 1+                    gain of non-inverting amplifier
Ri

D1.    pV = nRT = NkT            equation of state for an ideal gas

1
D2.    pV =      Nmc 2           kinetic theory equation
3

3RT 3
D3.    Ek =        = kT          molecular kinetic energy
2N A 2

F x
D4.    E=      /                 macroscopic definition of Young modulus
A L

1
D5.    E=       Fx               energy stored in stretching
2

dU
D6.    F =-                      relationship between force and potential energy
dr

D7.    E = .k / r                microscopic interpretation of Young modulus

1 2
D8.    P+    rv + rgh            Bernoulli’s equation
2
= constant

D9.    ∆U = Q + W                first law of thermodynamics

13.6
D10.   En = -        eV          energy level equation for hydrogen atom
n2

D11.   N = N o e - kt            law of radioactive decay

ln 2
D12.   t1 =                      half-life and decay constant
2
k

3
1
D13.     mu m = hv - f
2
Einstein’s photoelectric equation
2

D14.   E = mc2           mass-energy relationship

4

```
DOCUMENT INFO
Shared By:
Categories:
Tags:
Stats:
 views: 42 posted: 4/30/2010 language: English pages: 4