Docstoc

111

Document Sample
111 Powered By Docstoc
					  BICYCLE AS A MEDIAM OF TRASPORT IN URBAN AREAS
______________________________________________________________________________




                                  Authors
            Muhammad Atif                      (L1S07MBAM0118)
            Muhammad Usman Shakoor             (L1S07MBAM0112)
             Sajid Iqbal                       (L1S07MBAM2216)
             Kamal Subhani                     (L1S07MBAM2132)


                             Project Supervisor
                             _______________
                               Prof. B.Malik




         UNIVERSITY OF CENTRAL PUNJAB

                             March, 2010
                                   ABSTRACT
______________________________________________________________________________

In Pakistan bicycles are the only cheaper means of transportation for the local public. It is one of
the environmentally and health promoting modes of traveling. The purpose of our research is to
identify hurdles in usage of bicycles as transport in urban areas of Pakistan. If we compare
Pakistani bicycle industry with international bicycle industry then we can see that we have only
one major manufacturer in the industry and covering the entire local market. The international
bicycle industry is much stronger than Pakistani bicycle industry. India is the second largest
manufacturer of bicycles after china. China has great contribution in the manufacturing of
bicycles. Bicycles are categorized in to fancy and standard bicycles. . The production capacity of
bicycle has mixed trend in Pakistan. It increases for some years and then decrease and also again
increases during few years. The objective of our project is to analyze the reasons of use or non
use of bicycle and to identify the factors that are critical in selection of travel mode choice. The
data sources include both primary as well as secondary data sources. Data Collection methods
includes, structured interviews and questionnaires. We conducted survey with 400 potential
users. Individual interviews were conducted from the manufacturers and wholesalers. SPSS and
MS Excel were used to analyze the data collected through questionnaires and relevant
descriptive statistics were used to draw conclusion. It has been found in urban areas, most of the
people have to travel 12 km and over to reach and to come back from their
college/university/work. Level of safety on bicycle is average. . It is considered as low status
mode of traveling. People buy bicycle mainly for transportation, kids, and servants. Majority of
the people use motorbike and car as a primary mean of transportation. Factors leading to low use
of bicycle have been found as: Time, heavy traffic, and ego problem. The regional infrastructure
system (Streets, bikeways, pedestrian facilities, or transit) is not up to the mark. Factors people
consider while purchasing a bicycle are its price, design, and durability. Most of the times,
people prefer to travel on bicycle for 1-3 km distance. Bicycle manufactures in Pakistan are not
performing effective marketing activities, even a large number of people have not ever seen/hear
advertisement related to bicycle in TV, Radio, Paper, and Billboard. In all areas of the city
bicycle users are very limited. The bicycle usage is decreasing more day by day. Bicycle dealers
can introduce bicycle loan programs to encourage bicycle usage among lower income group.
New innovative changes in designs can attract teenagers towards bicycle, which is the largest
proportion of the total population. There is a strong need to reposition the image of bicycle in the
minds of people. Bicycle manufacturer in Pakistan have to develop effective promotional plan to
promote bicycle. There should be a balance of focus in transport improvement plans which
benefit both motorized transport as well as non-motorized transport. Environment safety and
health promoting societies should play their role to create awareness among people that bicycle
usage can shift transport to environmentally sound and health promoting modes. Government
should play active role in terms of providing supporting regional infrastructure, creating
awareness, reducing sale tax on bicycle to revive bicycle industry in Pakistan.
                                 UNDERTAKING
__________________________________________________________________________________

We certify that research work titled “Bicycle as a Medium of Transport in Urban Areas” is our
own work. The work has not, in whole or in part, been presented elsewhere for assessment.
Where material has been used from other sources it has been properly acknowledged/ referred.




Research Supervisor                                              Research Students

Prof. B.Malik                                                    Muhammad Atif

                                                                 Muhammad Usman Shakoor

                                                                 Sajid Iqbal

                                                                 Kamal Subhani
                           ACKHOWLEGDEMENT
_____________________________________________________________________________________



We would like to thank our parents who greatly support us in all walks of life and help us to
bring together all our strengths for doing anything. We will also like to our teachers at the
University of Central Punjab for providing us their guidance and knowledge, which has been
accordingly helpful in completing this thesis. We would like to greatly thank our supervisors,
Prof. B.Malik and Prof. Abdul Rauf who have motivated us to the limits so that we could submit
the specific tasks in accordance with the deadline so that the work could be completed on time.

Our group members who stayed with us all the times during this research, without them this
research will not be possible. Also we would like to thank all the respondents who filled our
questionnaire with immense cooperation and honesty. It was a great help.
                                            TABLE OF CONTENTS

Abstract .............................................................................................. ……….....1
Undertaking …………………………………………………………………...2
Acknowledgement ........................................................................................... …3
Table of Contents ……………………………………………………………...4
List of Figures ...................................................................................................... 6
List of Tables ....................................................................................................... 8



Chapter I: Introduction
        1.1 History.....................................................................................…...10
        1.2 Arrival of bicycle of Pakistan………………………….………………...10
        1.3 Profile of Industry…………………………….………………………….11
                1.3.1 Pakistan bicycle industry overview……………………….11
        1.4 Specification of Bicycles in Pakistan…………………………………….11
                 1.4.1 Fancy Bicycles…………………………….………………12
                1.4.2 Small Size Bicycles……………………………………….12
                1.4.3 Standard Size Bicycles……………………………………12
                1.4.4 Standard Bicycles Specialty………………………………12
      1.5 Production Capacity and Major Players………………………………….13
                1.5.1 Production Capacity………………………………………13
                1.5.2 Major Players……………………………………………..14
      1.6 Statement of Problem …………………………………………………...15
      1.7 Objective of Research…………………………………………………….15


Chapter II: Literature Review…………………………………………………............16
Chapter III: Methodology
    3.1 Theoretical Frame Work ……………………………………………..33
        3.1.1 Research Type……………………………………………..33
        3.1.2 Dependent Variables………………………………………33
        3.1.3 Independent Variables…………………………………….33
  3.2 Hypothesis………………………………………………………………..33
  3.3 Data Collection Techniques and Procedures……………………………..34
       3.3.1 Source of Data……………………………………………...34
       3.3.2 Instruments of Primary Data Collection……………………34
       3.3.3 Data Collection Include……………………………………..34
  3.4 Sampling Procedure……………………………………………………….35
      3.4.1 Target Population…………………………………………….35
      3.4.2 Sample Size…………………………………………………..35
      3.4.3 Sampling Technique………………………………………….35
  3.5 Data Analysis………………………………………………………………35
Chapter 1V: Conclusion……………………………………………………………….74
         Recommendation………………………………………………………..76
         Limitations of Research…………………………………….................78
References………………………………………………………………………………79
Appendix………………………………………………………………………………...81
                                             LIST OF FIGURES
_____________________________________________________________________________________



Number                                                                                               Page

Fig 1 Specification of Bicycles in Pakistan .................................................. 11

Fig 2 Production Capacity............................................................................. 13

Fig 3 Trend in Production Capacity .............................................................. 13

Fig 4 Residential Area of Respondent .......................................................... 36

Fig 5 Travel to College/Work ....................................................................... 37

Fig 6 Level of Safety..................................................................................... 38

Fig 7 Percentage of Bicycle Usage ............................................................... 40

Fig 8 Income Class using Bicycle ................................................................. 41

Fig 9 Travel to College/Work ....................................................................... 42

Fig 10 People Buy Bicycle For ..................................................................... 43

Fig 11 Bicycles at Home ............................................................................... 44

Fig 12 Primary Mean Car/Motorbike............................................................ 45

Fig 13 Purpose to Use Bicycle ...................................................................... 46

Fig 14 How Often Use Bicycle ..................................................................... 47

Fig 15 Factors Forbade Using Bicycles ........................................................ 48

Fig 16 Regional Infrastructure System ......................................................... 49

Fig 17 Supporting Factors for Bicycle Usage ............................................... 51

Fig 18 Factor People Consider Buying a Bicycles ...................................... 52

Fig 19 Distance People prefer to travel on bicycle ....................................... 54
Fig 20 Bicycle Advertisement....................................................................... 55

Fig 21 Months Suitable for bicycle usage..................................................... 56

Fig 22 Bicycle a Low Status Symbol ............................................................ 57

Fig 23 Supporting Infrastructure Encourage Bicycle Usage ....................... 58

Fig 24 Heavy Traffic Discourage Bicycle .................................................... 59

Fig 25 People Prefer Motorized Vehicle ...................................................... 60

Fig 26 Bicycle Usage in Hot Climate .......................................................... 61

Fig 27 High Fuel Price Impact on Bicycle Usage ......................................... 62

Fig 28 Environmental and Health Promoting Mode of Traveling ............... 63

Fig 29 Respondent Ages ............................................................................... 64

Fig 30 Source of Income .............................................................................. 65

Fig 31 How much do you get? ..................................................................... 66

Fig 32 Residential Area*Travel to College/Work ........................................ 67

Fig 33 Residential Area*Level of Safety ...................................................... 68

Fig 34 Bicycle Usage*Respondent Age........................................................ 69

Fig 35 Bicycles at Home*How Much get ..................................................... 70

Fig 36 Residential Area* Regional Infrastructure ........................................ 71

Fig 37 Source of Income* Travel to College/Work...................................... 72

Fig 38 Source of Income*People Buy Bicycle For....................................... 73
                                            LISTS OF TABLES
_____________________________________________________________________________________

Number                                                                                             Page

Table 1 Residential Area of Respondent ...................................................... 36

Table 2 Travel to College/Work ................................................................... 37

Table 3 Level of Safety ................................................................................ 38

Table 4 Percentage of Bicycle Usage ........................................................... 40

Table 5 Income Class using Bicycle............................................................. 41

Table 6 Travel to College/Work ................................................................... 42

Table 7 People Buy Bicycle For ................................................................... 43

Table 8 Bicycles at Home............................................................................. 44

Table 9 Primary Mean Car/Motorbike ......................................................... 45

Table 10 Purpose to Use Bicycle .................................................................. 46

Table 11 How Often Use Bicycle ................................................................. 47

Table 12 Factors Forbade Using Bicycles .................................................... 48

Table 13 Regional Infrastructure System ..................................................... 49

Table 14 Supporting Factors for Bicycle Usage ........................................... 50

Table 15 Factor People Consider Buying a Bicycles .................................. 52

Table 16 Distance People prefer to travel on bicycle ................................... 54

Table 17 Bicycle Advertisement .................................................................. 55

Table 18 Months Suitable for bicycle usage ................................................ 56

Table 19 Bicycle a Low Status Symbol ....................................................... 57

Table 20 Supporting Infrastructure Encourage Bicycle Usage ................... 58
Table 21 Heavy Traffic Discourage Bicycle ................................................ 59

Table 22 People Prefer Motorized Vehicle ................................................. 60

Table 23 Bicycle Usage in Hot Climate ...................................................... 61

Table 24 High Fuel Price Impact on Bicycle Usage .................................... 62

Table 25 Environmental and Health Promoting Mode of Traveling ........... 63

Table 26 Respondent Ages ........................................................................... 64

Table 27 Source of Income .......................................................................... 65

Table 28 How much do you get? .................................................................. 66

Table 29 Residential Area*Travel to College/Work .................................... 67

Table 30 Residential Area*Level of Safety.................................................. 68

Table 31 Bicycle Usage*Respondent Age ................................................... 69

Table 32 Bicycles at Home*How Much get ................................................. 70

Table 33 Residential Area* Regional Infrastructure .................................... 71

Table 34 Source of Income* Travel to College/Work ................................. 72

Table 35 Source of Income*People Buy Bicycle For .................................. 73
                                             Chapter 1

                     INTRODUCTION AND BACKGROUND

      Bicycle is an accessible, low-cost, non-polluting and healthy mode of personal transport. In
      Third World Countries like Pakistan majority of people belongs to lower middle and lower class.
      The use of bicycle as a transport medium is more in rural areas as compared to urban areas. The
      purpose of our research is to identify hurdles in usage of bicycles as transport in urban areas of
      Pakistan. The use of bicycles offers significant positive health gains however that transport mode
      has been overlooked in planning and decision making by government. Rising petrol prices,
      growing awareness of the environmental issues can support bicycle use. It would be difficult to
      move towards desired goals unless we have much better understanding of the factors that are
      critical in selection of travel mode choice.

1.1       History
          There was no single factory which manufactured bicycles and their spare parts at the time of
          independence in Pakistan. There were no industry in Pakistan and due to that fact some of
          the importers of that time brought bicycle in Pakistan and passed on for sale to retailers most
          of the shops were situated in Lahore at Nila Gunbad which was the main market of bicycles.
          Today Nila Gunbad market is the main market of car tyres, Bicycle tyres and spare parts.

1.2       Arrival of bicycle industry in Pakistan
          In 1952 the Shortage of foreign exchange reserves encouraged a serious look into domestic
          production and a remarkable idea was conceived by the twenty two shop owners of the Nila
          Gunbad area drafted a plan to establish foundation of a co-operative society for the purpose
          of bicycle manufacturing factory within the country on cooperative basis. The main reason
          behind the establishment of the society is to provide mutual help and benefits to its founding
          members. Elections of the society were held promptly. The society has been functioning
          successfully all along is because of the fact that its members take deep interest in its
          working.
1.3       Profile of Industry


      1.3.1   Pakistan Bicycles industry overview

              If we compare Pakistani bicycle industry with international bicycle industry then we can
              see that we have only one major manufacturer in the industry and covering the entire
              local market. The international bicycle industry is much stronger than Pakistani bicycle
              industry. India is the second largest manufacturer of bicycles after china. China has great
              contribution in the manufacturing of bicycles. Chine’s Bicycle industry is a big threat for
              both Indian and Pakistani bicycle industry. We can say that the decline of local Pakistani
              industry is just because of imported Chine’s Bicycles are covering the market share.

1.4 Specification of Bicycles in Pakistan
      In Pakistan bicycles are the only cheaper means of transportation for the local public. Bicycles
      are categorized in to fancy and standard bicycles.

          Fancy Bicycles
          Standard Size Bicycles




                                                   F IGURE 1




      Standard bicycle is the smaller segment worldwide and is on the decline with more and more
      companies turning towards fancy bicycle. In Pakistan standard bicycle is the bigger segment.
      The sub segments of the fancy bicycles in which mountain bike, BMX, Electric bicycles and
      recumbent bicycles. If we want to segment the bicycle industry then we can segment bicycle in
to three categories small size bicycles, medium size which is also called fancy bicycles and
standard size bicycles.

1.4.1   Fancy Bicycles

        A fancy bicycle has different types which attracts the youngsters. When we talk about
        speed then indeed one thing always come in to our mind that less weight bicycles are
        more reliable for customer point of view. Fancy bicycles has the speciality of different
        frame designs, colours, braking system, comfortable seats, stylish reflectors, electric light
        system for mountains, classy mudguards, sporty looks, shining nickel brings more beauty
        in the product which attracts the customers. Gear system increases the speed of the
        bicycle but decrease the pressure of pedals.

1.4.2   Small Size Bicycles

        Small size bicycles are only for children’s which has child attraction features in which the
        colour, frame design are more important features. It lies in the category of Fancy cycles.

1.4.3   Standard Size Bicycles

        The third segment is standard size bicycle which is for personal use instead of
        entertainment. The benefit of standard bicycle in Pakistan is more as compare to fancy.
        The target market of standard bicycle is poor people or those who work on wages. There
        are almost 50,000,000 people who work on daily wages in all the areas of Pakistan and to
        be considered as the poor people. The standard bicycle is the major benefit for the
        Pakistani region.

1.4.4   Standard Bicycle Specialty

        These are the countries China, India, Pakistan, Afghanistan, Bangladesh, and Syria in
        which the largest population is dependent on bicycles. The main features of standard
        bicycle is heavy weight, we can carry children giving a ride to our spouse. Carrying
        capacity is more than fancy bicycles. We can carry lunch boxes, laundry cloths, milk
        containers and a variety of things. The bicycle of night watchman in our colonies proudly
        rides it all night, blowing a shrill whistle to remind us that he is keeping a careful eye on
        streets.
1.5   Production Capacity and Major Players
      1.5.1   Production Capacity

              The capacity of the Pakistani bicycle industry is to produce 1.45 million bicycles per
              annum. From 2002 to 2003 the local production of bicycle recurring with 629,695
              numbers of bicycles produced according to the industry statistics. From 2003 to 2004
              681448 bicycles were produced with the increase of 8.22% from previous year. From
              2005 to 2006 the production of bicycles was 449400 which was a decline from the
              previous trends, in year 2007-2008, the production increases to approximately 650,000
              and in year 2008 the capacity increase to approximately 1 million.




                                                                                            F IGURE 2




                                                                                            F IGURE 3
1.5.2   Major Players

        According to the SMEDA report Pakistan bicycle industry is dominated by one key
        player, Sohrab which comprised more than (80 %) eighty percent share of the whole
        industry whereas the rest of (20 %) the production is shared by other six authorized and
        unauthorized manufacturing companies. Our group members visited many dealers in the
        market and talked about the current trends or preferences of the customers.



Market share of Standard bicycles                   Market share of Fancy bicycles




                  13%
             7%                 Soh rab                               5%5%
                                Eagle                                                 Sohrab
                        80%
                                Others                                                Phoenix
                                                                      90%             Others
1.6 Statement of Problem
      According to availalable information bicycle industry in Pakistan is in its stagnant phase.
      “Bicycle has failed to remain transport of choice in Urban Areas”

1.7   Objective of Research
      The objectives of the project are:



             Analyzing the reasons of use or non use of bicycle
             To identify how decision makers can promote bicycles use in urban areas of Pakistan.
             Analyzing the role of bicycle as transportation mode in layman’s life
             Identifying the factors that are critical in selection of travel mode choice
             Analyzing the environmental influences and fuel saving through increasing the use of
             bicycle
                                             Chapter 2
      _____________________________________________________________________________________

                                   LITERATURE REVIEW

2.1   Work Trips and safety of Bicyclists
      “APRIL-JUNE 2002

      DINESH MOHAN*

      *Co-coordinator, Transportation Research and Injury Prevention Programme, Indian
      Institute of Technology, Delhi, New Delhi, India”

      India is one of those countries where bicycle usage rate is very high. But there is still lack of
      such policies which support cycling and walking as these offer significant positive health gains
      and reduction in pollution. There is need to have a much better understanding of factors that are
      critical in selection of travel mode choice. The rates of deaths and injuries have been reducing
      over the past two decades in highly motorized countries (HMCs), but not in less motorized
      countries (LMCs). Simple transfer of knowledge and technologies from HMCs to LMCs may not
      be entirely feasible or that effective. Traffic cannot be separated at all locations.

      Data from LMCs like China AND India indicate that use of bicycles for work trips in some cities
      is reducing with an increase in per capita income. But in some urban areas of Europe, there has
      been an increase in bicycle use. However in all these countries cyclists are involved in a
      disproportionate proportion of fatal crashes. In spite of low bicycle usage in Europe, bicyclists
      account for 5-6 % of deaths and 7-8 % injuries. Some reports show that the percentage of
      fatalities is usually higher in LMCs than that in HMCs. In India, bicycle trips in most cities
      constitute of work trips and Scholl trips and only a small proportion for social and other
      purposes.

      Most of the studies done on pedestrian and bicycle impacts in last twenty years have
      concentrated on impacts with cars, these studies are aimed at developing car fronts that are less
      aggressive. This work is needed to be taken up in heavy vehicles case so that relevant standards
      can be established. There is enough evidence to shoe that lowering speed limits on expressways
      and urban roads result in fewer fatalities and injuries. A study on effects of speed limits on
      causalities in 21 countries concluded that reducing speed limits from 60 to 50 Km/h would result
      in a reduction of 25 % in fatalities and causalities. In many countries buses and trucks are fitted
      with speed limiting devices and speed recording system.

      The most important aspect of road design is that slow traffic on arterial roads and highways to be
      segregated from fast moving traffic. When rural roads pass through physical measures are
      necessary to slow down vehicles. In residential and shopping areas maximum speeds of vehicles
      have to keep below 30 Km/h and this can only be done through traffic calming methods.

2.2   Bicycles - An integral part of urban transport system in South Asian
      Cities
      “Geetam Tiwari, Transportation Research and Injury Prevention Programme

      Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, Delhi, 110016, India

      gtewari@ee.iitd.ernet.in”

      Urban areas in developing countries experience such extremes of wealth and poverty that they
      can be characterized as having dual economies. An estimated 30% of the world population living
      in urban poverty in developing country cities is also transport poor. Even a subsidized public
      transport remains cost prohibitive for many of them. Therefore, access to affordable transport is
      necessary for survival. Developing country cities are characterized by heterogeneous traffic (mix
      of non-motorized and motorized modes) and mixed land use patterns.

      Non-motorized transport (NMT) constitutes a significant share of the total traffic in many Asian
      cities. In addition to bicycles, non-motorized rickshaws are used for delivery of goods like
      furniture, refrigerators, and washing machines etc. In most NMT dependent low income cities,
      bicycles are used for the entire trip. Semi-skilled workers, carpenters, masons, plumbers,
      postmen, and courier services use bicycles. Therefore, the demand for bicycles and rickshaws
      exists in large numbers at present and is likely to exist in the future also.

      Investments in transport improvement plans continue to focus projects which benefit car users, at
      the cost of environment friendly modes- NMTs and pedestrians. Construction of expressways
      through or around cities and grade separated junctions encourage higher speeds, greater use of
      private vehicles and longer trip lengths. Reductions in bus and bicycle use would result in higher
      pollution levels and possible increase in traffic congestion. These effects could include higher
      incidence of congestion for motorized traffic, higher accident risk for non-motorized traffic and
      reductions in public transport and non-motorized traffic.

      Since primarily bicycles and other NMVs use the left most lane of the road, buses are unable to
      use the designated bus lanes and are forced to stop in the middle lane at bus stops. This disrupts
      the smooth flow of traffic in all lanes and makes bicycling more hazardous. It is also obvious that
      in the absence of segregated NMV lanes on arterial roads, it is not possible to provide designated
      lanes for buses.

      This paper illustrates how existing arterial roads can be replanned to provide for safer and more
      convenient bicycling and at the same time improve efficiency of bus transport system.

2.3   Bicycles - As a feeder mode for bus service
      “Mukti Advani

      Research Scholar, TRIPP/IIT-Delhi, India and

      Geetam Tiwari

      Associate Professor, TRIPP/IIT-Delhi, India”

      Bicycle is a low cost, non-polluting and healthy mode of travel. The share of trips made by
      bicycle can increase by better meeting the needs of bicycle users. Bicycle can be used access and
      egress trip of public transit service .Those who ride their bikes to the nearest bus stop or light
      railway station find themselves without a safe place to park . Another problem is inadequate or
      unsafe bicycle access to transit stops and stations.

      There are three primary services that transit operators and transportation agencies can provide to
      improve access for bicycling customers. 1) Secure parking at key transit stops, 2) Safe and
      convenient connections to transit stops, and 3) Lack of safe cycling facility along the road.

      The use of bicycle makes significant additio0n in catchment area of public transit service and
      time saving to individual users. Low income level does not allow majority of people two use
      motorized two wheelers and cars. Multi-model bicycle / transit trips expand the catchment area
      of public transit stations without the large expense and space requirements of automobile
      parking. Bicycles are the fastest growing and predominant mode of access to express public
      transportation service in many European communities and in Japan.

      One board customer survey was carried out on 130 different routes out of total 650 routes of
      local Public transport service of Delhi. The result of survey shows that out of total selected
      sample of 3632, 711 persons (20%) own bicycle, only 6 (0.15%) persons out of total 3632 using
      bicycle for access trip to bus. There 6 persons have income level less them 5000 Rs per month.
      Therefore, despite the absence of bicycle friendly infrastructure, they are using bicycles. Total
      4,711 persons own one or two bicycle, but around 99% of bus commuters owing cycle have
      made access trip by other than cycle mode.

      Results shows that with the higher access distance and higher income, commuters do not walk
      but for the same distance, if income group is lower, commuters have to walk. Lower income
      group can easily shift to cycle mode if they are provided with basic bicycle friendly facilities.
      The results of survey shows that 91% of bicycle owners and 45% of the total bus commuters
      who do not own bicycle are potential users of bicycle if bicycle friendly Infrastructure is
      provided. If bicycle has to be promoted as an access mode to public transit, all facilities have to
      be considered. This includes parking facilities at bus stops and safe cycling paths

2.4   Bicycle – makers ride high on surging oil prices
      “Tue May 13, 2008

       By Ralph Jennings”

      The world biggest bicycle makers will soon have a high demand of bicycle even in most
      developed countries. Rising petrol prices, growing awareness of environmental issues and the
      popularity of cycling is supporting it.   International bicycle makers are expected to increase
      sales by 10 percent from 2007 to 2008. In western countries the use of bicycles is               also
      increasing.

      China leads the world in the number of bikes produced per year with about 73          million units of
      total 100 million annually. Bicycle sales have over       the last   five years increased by 14.6
      percent among European Union nations. In United States the sales have increased by almost 9 %
      in the same period.

      The prices of bikes have been pushed up as price hikes in materials used in bikes. Now company
      can compete on the basis of its efficiency. Battery powered bikes are also popular in China.
      There is on growing demand for battery-powered bikes in China and mountain bikes in sports
      driven markets such as in the United States.

      With petrol prices at record highs of $ 126 per barrel and some analysts predicting it could hit the
      $ 200   mark; bicycles are becoming popular form of transport. Driving cars is expensive now
      days. Paris, Barcelona and other cities in Europe have introduced bicycle loan programs.

      European increasing pedal to work on bike-friendly streets planned by city governments that
      encourage cycling. Cycling is a cost effective transport for traveling. There is no need to spend
      any money on gas for riding a cycle.

2.5   The Bicycle – The Poor Man’s Motor Car?

      “By Rainer Pivit and Falk Rieß”

      Technical devices which have been adapted to avoid work done by human heads Include
      special frames, which make carrying easier, and bicycles equipped with special devices
      for transporting loads.

      The bicycle is a cheap, simple and quite fast means of transport, in almost all developing
      countries where there is no local transport system provided that the area is geographically
      suitable for bicycles with no steep hills. Number of bicycles is at its highest in the industrialized
      countries, where relatively few people ride bicycles and most people drive motor cars and some
      countries import bicycles. Rate of growth in bicycle production in the developing countries is
      very high, while production in the industrialized countries is stagnating.

      As prices appear to be very low; the bicycle is a valuable article, which only people who have
      managed to save some money can afford to buy. Tricycles, or rickshaws, which are used to earn
      a living majority of rickshaws do not belong to their drivers, but instead are rented out. in Asia
      the rickshaw, or the transport tricycle, is usually manufactured by small or medium-sized firms
      and workshops, which buy standard parts from the large firms and make all kinds of special
      models to suit different purposes.

      Bicycles which are made in China and India are of traditional British styles. No major changes
      have been made in the design. Due to the design of the frame it is impossible for the majority of
      women in the Third World to ride a bicycle, unless they disregard the conventional dress norms
      of their society. A weight of 100kg can be carried and speed of 9 km/h to 14 km/h can be
      reached with ease on dirt roads in the plain by bicycle.

      Tricycles are quite common in Asia, but they are only found in the towns, where they are used
      for transporting goods and passengers. The most suitable design is probably the tricycle with the
      loading surface at the back and two rear wheels. In China tricycles with a gear change
      mechanism are occasionally found. They have two chain wheels at the bottom-bracket. Vehicles
      like this are of no use to the farmer in a rural district. Tricycles can be ridden at a very low speed,
      but extremely slow pedaling is very tiring and ineffective. Also tricycles cannot be ridden on
      footpaths. The standard tricycle can be used on surfaced roads in fairly flat countryside. Here
      they could complement or partly replace buses, Lorries and community taxis.

      In view of the small load that a normal bicycle can carry, special models built for transport can
      only be of real use if the gearing ratio is considerably smaller. It would be a good idea to develop
      bicycle more appropriate to the needs of the Third World. A transport bicycle for the Third
      World would need a maximum load capacity of 150 kg.


2.6   Sohrab Pakistan’s N0 1 Bicycle
      “By Sarfaraz Cheema

      April 15, 2005”

      At the birth of Pakistan there was not a single factory in the country, which manufactured
      bicycles and their spares that time some major importers brought in bicycle from abroad and
      such imports were passed on for sale to retailers most of whom were located in Lahore’s major
      market in Nila Gumbad area.
      In 1952 shortage of foreign exchange started creating difficulties for the importers. Shop owners
      of Nila Gumbad chalked out a plan to establish a bicycle-manufacturing factory within the
      country on co-operative basis. 22 persons got together and laid the foundation of a co-operative
      society. The society was registered under section 9 of Co-operative societies Act II of 1912.

      Initially, only a few spare parts of bicycles were manufactured locally and about 90% spare parts
      were import from abroad. With the passage of time, the situation started improving and today
      almost 98% bicycles spare parts are being manufactured in house or through vendors. This credit
      goes to society that is providing spares regularly. The number of its members has increased from
      22 to 228. In the beginning, there were a few workers in the factory, while the factory has 2,300
      workers. The production of factory has increased from 5 bicycles per day to 2,000 (approx)
      bicycles per day.

      The society is playing a vital role as a Leader of cycle manufacturing industry. It is making
      progress due to its precision, planning and dedication of its workers, supervisors, administrators,
      and engineers. Rustam & Sohrab cycle factory is owned by Pakistan Cycle Industrial Co-
      operative Society Ltd.

      The society is constantly striving to achieve self-reliance in manufacturing all bicycles products
      and is regularly adding the latest machinery and plants to its factory. The society sends its 5
      workers for Hajj every year. A regularly training programme is being conducted to increase their
      efficiency, technical abilities, skills and expertise.

2.7   Some Examples of Failures in Bicycle Engineering that have caused
      Accidents
      By Peter Flucke

      For the Bicycle Federation of Wisconsin

      Through research it is found that the fault is not engineering design but of the uncertain
      conditions and in capability of the operator. Bicycles are surely not designed to be used in curbs
      and human being cannot make decisions instantly. However some accidents are also caused by
      engineering errors. To understand what engineering is and what engineers do is to understand
      how failures can happen and how they can contribute more than successes to advance
      technology. Every advance in technology brings some failures that must be understood.

      Front brake can cause the bicycle and rider to pitch over and the rider to be thrown over the
      handlebars that is caused by poor design of bicycle brake, it may be due to jamming under some
      conditions. A mountain bike bicycle brake may not be suitable for city streets. The cause was
      also in the adjustment mechanism. In a third case, this was not so much a failure of the design
      engineers, but of later installing a very powerful brake onto a fork whose engineering error was
      insufficient.

      Bicycles requires steering stability an there are two definitions for it. The ill-informed definition
      is that a stable bicycle continues on its path regardless of the wobbles of its rider and the slope of
      the road and doesn't fight with its rider. But a stable bicycle steers according to the slightest lean
      of its rider and tells him, by feed-back force felt at the handlebars. A cyclist on a bicycle of the
      first type turned his head to look at his riding companion, and found himself on the ground.

      In cases where the bicycle hit a solid object straight on, the amount of bending of the front fork
      could be use to estimate the speed of the collision. To properly estimate the speeds of cyclists
      under particular conditions one must know not only the external conditions (gradient, wind, turn
      radius, brake application, for each section of road, and type of bicycle) but also the amount of
      power the cyclist is developing and his posture and clothing. Bent-back front fork has been
      caused by a collision with a solid object and not by application of the front brake. If the front
      fork is strong enough to carry the loads of the pitch over movement, then it can't be bent by the
      front brake, or by any similar restriction of the rotation of the front wheel. Mathematical analysis
      shows that any sudden stopping of the rotation of the front wheel will develop sufficient force to
      bend back the front fork. Rim brakes can meet practically any cycling need. Bicycles with only
      rear-wheel braking are lawful vehicles. However, their braking is considerably less than that of
      bicycles with two-wheel brakes

2.8   Pakistan Cycle Industrial Cooperative Society Ltd
      “By Javed Iqbal

      December 28, 2002”
      Pakistan Cycle Industrial Cooperative Society Ltd was formed in 1953 and owned and controlled
      by a cooperative society. It started its operation in 1953 as assembly plant for Sohrab bicycles,
      now it has a range of products are bicycles and workers more than 2000.

      PCICS is prominent in making two wheeler of different models and designs. It works according
      to the international standard.

      PCICS also produced motorbikes with name Sohrab Js-70 and Sohrab-70. It was gained market
      share and acquired market shares gradually. The success of it is due to the good quality and low
      price.

      PCICS have quality and excellence standard which was acceptable internationally. PCICS
      introduced wheelchairs in 1975 to meet the domestic needs on the basis of no profit no loss. The
      unity Law cost wheelchairs are another contribution by PCICS and are being manufactured by
      U.N experts. These Unity law Cost wheelchairs are less costly than other wheelchairs with
      similar features.

      After that Rickshaw were introduced this was proved very economic for both the company as
      well as for environment because of better engine and quality.Ice cream bicycles also introduced
      by this cooperative society.

      Main purpose of PCICS is to provide quality products to the local customers within reasonable
      and affordable process.

2.9   Pak-India Trade: A Case Study of Bicycle Industries
      “By

      Department of Economics

      GC University

      Lahore

      May 2005”

      The bicycle industry of India is one of the most established industries with an annual turnover of
      more than 12 million bicycles. India is the second largest bicycle producer of the world next only
to China. Most of the factories manufacturing bicycles and parts are located in Punjab and Tamil
Nadu. Major companies in this industry are Hero Honda, Tube Investment of India, Atlas Cycles,
Hamilton Industries, R M I Cycles, National Bicycle Corp of India.

If we see bicycle sector of Pakistan that is struggling to establish itself due to smuggled bicycles
coming from China and high raw material prices. There is very low export presence of Pakistan
in this sector and one player dominates with 82% share in the local market.

According to different published sources, there are 300 bicycle vendors in Pakistan, employing
3000 workers. The 300 vendors supply to 7 big Original Equipment Manufacturers (OEMs) and
20 unorganized OEMs (small firms).There are some 3000 retailers/assemblers, employing 9000
people and cater to the Rs1.71 billion new bicycles demand and Rs2.78 billion replacement
bicycle market.

Pakistan and India both is a major player in international bicycle market. Whereas India exports
a significant quantity of the bicycle, Pakistan is still trying to meet the domestic demand.

Pakistan’s bicycle industry is dominated by one key player, Sohrab which constitutes more than
80% share of the whole industry whereas the rest of the production is shared by 6 other bicycle
manufacturers.

Country Import Tariff on Bicycles in Pakistan is approximately 30% and in India it is
approximately 20.4% and if we compare the sale tax on bicycles it is approximately 15% in
Pakistan and just approximately 4% in India.

India has an edge in this product as it makes available its bicycle in Pakistan with free trade at a
cheaper price than does Pakistan bicycle producers do in India.

Compared with the size of the Indian bicycle Industry, Pakistan’s domestic industry is very
small. There is apprehension in the domestic bicycle industry, that if bicycle imports from India
are allowed, it will seriously endanger this sub sector, and might put its survival at risk.
2.10 Pedaling back to Golden Past

                         High fares encourage bicycle comeback
     “By Daud khattak

     July 28, 2008”

     Because of four times in increase in fuel within a period of two months by cycle is cost free
     mean of transportation. Two vehicle cycle demand increases due to rising fares. The bicycle is
     become only mean of transport for the particular people of Peshawar. At many different areas in
     Peshawar peoples demand of bicycle has increased because of sources are less for earning the
     money and the rate of fuel is increasing day by day. To save rupees 90 or 80 People waste so
     much time and their energy. The nineteen century is considered the most efficient self power
     mean of transportation in village but now in these days in twenty one century about one billions
     people across the global are using bicycle. The history of bicycle first introduced Mannheim
     Germany in 1870 then in Paris in 1818. Uses of bicycle are used for sports and the fitness
     purpose. According to research man can ride the bicycle at the speed of 20 kilometers per hour
     by using as much energy. Due to this many people who worked as mechanic of cycle had
     decided to wind up his business because the number of bicycle users had shrunk. Lots of people
     have changed their mind due to increase in number of visitors. Interestingly, people are reverting
     to the old means in this modern era since the coming into power of the incumbent government.
     Due to the electricity power load shedding the and candles were seen selling like hot cakes
     followed by hands fans so that after some months as we are seeing the situation of Pakistan
     bicycles demand will be increase because of increase of fuel and fares rates of buses and vans
     because people are jobless and don’t have any work but they spend lot of money of fares so
     people are changing their mind and purchasing bicycles.
2.11 Sohrab Cycle and Manufacturing in Pakistan
    “September 23, 2006
    Filed Under >Bilal Zuberi, Economy & Development, Science and Technology, Society

    http://pakistaniat.com/2006/09/23/sohrab-cycle/”

    This article is about Pakistan cycle industry. The writer is this article was tried to highlight the
    Pakistan cycle industry Journey to success.

    At the time of independence in 1947, there was no bicycle manufacturer in Pakistan. Pakistan
    imported bicycles to meet the need and a market famously known as now “NILA GUMBAD” is
    situated near Mall road at Lahore. This bicycle trading place market known the main bicycle
    centre.

    In 1952 because Pakistan was not have much foreign reserves in start of its Journey, So, the few
    traders of sitting in “NILA GUMBAD” decided to establish Pakistan bicycle company.

    As a result of decision later by then on 8th September 1953, “Pakistan Cycle Industrial
    Cooperative Society” was formed which operate under section 9 of cooperative society Act of
    1912. It completed almost 80% Pakistan cycle need. It is producing approximately 2000 bicycles
    per day.

    In Pakistan there are almost 300 bicycles vendors having 3000 workers. There vendor buy raw
    material worth 49 millions and after value addition they sale it out at 100% extra charges. These
    vendors supply to 7 big Original Equipment Manufacturers (OEMs) and 20 unorganized OEMs
    (small firms).

    Different models other than the tradition were formed like mountain bikes, ladies bikes, and
    street race bikes and even now motorized bikes with 4-stroke engine.

    According to a survey a 629695 numbers of bicycles were produced in year 2002-03 and 681448
    in 2003-04 which showing 8.22% growth rate. The Co-operative Society now has over 225
    members, a 25-acre Rustam and Sohrab cycle factory with 2100 workers and a capacity of
    producing nearly 2000 bicyles daily.
     Now in Pakistan a threat of competitors in cycle industry is exit between the importers and local
     domestic bit this local producers can have an edge that there is 30% import duty on bicycles
     which is cost expense and increased the bicycle price. The idea of globalization can harms or
     finishes such favor to the domestic producer.

     Now mostly people use bicycle because of just for a hobby or simple made of transport in many
     areas of the world. Today’s bicycles families are large &of different varieties are there than the
     last generation bicycles.

2.12 Sustainable Transportation strategies for Third World Development

     “By Michael Replogle”

     Excerpt from: Bicycle Reference Manual for Developing Countries. Edited by Barbara
     Gruehl Kipke, April 1991.”

     Major changes are needed in the priorities for transportation policy in the Third World if
     development is to meet the needs of more than just the world's elite. The costs of failing to
     redirect transport policies today will be paid in the decades to come through a sharply reduced
     quality of life in the world's cities, increased conflict between the mobile elite and the mobility
     restricted poor, and reduced capacity for the global system to deal with the emerging problems of
     fuel and capital shortages and atmospheric carbon dioxide build-up.

     Changes in transport policies are needed not only in the Third World, but also in many advanced
     industrial and postindustrial countries. It will become increasingly difficult in coming decades
     for policy makers to ignore the global limits on resource consumption, particularly in the burning
     of fossil fuels. Our planet will remain a closed atmospheric system with finite limitations for
     resource extraction and the absorption of man-made pollutants.

     Non-motorized transportation cannot be expected to supplant the solidly entrenched motor
     transport sector in the developed world in the foreseeable future, but it can serve a major portion
     of local travel needs, as many healthy and wealthy modern communities in the Netherlands,
     Denmark, and Japan demonstrate.
    We must begin soon the transition to a world that recognizes the need for social, as well as
    economic, development and to a world that is based on sustainable patterns of production and
    consumption. If we do not, our children shall inherit a legacy of suffering and a world of misery

    Economic viability, financial viability, and Efficiency are three principles identified by World
    Bank that should guise the development of urban transport. Two other principles are
    environmental viability and equitability or effectiveness. It includes measure the degree to which
    a transport system or project meets the basic mobility needs of the population, including low
    income individuals, thus accounting for distributional impacts. Environmental groups, private
    voluntary development organizations, human rights groups, and those advocating the interests of
    lower-income people should seek to have these principles incorporated into the transportation
    policies at all levels.

    Most countries should be encouraged to develop local bicycle assembly and cart production
    capabilities for domestic use. This can create significant employment opportunities. Even if all of
    the bicycle parts must be imported, these imports can continue to generate productive outputs for
    some time, rather than being spent on a single trip, as petroleum imports are. Several countries
    have fostered domestic bicycle manufacturing industries with varying success.

    Sidewalks, footpaths, and pedestrian / bicycle under and over passes crossing congested arterial
    roads need to be incorporated as standard elements of urban transportation planning to devise
    more equitable and sustainable transport systems.


2.13 Non-Motorized Urban Transport in India
    “Dr.V.Setty Pendaku
    University of British Columbia Cancouver, Canaa. V6T 1W5 Transportation Research
    Board 67th Annual Meeting
    January 11,14,1988
    Washington, D.C.”

    Walk, bicycle, cycle rickshaw and Tonga are important components of the urban & rural non
    motorized transport systems in sub continent countries where 70% of total population live in
rural areas. Non motorized transport is important means of transportation for urban poor in India
but motorized transport is taking place and eliminating non motorized transport systems
gradually.

Besides all the efforts made to modernize urban transport systems in India, the non-motorized
transport modes continue to survive because they are cheap and efficient and cater the needs of
the poor public to save money.

To introduce modern motorized transport system is costly and hence long term planning made
shows that non motorized transport systems will stay for long. Countries like Bangladesh, India,
Pakistan and Indonesia contains about 2/3 of the world poor, while in India 60%-70% of urban
population is poor. As Bombay considered very wealthy city but in 1981 the monthly income/
household was US$50 which is below poverty line. There were 12 cities with a population of 1/2
to 1 million in 1981. Their number is expected to increase to 24 by 2001.

Bug cities have mature and diverse transport modes and these systems are generally
overcrowded throughout the day. These transport modes mainly includes buses and commuter
trains while non motorized modes of transportation have great diversification among different
cities highest in big cities and lowest in small cities because of trips lengths.

Walking is the most dominant mode of transportation in smaller cities. The second most popular
mode is the bicycle which is popular among poor and students if the afford to own one. The
choice of transportation mode is influenced by trip lengths, climate and cost of other alternatives;
income is the dominant determinant of mode choice. With increasing incomes, people shift to
more comfortable and convenient motorized modes.

Large scale poverty resulting in an inability to pay, and lack of adequate financial resources to
create additional transport supply forces people to use the existing and non motorized modes of
transportations but conditions are changing slowly.

Polices are in favor of motorized modes ignoring the non-motorized modes used by a large
segment of the population. It is as if these modes (walk, bicycle, cycle rickshaw) did not exist
and if they did, they would somehow disappear during the next forecast/plan period. But this is
     not the real situation because poor are getting poorer day by day. Not only in India but in many
     developing countries, the policy goals are to eliminate/abolish the non-motorized modes

     Finally, urban transport systems in India are characterized by high use of walk and bicycle
     modes, practically overloaded public transport, and lack of financial resources to make quantum
     jump improvements. Furthermore, the majority of the urban dwellers are poor and they are the
     primary users of non-motorized transport.

2.14 Cycle sales drop, industry woos buyers with offers
     “Raakhi Jagga

     Ludhiana, November 03

     http://www.expressindia.com/latest-news/cycle-sales-drop-industry-woos-buyers-with-
     offers/381003/”

     The global meltdown has led to a reduction in the price of raw material used by the cycle
     industry. With this, major cycle industrialists of the region have come up with offers, decreasing
     the price of the basic model by Rs 50.

     This is in stark contrast to the trend earlier this year. From January to September, there was a
     hike of Rs 370 in the price of bicycles. While these new offer are going to be introduced from
     November 1, a further fall is likely in the price of the basic model, as steel prices of domestic
     companies are expected to come down in the next few days.

     About two months ago, the bicycle industry was crying for a reduction in prices of steel and
     other raw material. But now, when the prices of almost all the raw materials for the cycle parts
     have come down, sales have dropped drastically too. Buyers seem to be adopting a wait and
     watch policy, waiting for better offers.

     In addition to slashing the price of bicycles, the industry has come up with offers for dealers, to
     enhance sales. Hero has offered its dealers a tyre at Rs 30 (its market price is Rs 70), along with
     the sale of every black bicycle. Atlas is offering a free chain along with the same model of
     bicycle. Avon has slashed the prices of its bicycle by Rs 30 approximately.
Adds Onkar Singh Pahwa, MD of Avon Cycles, "Steel prices, which were in the range of Rs 45 a
kg, have come down to Rs 26-27 a kg. But this variety is mostly used in building material. Our
industry uses steel rods and steel strips. The prices of these goods have decreased marginally, but
still we are passing on the benefit to the consumer. Accessories like bell, carrier, lock, stand etc
have also become cheaper by about 10 per cent. Add the concession of Rs 30, and prices of
bicycles will come down by Rs 50 approximately from November 1."

According to Charanjit Singh Vishvkarma, president of United Cycles Parts and Manufacturers
Association, "Prices of some products like chain, wheel etc have also increased because scrap is
being sold at throwaway prices. While making bicycles, 30-35% scrap is produced, for which we
are not getting good prices now. The present rate of this scrap is Rs 17 a kg approximately. A
month ago, the same scrap was being sold at Rs 30 a kg approximately."

Pahwa and Rai say that while dealers are either delaying the booking of orders, or are not ready
to lift stocks, because they are expecting a further slash in prices. "Small scale industries are the
worst hit by the fall in sales. We expect the market to pick up after two-three months. In the
bicycle industry, a sudden increase and or fall in prices affects the business much," reasons
Vishvkarma.
                                             Chapter 3
      _____________________________________________________________________________________

                                       METHODOLOGY

3.1   Theoretical Framework
      3.1.1   Research Type

      The research type used was “Casual Research” showing a cause and effect relation between the
      dependent and independent variable

      3.1.2   Dependent Variable

              Bicycle usage in urban areas

      3.1.3   Independent Variable

                     Income level

                     Ego problem

                     Lack of supporting infrastructure

                     Heavy Traffic

                     Time factor

3.2   Hypothesis
      The research proposal for the study will be.

          Ho (a): Income level has effect on bicycle usage in urban areas
          H1 (a): Income level has no effect on bicycle usage in urban areas
          And
          Ho (b): Ego problem has effect on bicycle usage in urban areas
          H1 (b): Ego problem has no effect on bicycle usage in urban areas
          And
          Ho (c): Lack of supporting infrastructure has effect on bicycle usage in urban areas
          H1 (c): Lack of supporting infrastructure has no effect on bicycle usage in urban areas
          And
          Ho (d): Heavy Traffic has effect on bicycle usage in urban areas
          H1 (d): Heavy Traffic has no effect on bicycle usage in urban areas
          And
          Ho (e): Time factor has effect on bicycle usage in urban areas
          H1 (e): Time factor has no effect on bicycle usage in urban areas


3.3   Data Collection Techniques and procedures
      3.3.1   Sources of Data

              The data sources include both primary as well as secondary data sources. In primary data
              sources we conducted interviews from whole sellers and retailers of bicycles in Lahore.
              Survey was conducted through questionnaires from potential users (Students, Employees,
              Semi-skilled persons) Whereas secondary data sources includes, Articles, Journals,
              Newspapers and the use of descriptive statistics on the data.

      3.3.2   Instrument of Primary Data Collection

              Data is personally collected by visiting primary market (Neela Gumbad) & potential
              users (Students, Employees, Semi-skilled persons in Lahore.

      3.3.3   Data Collection methods includes

              We used the survey technique method which is the most common method of collecting
              primary data in order to get the solution of the research problem. The data collection
              technique depends upon the type of data we need to collect.

              For primary data collection methods are:

         •    Questionnaires

         •    Interviews

              The different sources that used for secondary data collection are:

         •    Paper based sources (books, newspaper, magazines and research reports)

         •    Electronic based (sources online data base)
3.4   Sampling Procedures
      3.4.1   Target Population

              In sampling process we targeted the population of Lahore. The people we targeted were
              students, employees, businessmen who live in different areas and colonies of Lahore. All
              these types of respondents as mentioned above had been included in our sample for
              participation in our study.

      3.4.2   Sampling Size

              Our population was the people of Lahore. We targeted the urban areas of Lahore from
              which we selected the sample size of 300 people. The sample size contained the
              respondents of different status. Due to the resource constraints like money and time we
              could not manage to cover the whole urban area of Lahore.

      3.4.3   Sampling Techniques

              We followed convenient sampling to select the samples from the population. We used
              convenient sampling technique in which we have taken out sample of such elements
              which were convenient and cooperative for us to access. Another reason for choosing this
              technique was it not being much expensive and least time consuming. Keeping all the
              factors in mind the suitable technique in our research was convenient sampling.

3.5   Data Analysis
      After collection of the relevant data it was recorded then summarized and interpretive analysis
      techniques were employed to reach conclusions. Techniques used were the following
         Questionnaires were transcribed and coded. Interpretive analysis was done on gathered data
         through coding
         SPSS and MS Excel were used to analyze the data collected through questionnaires and
         relevant descriptive statistics were used to draw conclusion
Residential Area of Respondent


T ABLE 1
                                 Frequency   Percent    Cumulative Percent

                       Zone 1       168       42.0             42.0

                       Zone 2       72        18.0             60.0

                       Zone 3       98        24.5             84.5

                       Zone 4       62        15.5            100.0

                       Total        400       100.0




           F IGURE 4

Interpretation

In our sample, 42% of the respondents belong to Zone 1 (Shahdra, Bhatti, Band Road, Sanda,
Mughalpura, Harbanspura, Baghbanpura, Gari shahu, Dharmpura, Bhatta Chowk , etc.). 24.5%
of the respondents belong to Zone 3 (Johar Town, Model Town, Wapda Town, Green Town,
Garden Town Gulberg, etc).18% respondents belong to Zone 2 (Gulshan-e-Ravi, Samnabad,
Iqbal Town, Wahdat Road, etc). 15.5% respondents belong to Zone 4 (Cantt, Defence, , Airport,
R.A Bazar, EME society , etc)
You travel to college/work


T ABLE 2
                                  Frequency         Percent   Cumulative Percent

                 Less than 1 km      51               12.8           12.8

                 1-2.9 km            60               15.0           27.8

                 3-5.9 km            66               16.5           44.3

                 6-8.9 km            65               16.3           60.5

                 9-11.9 km           54               13.5           74.0

                 12 km and over      104              26.0          100.0

                 Total               400             100.0




                                              F IGURE 5



Interpretation
Table shows that people have to cover different distances to reach school/college/work. 26% of
the respondents travel 12 km and over, 16.5% travel 3-5.9 km, 16.3% travel 6-8.9 km, 15%
travel 1-2.9 km, 13.5% travel 9-11.9 km, 12.8% travel less than 1 km to their
school/college/work.
Level of safety on different travelling modes
T ABLE 3
                    Foot                  Bicycle                 Motorbike                   Car
            Frequency      Percent   Frequency    Percent     Frequency     Percent   Frequency     Percent

Safe          230           57.5        74          18.5          45         11.3       237          59.3

Average        91           22.8       192          48.0          109        27.3       129          32.3

Unsafe         44           11.0        79          19.8          133        33.3        21           5.3

Dangerous      35            8.8        55          13.8          113        28.3        13           3.3

Total         400          100.0       400        100.0           400       100.0       400         100.0




                                                            Public Transport
                                                       Frequency          Percent

                                      Safe                  128            32.0

                                      Average               166            41.5

                                      Unsafe                 79            19.8

                                      Dangerous              27             6.8

                                      Total                 400           100.0
                                             F IGURE 6


Interpretation
According to data 57.5% people believe level of safety on foot is safe, only 8.8% people think it
is dangerous. While using bicycle majority of people 48% people believe level of safety on
bicycle is average, only 13.8% people think it is dangerous. While using motorbike majority of
people 33.3% people believe level of safety on motorbike is unsafe, only 11.3% people think it is
safe. While using car majority of people 59.3% people believe level of safety on car is safe, only
3.3% people think it is dangerous. While using public transport majority of people 41.5% people
believe level of safety on public transport is average, only 6.8% people think it is dangerous.
Your opinion, %age of bicycle usage
T ABLE 4
                                                     Cumulative
                               Frequency   Percent    Percent

                    1%-20%        151       37.8        37.8

                    21%-40%       156       39.0        76.8

                    41%-60%       60        15.0        91.8

                    61%-80%       32         8.0        99.8

                    81%-100%       1         .3        100.0

                    Total         400       100.0
                                              F IGURE 7



Interpretation
In 39% people opinion, 21%-40% of people are using bicycle as a mean of transport. 37.8%
people think, 1%-20% of people are using bicycle as a mean of transport. 15% people say, 41%-
60% of people are using bicycle as a mean of transport. In 8% people opinion, 61%-80% of
people are using bicycle as a mean of transport. Only .3% people think, 81%-1000% of people
are using bicycle as a mean of transport.

Your opinion, income class using bicycle
T ABLE 5
                                                                    Cumulative
                                      Frequency           Percent    Percent

                       Below 6000        201               50.3        50.3

                       6000-10000        123               30.8        81.0

                       10000-15000       38                 9.5        90.5

                       15000-20000       20                 5.0        95.5

                       20000-25000        6                 1.5        97.0

                       25000-30000        3                 .8         97.8

                       30000-35000        2                 .5         98.3
                       Above 35000        7                1.8       100.0

                       Total             400              100.0




                                              F IGURE 8


Interpretation
In general people opinion, 50.3% people belong below 6000 income class is using bicycle more.
People think, 30.8% people belong 6000-10000 income class is using bicycle as mean of
transport. There are 81% people who think bicycle is ( low-status) poor man mean of transport.

You usually travel to college/work
                                                                    Cumulative
                                        Frequency         Percent    Percent

                      foot                 55              13.8        13.8

                      bicycle              25               6.3        20.0

                      motorbike            129             32.3        52.3

                      car                  106             26.5        78.8

                      bus                  85              21.3       100.0

                      Total                400             100.0

T ABLE 6
                                             F IGURE 9



Interpretation
Above table shows that 32.3% of respondents usually travel on motorbike, 26.5% of respondents
usually travel on car, 21.3% of respondents usually travel on public transport, and 13.8% of
respondents usually travel on foot to/from school/college/work. Only 6.3% of respondents
usually travel on bicycle to/from school/college/work. So, bicycle is at least priority option of
people for travelling.



Your opinion, people buy bicycle for
T ABLE 7
                                                                   Cumulative
                                          Frequency      Percent    Percent

                         Transportation      140          35.0        35.0

                         Entertainment       23            5.8        40.8

                         For servants        80           20.0        60.8

                         Kids                130          32.5        93.3

                         Any other           20            5.0        98.3

                         Not Use              7            1.8       100.0
                        Total               400       100.0




F IGURE 10



Interpretation
According to people opinion, 35% of the people buy bicycle mainly for transportation, 32.5% of
the people buy bicycle mainly for kids, 20% of the people buy bicycle mainly for servants, 5.8%
for entertainment, 5% for any other, and 1.8 not used. Bicycle can be used as medium of
entertainment in high income class. So, it can be one area to be targeted.

How many bicycles are at your home?
                                                              Cumulative
                                        Frequency   Percent    Percent

                        None               173       43.3        43.3

                        One                156       39.0        82.3

                        Two                61        15.3        97.5

                        Three or More      10         2.5       100.0

                        Total              400       100.0

T ABLE 8
                                            F IGURE 11


Interpretation
As given in above table 43.3% of the people possess none bicycle, 39% of the people possess
one, 15.3% of the people have two and only 2.5% have three bicycles at their home. Those who
don’t have bicycle at their home are the largest proportion. They can be converted into bicycle
users.




Primary Means Car/Motorbike, still have bicycle
T ABLE 9
                                                            Cumulative
                                   Frequency      Percent    Percent

                           Yes        188          47.0        47.0

                           No         212          53.0       100.0

                           Total      400          100.0
                                             F IGURE 12


Interpretation
As shown in above table, If people use car/motor bike as primary means of transportation, 53%
of the people don’t have bicycle at home and 47% of the people still have bicycle at their home.




For what purpose you use it
T ABLE 10
                                                                    Cumulative
                                         Frequency        Percent    Percent

                        Transportation      58             14.5        14.5

                        Entertainment       41             10.3        24.8

                        For servants        42             10.5        35.3
                       Kids                33                 8.3         43.5

                       Any Other           29                 7.3         50.8

                       Not use            197                 49.3       100.0

                       Total              400                100.0




                                               F IGURE 13



Interpretation
Many people still have bicycle at home, if they are using car/motor bike as primary means of
transportation, 49.3% people don’t use it, 14.5% people use it for transportation, 10.5% for
servants, 10.3 for entertainment, and 8.3% for kids.




How often do you use bicycle
T ABLE 11
                                                                     Cumulative
                                      Frequency        Percent        Percent

                         Never           193                48.3        48.3

                         Sometime        166                41.5        89.8

                         Frequently      41                 10.3       100.0
                          Total            400                100.0




                                                 F IGURE 14



Interpretation
According to data, 48.3% people never use bicycle as a medium of transport, 41.5% people
sometimes use it, and only 10.3% people frequently use bicycle as a medium of transport.




Factor forbade using bicycle
T ABLE 12
                 Factor                                         Frequency   Percent

                 Ego problem                                          164    41.0

                 Lack of Supporting infrastructure                    46     11.5

                 Heavy traffic                                        109    27.3
                   Time factor                                        196             49.0

                   Climate                                            45              11.3

                   High Income Level                                  71              17.8

                   Low Income Level                                   66              16.5




                                                  F IGURE 15



Interpretation
In people opinion, 49% people think due to shortage of time, 41% say due to ego problem,
27.3% say due to heavy traffic, 17.8% think due to high income level, and 16.5% people think
due to low income level people avoid using bicycle as a medium of transport. Time, ego problem
and heavy traffic are the major factors that forbade people from using bicycle.

Rate the regional infrastructure system
T ABLE 13
                                                                            Cumulative
                                         Frequency        Percent            Percent

                             Excellent      14                 3.5             3.5

                             Good           104                26.0            29.5
                                 Poor                  158                39.5          69.0

                                 Very Poor             124                31.0         100.0

                                 Total                 400             100.0




                     Rate the regional infrastructure system


            45
                                                                39.5
            40
            35                                                                                        Excellent
                                                                                     31
            30                                                                                        Good
                                         26
            25                                                                                        Poor
            20                                                                                        Very Poor
            15
            10
                      3.5
             5
             0
                    Excellent            Good                   Poor              Very Poor

                                                             F IGURE 16



Interpretation
Majority of people believe regional infrastructure system (streets, bikeways, and pedestrian
facilities) is not well. 39% people believe it is poor, 31% people say it is very poor, 26% people
believe it is good, and only 3.5% people think it is excellent. The condition of roads in A class
and B+ class areas is good but people who live in C class areas not satisfied at all.



Supporting factor for increasing bicycle usage
T ABLE 14
                             Supporting Infrastructure                     High Fuel Prices       Environment Friendly

                            Frequency        Percent              Frequency           Percent    Frequency   Percent

  Most attractive                99              24.8                      108            27.0      64            16.0
More attractive                      63     15.8            83          20.8        95    23.8

Average attractive                   78     19.5            72          18.0        115   28.8

Less attractive                      79     19.8            56          14.0        67    16.8

Least Attractive                     81     20.3            81          20.3        59    14.8

Total                            400        100.0          400         100.0        400   100.0




                                             Health Promoting       Creating Awareness

                                          Frequency      Percent   Frequency    Percent

                   Most attractive          119           29.8        56         14.0

                   More attractive           92           23.0        71         17.8

                   Average attractive        65           16.3        74         18.5

                   Less attractive           80           20.0        75         18.8

                   Least Attractive          44           11.0       124         31.0

                   Total                    400           100.0      400        100.0
                                           F IGURE 17


Interpretation
As shown in above table, almost 30% respondents said health promoting vehicle can be the most
attractive factor for increasing bicycle usage. 23.8% respondents believe environment friendly
mode of travelling can be supporting factors to increase usage. Where as 28.8% people said
environmental friendly is average attractive, almost 21% people said high fuel price is less
attractive and 31% people think crating awareness is least attractive.
Factor people consider while buying a bicycle
T ABLE 15
                                    Price                          Color                     Design

                        Frequency           Percent       Frequency        Percent   Frequency        Percent

   Most attractive        145                36.3             38             9.5        85             21.3

   More attractive         69                17.3             71            17.8        90             22.5

   Average attractive      56                14.0             96            24.0        90             22.5

   Less attractive         55                13.8             93            23.3        62             15.5

   Least Attractive        75                18.8            102            25.5        73             18.3

   Total                  400               100.0            400           100.0       400            100.0




                                                      F IGURE 18
  Factor people                Durability             Health Promoting     Environment Friendly
  consider while
  buying a bicycle     Frequency        Percent     Frequency    Percent   Frequency      Percent

  Most attractive         97                24.3       82         20.5        26            6.5

  More attractive         79                19.8       68         17.0        63           15.8

  Average attractive      45                11.3       59         14.8        68           17.0

  Less attractive         74                18.5       62         15.5        57           14.3

  Least Attractive       105                26.3      129         32.3       186           46.5

  Total                  400                100.0     400        100.0       400          100.0




Interpretation
Above tables show that 36.3% respondents believe price, 24.3% people think durability and 21%
people say design are the most attractive factors which people consider while buying a bicycle.
22.3% respondents say design is more attractive, 24% people believe color is average attractive.
46.5% respondents believe environment friendly and 32.3% people think health promoting are
the least attractive factors for people while buying a bicycle.
For how much distance people prefer to travel on bicycle
                                                                    Cumulative
                                         Frequency        Percent    Percent

                        Less than 1 km      58             14.5        14.5

                        1-2.9 km            144            36.0        50.5

                        3-5.9 km            114            28.5        79.0

                        6-8.9 km            44             11.0        90.0

                        9-11.9 km           19              4.8        94.8

                        12 km and over      21              5.3       100.0

                        Total               400            100.0

T ABLE 16




                                             F IGURE 19
Interpretation
The table shows that people do not prefer to travel on bicycle for long distances. 144 respondents
which mean 36% of the total sample have said that they prefer to travel on bicycle for a distance
of 1-2.9km. Only 21 respondents have said that they prefer to travel on bicycle for 12km and
over which mean only 5.3%. So, people preferences are towards usage of bicycle as traveling
mode only for short distances.
Have ever seen/hear about advertisement
T ABLE 17
                     T.V                         Radio                        Paper                  Billboard

             Frequency     Percent   Frequency           Percent      Frequency       Percent   Frequency   Percent

     Yes       186          46.5        54                13.5          142            35.5        87            21.8

     No        214          53.5       346                86.5          258            64.5       313            78.3

     Total     400         100.0       400               100.0          400           100.0       400        100.0




                                                         F IGURE 20



Interpretation
While answering to the advertisements about the bicycle respondent’s attitude shows that they
are not very much familiar with the advertisements related to bicycle. 86.5% of the respondents
have said that they have never heard any advertising related to bicycle on radio. 78.3% of
respondents have said that they have never seen any billboard related to bicycle advertising.
64.5% of respondent have said that they have never seen any bicycle advertising in paper. 53.5%
of total have said that they have never seen any advertisement on TV related to bicycle.
Month’s suitable for bicycle usage
                                                                    Cumulative
                                        Frequency         Percent    Percent

                        1-2 months          57             14.3        14.3

                        3-4 months         105             26.3        40.5

                        5-6 months          96             24.0        64.5

                        7-8 months          47             11.8        76.3

                        9-10 months         31              7.8        84.0

                        11-12 months        64             16.0       100.0

                        Total              400             100.0

T ABLE 18




                                             F IGURE 21



Interpretation
As shown in table 64% respondents have said that 5-6 months per year are suitable for using
bicycle in urban areas of Pakistan. 7.8% of respondents have said that only 9-10 months per year
are suitable for bicycle use while 16% of respondent have said that the whole year is suitable for
using bicycle.
Bicycle is considered as low status symbol
T ABLE 19
                                                                     Cumulative
                                           Frequency       Percent    Percent

                       Strongly Agree         151           37.8        37.8

                       Agree                  173           43.3        81.0

                       Uncertain              29             7.3        88.3

                       Disagree               34             8.5        96.8

                       Strongly Disagree      13             3.3       100.0

                       Total                  400           100.0




                                              F IGURE 22



Interpretation
This table shows that173 respondents out of 400 which is 43.3% of total have said that they
agree that using bicycle as transport is considered low status symbol. 37.8% of respondent have
said that they strongly agree that the using bicycle for transportations is considered as low status
symbol while only 8.5% disagree and 3.3% strongly disagree with this statement.
Supporting infrastructure can encourage bicycle usage
T ABLE 20
                                                                   Cumulative
                                          Frequency      Percent    Percent

                      Strongly Agree         79           19.8        19.8

                      Agree                  213          53.3        73.0

                      Uncertain              57           14.3        87.3

                      Disagree               41           10.3        97.5

                      Strongly Disagree      10            2.5       100.0

                      Total                  400          100.0




                                            F IGURE 23



Interpretation
As shown in table 213 out of 400 respondents which is 53.3% of total have said that they agree
that supporting infrastructure can encourage bicycle usage. 14.3% of respondent have said that
they are uncertain that whether supporting infrastructure will increase use of bicycle or not.
10.3% disagree and 2.5% strongly disagree with the statement that whether supporting
infrastructure can increase use of bicycle.
Heavy traffic discourage use of bicycle
T ABLE 21
                                                                   Cumulative
                                          Frequency      Percent    Percent

                      Strongly Agree         85           21.3        21.3

                      Agree                  194          48.5        69.8

                      Uncertain              35            8.8        78.5

                      Disagree               70           17.5        96.0

                      Strongly Disagree      16            4.0       100.0

                      Total                  400          100.0




                                            F IGURE 24



Interpretation
Table shows 194 respondents which is 48.5% of total have said that they agree that heavy traffic
discourages use of bicycle. 17.5 % have said that heavy traffic is not the cause behind
discouraging use of bicycle while 8.8% have said that they are uncertain whether heavy traffic
discourages the use of bicycle.
People prefer motorized vehicle due to shortage of time
T ABLE 22
                                                                   Cumulative
                                          Frequency      Percent    Percent

                      Strongly Agree         187          46.8        46.8

                      Agree                  147          36.8        83.5

                      Uncertain              19            4.8        88.3

                      Disagree               30            7.5        95.8

                      Strongly Disagree      17            4.3       100.0

                      Total                  400          100.0




                                            F IGURE 25



Interpretation
As shown in table 46.8% people have said that they strongly agree with the statement that people
prefer to use motorized vehicles due to shortage of time. 36.8% of people said that they agree
while only 7.5% of people said that they disagree that people prefer to use motorized vehicle due
to shortage of time.
Don't use bicycle due to hot climate
T ABLE 23
                                                                   Cumulative
                                          Frequency      Percent    Percent

                      Strongly Agree         67           16.8        16.8

                      Agree                  174          43.5        60.3

                      Uncertain              55           13.8        74.0

                      Disagree               77           19.3        93.3

                      Strongly Disagree      27            6.8       100.0

                      Total                  400          100.0




                                            F IGURE 26



Interpretation
Results of table show that174 respondent out of 400 which is 43.5% of total said that people
don’t use bicycle due to extreme climate conditions. 19.3% of people have said that they
disagree that people don’t use bicycle due to hot weather conditions while 13.8% of respondent
are unsure about the impact of climate on people usage of bicycle.
Increase in fuel prices, users can shift to bicycle
T ABLE 24
                                                                   Cumulative
                                          Frequency      Percent    Percent

                      Strongly Agree         52           13.0        13.0

                      Agree                  140          35.0        48.0

                      Uncertain              93           23.3        71.3

                      Disagree               82           20.5        91.8

                      Strongly Disagree      33            8.3       100.0

                      Total                  400          100.0




                                            F IGURE 27



Interpretation
As shown in table140 respondents out of 400 which are 35% of total have said that they agree
that if fuel prices are increased people can shift from motorized transport to bicycle. 20.5 % of
people have said that they disagree, that increase in fuel prices can shift people from motorized
transport to bicycle. While 23.3% people are uncertain that whether increase in fuel prices can
shift people from motorized vehicle to bicycle or not.
Transport shift to environmental & health promoting
T ABLE 25
                                                                   Cumulative
                                          Frequency      Percent    Percent

                      Strongly Agree         93           23.3        23.3

                      Agree                  200          50.0        73.3

                      Uncertain              39            9.8        83.0

                      Disagree               49           12.3        95.3

                      Strongly Disagree      19            4.8       100.0

                      Total                  400          100.0




                                            F IGURE 28



Interpretation
Result of this table shows that 50% respondent agrees and 23.3% respondents strongly agree that
bicycle usage can shift transport from environmentally sound and health promotion mode while
12.3% disagree with this. However 9.8% people are uncertain whether use of bicycle can shift
transport to environmental sound and health promoting modes.
Respondent Age
T ABLE 26
                                                                 Cumulative
                                    Frequency        Percent      Percent

                         Below 18      45                 11.3      11.3

                         18-25         258                64.5      75.8

                         26-35         61                 15.3      91.0

                         36-45         19                 4.8       95.8

                         Above 45      17                 4.3      100.0

                         Total         400            100.0




                                             F IGURE 29



Interpretation
This table shows that 64.5% of respondent fall in 18-25 age group. 11.3% are below 18. 15.3%
of respondent are between 26-35 ages. 4.8% of respondent are between 36-45 age group while
4.3% of respondent are above 45.
Source of income
T ABLE 27
                                                                 Cumulative
                                      Frequency        Percent    Percent

                       Business          44             11.0        11.0

                       Job               138            34.5        45.5

                       Pocket Money      187            46.8        92.3

                       Any Other         31              7.8       100.0

                       Total             400            100.0




                                          F IGURE 30


Interpretation
As shown in table that 46.8% of respondent’s source of income is their pocket money. 34.5% of
respondent’s source of income is through jobs. 11% of respondent are running their own
business. 7.8% of respondent’s source of income is from other sources.
How much do you get?
T ABLE 28
                                                                 Cumulative
                                      Frequency        Percent    Percent

                      Below 6000         163            40.8        40.8

                      6000-10000         89             22.3        63.0

                      10000-150000       61             15.3        78.3

                      15000-20000        44             11.0        89.3

                      Above 20000        43             10.8       100.0

                      Total              400            100.0




                                          F IGURE 31



Interpretation
In our sample 40.8% of respondent’s get less than 6000. 22.3% get 6000-10000. 15.3%
respondents get 10,000-15,000, 11% get 15000-20000, while 10.8% of respondent get above
20,000. As most of the respondents are students who can be the potential users, so they get
pocket money which is not a big amount.
Residential Area of Respondent * you usually travel to college/work Cross
tabulation
T ABLE 29
                                            You usually travel to college/work

                                 foot      bicycle       motorbike        car      bus      Total

 Residential Area   Zone 1        14.4%        7.8%          39.5%         17.4%    21.0%    100.0%
 of Respondent
                    Zone 2        11.4%        7.1%          27.1%         21.4%    32.9%    100.0%

                    Zone 3        15.8%        4.0%          26.7%         38.6%    14.9%    100.0%

                    Zone 4        11.3%        4.8%          27.4%         37.1%    19.4%    100.0%

 Total                            13.8%        6.3%          32.3%         26.5%    21.3%    100.0%




                                            F IGURE 32



Interpretation
According to residential area of respondents, 39.5% of people in Zone 1 use motorbike for
traveling, 32.9% of people in Zone 2 use public transport for traveling, 38.6% of people in Zone
3 use car for traveling, 37.1% of people in Zone 4 use car for traveling. The maximum use of
bicycle is in Zone 1, 7.8% and minimum use is in Zone 3, only 4% for traveling.
Residential Area of Respondent * Level of safety on bicycle
Cross tabulation
T ABLE 30
                                         Level of safety on bicycle

                               Safe      Average         Unsafe       Dangerous    Total

 Residential Area   Zone 1       17.4%       50.9%          19.2%          12.6%    100.0%
 of Respondent
                    Zone 2       17.1%       44.3%          24.3%          14.3%    100.0%

                    Zone 3       19.8%       45.5%          17.8%          16.8%    100.0%

                    Zone 4       21.0%       48.4%          19.4%          11.3%    100.0%

 Total                           18.5%       48.0%          19.8%          13.8%    100.0%




                                           F IGURE 33


Interpretation
Majority of the people in all zones of urban area believe that level of safety on bicycle is
average, 48% people. While minority of people thinks level of safety on bicycle is dangerous,
13.8% people.
How often do you use bicycle * Respondent Age Cross tabulation
                                                     Respondent Age                           Total

                                 Below 18   18-25        26-35        36-45        Above 45

                    Never              22       128              27           8           8       193

                                    11.4%     66.3%        14.0%         4.1%          4.1%    100.0%

                    Sometime           21       101              28           8           8       166

  How often do                      12.7%     60.8%        16.9%         4.8%          4.8%    100.0%
  you use bicycle
                    Frequently          2           29           6            3           1           41

                                     4.9%     70.7%        14.6%         7.3%          2.4%    100.0%

  Total                                45       258              61           19         17       400

                                    11.3%     64.5%        15.3%         4.8%          4.3%    100.0%

T ABLE 31




                                            F IGURE 34
Interpretation
Majority of people who never use bicycle for traveling belong to 18-25 age group, 66.3% and
minority of people who never use bicycle for traveling belong to 36-45, above 45 age groups,
4.1%. Majority of people who sometime use bicycle for traveling belong to 18-25 age group,
60.8% and minority of people who sometime use bicycle for traveling belong to 36-45, above 45
age groups, 4.8%. Majority of people who frequently use bicycle for traveling belong to 18-25
age group, 70.7% and minority of people who never use bicycle for traveling belong to above 45
age groups, 2.4%.
How many bicycles are at your home * How much do you get
Cross tabulation
                                                   How much do you get

                                                            10000-
                             Below 6000   6000-10000        150000    15000-20000   Above 20000   Total

                  None            37.0%        23.7%          17.3%          9.8%         12.1%   100.0%

How many          One             49.4%        19.2%          10.3%         12.2%          9.0%   100.0%
bicycles are at
your home         Two             36.1%        26.2%          18.0%          6.6%         13.1%   100.0%

                  Three or
                                               20.0%          40.0%         40.0%                 100.0%
                  More

Total                             40.8%        22.3%          15.3%         11.0%         10.8%   100.0%

T ABLE 32




                                               F IGURE 35



Interpretation
People who belong to below 6000 income group, 37% have none, 49.4% have one, 36.1% have
two, and 0% have three or more bicycles at their home. People who belong to below 6000-10000
income group, 23.7% have none, 19.2% have one, 26.2% have two, and 20% have three or more
bicycles at their home. People who belong to below 10000-15000 income group, 17.3% have
none, 10.3% have one, 18% have two, and4 0% have three or more bicycles at their home.
Residential Area of Respondent * Rate the regional infrastructure system
Cross tabulation
                                         Rate the regional infrastructure system

                                    Excellent         Good          Poor     Very Poor     Total

                          Zone 1         1.8%            28.1%       36.5%         33.5%    100.0%

            Residential   Zone 2                         31.4%       31.4%         37.1%    100.0%
            Area of
            Respondent    Zone 3         5.9%            21.8%       46.5%         25.7%    100.0%

                          Zone 4         8.1%            21.0%       45.2%         25.8%    100.0%

            Total                        3.5%            26.0%       39.5%         31.0%    100.0%

T ABLE 33




                                                             Poor            Very Poor




                                                F IGURE 36



Interpretation
Majority of people in all zones of urban areas believe regional infrastructure system (streets,
bikeways, and pedestrian facilities) is not well. 33.5% people in Zone 1 and 37.1% people in
zone 2 believe it is very poor, 46.5% people in Zone 3 and 45.2% people in zone 4 believe it is
poor. There are very few people, 1.8% in Zone 1, 0% in Zone 2, 5.9% in Zone 3, and 8.1 in Zone
4, who think regional infrastructure system is excellent.
Source of income * you usually travel to college/work Cross tabulation
                                        You usually travel to college/work

                              foot     bicycle     motorbike         car      bus      Total

                 Business      25.0%       2.3%         18.2%         34.1%    20.5%    100.0%

                 Job           15.2%       6.5%         43.5%         13.8%    21.0%    100.0%

   Source of     Pocket
                               10.2%       7.5%         28.3%         34.8%    19.3%    100.0%
   income        Money

                 Any Other     12.9%       3.2%         25.8%         22.6%    35.5%    100.0%

   Total                       13.8%       6.3%         32.3%         26.5%    21.3%    100.0%

T ABLE 34




                                          F IGURE 37



Interpretation
In business people 34.1% of the people are using car for traveling, people who are doing job
43.5% of the people using motorbike for traveling, those who get pocket money 28.3% using
motorbike, and 34.8% using car for traveling, people who get income from any other source
35.5% are using bus for traveling.
 Source of income * your opinion, people buy bicycle for Cross tabulation

                                             Your opinion, people buy bicycle for

                         Transport   Entertainmen
                           ation           t           For servants      Kids     Any other   Not Use   Total

             Business       43.2%            9.1%                20.5%    20.5%       4.5%       2.3%   100.0%

             Job            27.5%            6.5%                26.8%    33.3%       3.6%       2.2%   100.0%

Source of    Pocket
                            39.6%            4.3%                15.0%    35.8%       3.7%       1.6%   100.0%
income       Money

             Any Other      29.0%            6.5%                19.4%    25.8%      19.4%              100.0%

Total                       35.0%            5.8%                20.0%    32.5%       5.0%       1.8%   100.0%

 T ABLE 35




                                                    F IGURE 38
 Interpretation
 In business people 43.2% of the people believe people buy bicycle for transportation. People
 who are doing job 33.3% of the people believe people buy bicycle for kids, and 26.8% people
 believe people buy bicycle for servants. . People who get pocket money 39.6% of the people
 believe people buy bicycle for transportation, and 35.8% people believe people buy bicycle for
 kids. . People who get income from any other source 29% of the people believe people buy
 bicycle for transportation, and 25.8% people believe people buy bicycle for kids.
                                        Chapter 4
_____________________________________________________________________________________

                                     CONCLUSION
The objective of this project was to study the use of bicycle as a medium of transport in urban
areas of Pakistan. It was also intended to discover factors which forbade people to use bicycle for
traveling. The bicycle is the cheapest known means of conveyance. It has been found in urban
areas, most of the people have to travel 12 km and over to reach and come back from their
college/university/work. Level of safety on bicycle is average; people don’t consider it
dangerous vehicle like motorbike.

In general People believe that bicycle is mostly used by those people who have income below
than 10,000 Rs. It is considered as low status mode of traveling. People buy bicycle mainly for
transportation, kids, and servants. Majority of the people use motorbike and car as a primary
mean of transportation. There are very few users who use bicycles frequently. Factors leading to
low use of cycle have been found as: Time, heavy traffic, and ego problem. People prefer
motorized vehicle due to shortage of time.

The regional infrastructure system (Streets, bikeways, pedestrian facilities, or transit) is not up to
the mark rather poor in many areas, especially in “C class” localities of the city. Health
consciousness, high fuel prices, and proper regional infrastructure suitable for cycle riding, can
be the supporting factors to increase bicycle usage in urban areas of the country. Other very
important factors identified, which people consider while purchasing a bicycle are its price,
design, and durability. Most of the times, people prefer to travel on bicycle for 1-3 km distance.

Bicycle manufactures in Pakistan are not performing effective marketing activities, even a large
number of people have not ever seen/hear advertisement related to bicycle in TV, Radio, Paper,
and Billboard. In general almost 5-6 months are suitable for bicycle usage in Pakistan. In A and
B+ areas of city people usually travel more on car, and in B and C class areas of city people
usually travel more on motorbike. In all areas of the city bicycle users are very limited. Majority
of youngsters who never use bicycle for traveling belongs to 18-25 age group, they can be the
most potential users.
The largest ratio of bicycle users belongs to the lower class; middle class is using motorbike
more. Upper class and upper middle class use bicycle for entertainment and for servants. The
bicycle usage is decreasing more day by day. The bicycle industry is at decline stage. There is a
need to take some strong actions to make it healthier. On the whole, the study indicates that the
industry has to revise its policies regarding to bicycle life cycle.

As on the basis of results, Ho (a): Income level has effect on bicycle usage in urban areas, Ho
(b): Ego problem has effect on bicycle usage in urban areas, Ho (c): Lack of supporting
infrastructure has effect on bicycle usage in urban areas, Ho (d): Heavy Traffic has effect on
bicycle usage in urban areas, Ho (e): Time factor has effect on bicycle usage in urban areas, are
accepted.
                              RECOMMENDATION
_____________________________________________________________________________________

In light of findings from the research, the following suggestions are being made, which may help
to solve some of the problems of Pakistan bicycle industry. Important variables were considered
while conducting the research.

   •   Many non users of bicycle do not use it being poor and are not in a position to pay Rs.
       4600 as lump sum amount. Bicycle producers should strategize to give bicycle on loan
       retrievable in installments.

   •   Made in Pakistan bicycles have traditional British design. Since inception of Pakistan, no
       major changes have been made in designs. New innovative changes in designs can attract
       teenager segment of market towards bicycle, which is the largest proportion of
       population.

   •   Mostly people avoid using bicycle as a medium of transport is because of ego problem.
       Bicycle is considered as low status symbol. Usage can be increased if issues of ego,
       status and safety are handled professionally. There is a strong need to reposition the
       image of bicycle in the minds of people.

   •   Bicycle manufacturers in Pakistan have to develop effective promotional plan to promote
       bicycle. They can use big stars like cricket players in their ads to influence target market.

   •   Due to increase in fuel and fare rates, those people who have to cover short distances to
       reach school/university/work have to spend a lot of money on fares. These people can
       easily shift to bicycle mode by promoting bicycle for short distances.

   •   In urban areas, investment in transport improvement plans continue to focus projects
       which benefit car users, at the cost of environment friendly modes. There should be a
       balance of focus in transport improvement plans which benefit both motorized transport
       as well as non-motorized transport.

   •   There is a need to re-plan existing arterial roads to provide safer and convenient tracks
       for bicycling and at the same time it can improve efficiency of transport system.
•   Growing awareness of environmental issues and health consciousness among people can
    be major supporting factors to encourage bicycle as a medium of transport in urban areas.

•   Environmental safety and health promoting societies should play their role to create
    awareness among people that bicycle usage can shift transport to environmentally sound
    and health promoting modes.

•   Government should play active role in terms of providing supporting regional
    infrastructure, creating awareness, reducing sale tax on bicycle to revive bicycle industry
    in Pakistan.
                      LIMITATIONS OF RESEARCH
_____________________________________________________________________________________

We have written some recommendations which we think that are imperative according to the
analysis but somehow, there are some limitations in which we cannot apply all the theories.
These limitations are as follows,

We have taken the sample size of 400 people, who are working in different fields of life. The
sample size is small to some extent because there is large number of people in urban areas and
still there is a chance of having different opinions and point of view, so due to small sample size
of research we cannot get each and every response from the people.

Research is a time consuming event. We tried our best that our measurements should include
most or all the effects of independent variables. Our study is based on Cross sectional study.
Which means data is gathered once point in time. We are using random sampling technique for
our thesis; almost every respondent recorded their response unbiased.

Sometimes it is impossible to control for the effects of the extraneous variables, we tried to
minimize their effects upon our findings. It was little difficult to get cooperation from retailers,
wholesalers and other involved.

We have not targeted any specific income level group because at income levels, high income
group ratio is low. There are some limitations as we are not capable to analyze 100% exactly the
response rate of people. People may have different perceptions with every question; therefore
keeping in view this stereotype judgment, we cannot assume the answers are 100% correct.
                                   REFRENCES
_____________________________________________________________________________________

      http://www.smeda.org/business-development/pre-feasibility-studies.html/ download
      http://www.smeda.org/archives.php/ download
      http://www.smeda.org/info.php?id=88
      Pakistan /Punjab/Lahore/UMT/library/statistical data
      Pakistan/IAR reports/bicycle Industry
      Pakistan /Punjab/Lahore/Shahadra/Sohrab Factory/training center/M.Afzal (engineer
      Production)
      Pakistan /Punjab/Lahore/Shahadra/Sohrab Factory/training center/deputy production
      Manager
      Pakistan /Punjab/Lahore/Shahadra/Sohrab Factory/ Hadlug Bluging Shop/Munir Ahmad
      (worker)
      Pakistan /Punjab/Lahore/Shahadra/Sohrab Factory/Chain Wheel Shop
      Pakistan /Punjab/Lahore/Shahadra/Sohrab Factory/RIM Shop
      Pakistan /Punjab/Lahore/The Mall/Nila Gunbad/Sohrab dealer/Younas cycle works(shop)
      Pakistan /Punjab/Lahore/The Mall/Nila Gunbad/Sohrab dealer/Asim cycle Store(shop)
      Pakistan /Punjab/Lahore/The Mall/Nila Gunbad/Sohrab dealer/London cycle store(shop)
      Pakistan /Punjab/Lahore/The Mall/Nila Gunbad/Sohrab dealer/S. Hanif & Brothers(shop)
      University
      Guangzhou Municipal Government (1999). Improving Urban Transport System and
      Controlling Traffic Pollution to Facilitate the Sustainable Development of Urban
      Transport and Environment. Workshop on Urban Transport and Environment, CICED,
      Beijing.



      Surface Transportation Policy Project (1998). An Analysis of the Relationship Between
      Highway Expansion and Congestion in Metropolitan Areas: Lessons from the 15-Year
      Texas Transportation Institute Study. Washington, DC , U.S.A.: Surface Transportation
      Policy Project.
G.Tiwari, Planning for non-motorized traffic-A prerequisite for sustainable transport
system, IATSS Research, vol.23 No.2, 1999, pp70-77
Katarzyna Tota, The role of non-motorised transport in sustainable urban transport
systems: A preliminary analysis of costs and benefits of non-motorized and bus priority
measures on Vikas Marg. Delhi, prepared for TERI, April 1999
Mohan, D. and Tiwari, G. (1998) Traffic safety in low-income countries: Issues and
concerns regarding technology transfer from high-income countries.” In: Reflections on
the transfer of traffic safety knowledge to motorising nations. Vermount South, Australia:
Global Traffic Safety Trust.
Jorgensen, N. O. (1996). The risk of injury and accident by different travel modes.
Proceedings of the International Conference on Passenger Safety in European Public
Transport. Brussels: European Transport Safety Council. 17-25.
Tiwari, G. (1999). Road Designs for Improving Traffic Flow: A Bicycle Master Plan for
Delhi. TRIPP, Indian Institute of Technology, Delhi.
Kjemtrup, K. and Herrstedt, L. (1992). Speed Management and Traffic Calming in Urban
Areas in Europe: A Historical View. Accident Analysis and Prevention, 24(1):57-68.
Krygsman (2003) ‘Federal HighWay Administration Course on ‘Bicycle and Pedestrian
Transportation. [Online]. Available: http://www.fhwa.dot.gov/index.html. [9 November
2005]
/www.bikewalk.org Implementing Bicycle Improvements at the Local Level. [Online].
Available:http://www.bikewalk.org/bicycling/design_guide/bicycle_tech/pdf/bike_transi
_connections.pdf [2 November 2005]
                                 APPENDIX
_____________________________________________________________________________________

				
DOCUMENT INFO
Shared By:
Categories:
Tags:
Stats:
views:356
posted:4/30/2010
language:English
pages:83