Quotation Guide for History Pape by ldd0229

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									Quotation Guide for History Papers:


I.         When to Quote from Sources to Avoid Plagiarism

        Most written assignments you complete for this class will require incorporating
material from primary and secondary sources (whether provided by me or discovered
through research by yourself) into your paper. Incorporating such sources into your
written work correctly can be a difficult and confusing task, however; not doing it
correctly can lead to the serious academic offense of plagiarism (defined in the student
handbook as “the taking of others’ thoughts or words without due acknowledgement”),
and result in disciplinary action. What follows are the basic guidelines you need to
follow in order to use information correctly, and avoid plagiarism.

      A. When to Quote from a Source

To quote means to use the exact words of another author or historical source. The
number one rule in using quotations is to keep quotes limited. You want the majority of
your paper to be your own words. However as stated in your student handbook if you
are: “borrowing any ideas or phrases of more than three words, appropriate
documentation must be offered.” As a general rule, you should only quote directly
from a source if:

                 1. The words of the original are especially memorable
                 2. The quotation would effectively back up your point of analysis.
                 3. The words of the historical actor are more powerful than a paraphrase.


II.        Quotations and Citations in the Paper

           A. Quotations in the Paper or “How to put quotes into sentences”

Using quotes can be a difficult task; however, there are some simple guidelines to help
you with integrating quotes into your own sentences. First, quotes should not stand-alone
or just drop out of the sky. Even though you as the writer are presenting some one else’s
ideas, you need to integrate a quote into your own sentence. Following are the four
main ways to insert quotes into your work:

      A.      As Kurt Cobain’s mother wrote, “Kurt practiced his screaming and his guitar
              playing for hours every day.”
      B.      Kurt Cobain’s mother wrote that, “Kurt practiced his screaming and his guitar
              playing for hours every day.”
      C.      As a young boy, Kurt Cobain was very dedicated: “Kurt practiced his
              screaming and his guitar playing for hours every day.”
      D.      Kurt Cobain “practiced his screaming and his guitar playing for hours every
              day.”


Reading, Thinking, and Writing in the History Classroom, October 2002
Area 3 History and Cultures Project, UC Davis, http://historyproject.ucdavis.edu
Keep in mind that if your quotation is more than four lines of text, it should be
single-spaced and indented. If this is the case, you do not need to use quotation
marks. Example:

Kurt Cobain’s guitar playing began early in his life. His mother wrote that:

               Kurt practiced his screaming and his guitar playing for
               hours every day. Actually, our neighbors really disliked his
               playing and his voice. One of them was never quite sure if
               Kurt’s music was music at all. One day this neighbor
               called the police and reported an electrical explosion and
               terrible noise. It turned out that Kurt was just practicing a
               new song.

B. Citations in the Paper or “How to give credit where credit is due”

Except for rare occasions, you need to provide the citation for a quote within the paper
itself. Generally, the citation should include the author’s last name and the page
number(s) of the quote. The citation or reference goes inside parenthesis, after the
quotation marks and before the period concluding the sentence. Example:

As Kurt Cobain’s mother wrote, “Kurt practiced his screaming and his guitar playing for
hours every day” (Smith 9).

When using more than one work by the same author, include a short form of the
title along with the author’s name. Example:

As Kurt Cobain’s mother wrote, “Kurt practiced his screaming and his guitar playing for
hours every day” (Smith, Cobain’s Past 9).

Example for a quotation that is more than four lines of text:

Kurt Cobain’s guitar playing began early in his life. His mother wrote that:

               Kurt practiced his screaming and his guitar playing for
               hours every day. Actually, our neighbors really disliked his
               playing and his voice. One of them was never quite sure if
               Kurt’s music was music at all. One day this neighbor
               called the police and reported an electrical explosion and
               terrible noise. It turned out that Kurt was just practicing a
               new song (Smith 9).



Reading, Thinking, and Writing in the History Classroom, October 2002
Area 3 History and Cultures Project, UC Davis, http://historyproject.ucdavis.edu
III. Citing Sources at the End of a Paper (Works Cited Page)

In addition to citing your sources inside the text of your paper, you also need to provide
a “works cited” page at the end of you paper. This is an alphabetical listing of all the
different works you have used in your paper. Each type of work has a different method
of citation. Examples:

Books: A works cited page for a book contains the following information:
      -The author’s full name, last name first, followed by a period;
      -The full title of the book, italicized or underlined, followed by a period;
      -The city of publication, followed by a colon;
      -The name of the publisher, followed by a comma;
      -The date of publication, followed by a period.

Normally, the first line of a works cited entry is flush against the left margin, and the
following lines of that entry are indented one tab (5 spaces). Each individual entry
should be single spaced; but place a double space between entries.

BOOK BY ONE AUTHOR: Sample:

Smith, Miles. Cobain’s Past: He Always Smelled Like Teen Spirit. New York: Newsday
       Press, 1999.

BOOK WITH TWO OR MORE AUTHORS: This entry should begin with the name
of the first author listed on the title page, last name first. The remaining authors are listed
in normal order. Sample:

Love, Courtney, and William Shakespeare. The Nirvana in Nirvana’s Music. London:
       Fictional Press, 2000.

MULTIPLE BOOKS BY THE SAME AUTHOR: If your works cited page includes
more than one book by the same author, you should use three dashes followed by a
period (---.) in the place of the author’s name in each entry after the first. Sample:

Smith, Miles. Cobain’s Past: He Always Smelled of Teen Spirit. New York: Newsday
       Press, 1999.

---. The Foo-Fighters: Nirvana Light or Grohl’s Grunge? New York: Newsday Press,
       2001.

EDITED WORK WITHOUT AN AUTHOR: Sample:
Castro, Fidel., ed. The United States: A History. Havana: Socialist Press Books, 2001.

EDITED WORK WITH AN AUTHOR: Sample:

Helms, Jesse. The United States V.S. Cuba: 40 Years of Tension. Edited by Strom
       Thurmond. Washington: Congressional Press, 2000.

Reading, Thinking, and Writing in the History Classroom, October 2002
Area 3 History and Cultures Project, UC Davis, http://historyproject.ucdavis.edu
ARTICLE FROM A MAGAZINE OR JOURNAL: Sample:

Jackson, Michael. “What If You Are Not Impressed By Impressionism?” Art Critic,
       November 2000, 849-861.


DAILY NEWSPAPER: Sample:

Starr, Kenneth. “Britney Aguilera Should Have Gone Through Music Program at
        Natomas Charter School.” The Sacramento Bee, 24 March 2000: C3.

INTERNET SOURCE: This citation should include the author’s name, the title of the
work, the web address, and the date you downloaded or consulted the information.
Sample:

Burns, Ken. “Lewis Armstrong’s Trumpet.” http://www.pbs.org/jazz/ (22 January 2002).

FILM: Sample:

Star Wars. Dir. George Lucas. Universal,1977.

SOUND RECORDING: Sample:

Foo Fighters, There Is Nothing Left to Lose. EMI Virgin Songs, INC. 1999.

PERSONAL INTERVIEW: Sample:

Silveira, William. Interviewed by Jeff Pollard, Natomas, California, 4 January 2001.

CD ROM: Sample:

Monster, Cookie., ed. The New Sesame Street Cookie Cookbook. CD-ROM. New York,
      Children’s Television Press, 2001.

ADVERTISEMENT IN A PERIODICAL: This citation should include the name or
main caption of the advertisement, the name of the periodical, the date of the periodical
and the page where it appeared. Sample:

“Snowdrift for Frying,” Woman’s Home Companion. May 1927, p. 104.




Reading, Thinking, and Writing in the History Classroom, October 2002
Area 3 History and Cultures Project, UC Davis, http://historyproject.ucdavis.edu
Supplemental Guide For Additional Source Material:

Letters:
In Paper Citation Form: Provide the author of the letter’s name and the date.

For Example: In a letter, General J.L. DeWitt stated, “Dear Governor, I cannot
emphasize to you the very real menace of this time to the national safety…”(DeWitt,
1941).

Works Cited Listing:

DeWitt, General J.L., letter to Governor Culbert Olson of California, Dec. 12, 1941.
      From Area Three History and Cultures Project, “Marchand Document Source
      Lessons: The Evacuation of the Japanese Following Pearl Harbor.” N.d.,
      http://historyproject.ucdavis.edu (3 March 2002).

Speech:
In Paper Citation Form: Provide the author’s last name and the date.

For Example: In a speech Jack Nakagawa stated, “Our country today is the hope of the
world” (Nakagawa, circa 1942).

Works Cited Listing:

Nakagawa, Jack, speech to Fruit and Vegetables Union, Local #1510. Circa1942.
      From Area Three History and Cultures Project, “Marchand Document Source
      Lessons: The Evacuation of the Japanese Following Pearl Harbor.” N.d.,
      http://historyproject.ucdavis.edu (3 March 2002).

Advertisements:

In Paper Citation Form: Provide a Brief Version of the Advertisement’s title.
Example: During the 1920s, advertisers tried to convince women that their gains in
suffrage were linked to their ability to smoke. For example, a Lucky Strike ad stated,
“Gone is that ancient prejudice against cigarettes -Progress has been made” (“Ancient
Prejudice”).

Works Cited Listing:

"An Ancient Prejudice Has Been Removed" (ad for Lucky Strike cigarettes), Life, Oct.
25, 1929.




Reading, Thinking, and Writing in the History Classroom, October 2002
Area 3 History and Cultures Project, UC Davis, http://historyproject.ucdavis.edu
Sample Works Cited Page for “New Woman Assignment”

       A. Works Cited

“An Ancient Prejudice Has Been Removed” (ad for Lucky
    Strike Cigarettes), Life, October 25, 1929.

“Heinz Bottling Room circa 1920,” American Heritage,
    February 1972.

Sanger, Margaret. Woman and the New Race. New York:
    Bretano’s, 1920, p 95.

“When Lovely Women Vote” (ad for Listerine Tooth
   Paste), American Magazine, October, 1932.




Reading, Thinking, and Writing in the History Classroom, October 2002
Area 3 History and Cultures Project, UC Davis, http://historyproject.ucdavis.edu
                               Working With Quotations:

Directions: Read the sample paragraph and answer the questions below:

       The “New Woman” of the 1920’s was a more liberated, educated, and socially
prominent woman than had been seen prior to World War One. “Legally, politically, and
socially she has been emancipated from the chains which bound her.” (“Ancient
Prejudice”) These ads over-exaggerated the newfound rights of women, and managed to
tie these freedoms to their products. A quote from an ad for Listerine Tooth Paste called
“When Lovely Women Vote” showed this. “To thousands of women of this type—
charming, well educated, well-to-do, prominent in the social and civic life of her city, we
put this question. What toothpaste do you use? To our delight, the majority answered
Listerine Tooth Paste.”

Questions:

1.     What is incorrect about the use of quote #1 (“Ancient Prejudice”)?

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

2.     What is incorrect about the use of quote #2 (“When Lovely Women Vote”)?

_______________________________________________________________________

_______________________________________________________________________

_______________________________________________________________________

3.     Re-write this paragraph properly integrating these quotes into sentences.

       __________________________________________________________________

       __________________________________________________________________

       __________________________________________________________________

       __________________________________________________________________

       __________________________________________________________________


Reading, Thinking, and Writing in the History Classroom, October 2002
Area 3 History and Cultures Project, UC Davis, http://historyproject.ucdavis.edu
Suggested Re-write of Paragraph:

       The “New Woman” of the 1920’s was a more liberated, educated, and socially
prominent woman than had been seen prior to World War One. She was, as said in a
Lucky Strike ad, “Legally, politically, and socially…emancipated from the chains which
bound her” (“Ancient Prejudice”). These ads over-exaggerated the newfound rights of
women, and managed to tie these freedoms to their products. An ad for Listerine Tooth
Paste stated that women who were “charming, well educated, well-to-do, prominent in
the social and civic life of her city…answered Listerine Tooth Paste” when asked what
toothpaste they used (“When Lovely Women Vote”). Gimmicks such as this took
advantage of women’s desire to appear independent, educated, and able.


Question 4: List three things that this re-written paragraph does that the previous
paragraph did not:
       A.________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
       B.________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
       C.________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________




Reading, Thinking, and Writing in the History Classroom, October 2002
Area 3 History and Cultures Project, UC Davis, http://historyproject.ucdavis.edu
THE "NEW WOMAN"
Images of the Emancipation and Progress of the American Woman in the 1920s
                     A Documentary Source Problem

In 1920, women’s suffrage became the law of the land with the ratification of the
19th Amendment to the Constitution. Only the year before, the National Birth
Control League had opened its first public clinic. Such events signaled new roles
for American women.

New freedoms -- in dress, activities and behavior -- had already come about for
women. From 1900 to 1920, the number of working women rose sharply. Public
discussion of birth control, prostitution and divorce grew as well. The World War I
years of 1917-18 had broadened women's economic opportunities. City life had
freed women from traditional social controls over their lives. Technological
change promised greater leisure time in which women could transform their
social roles.

By 1920 the so-called "new woman" had become the object of a flood of praise,
criticism and advice. The following documents, from popular magazines of 1920-
30, are a sample of the role models held up to women as encouragements or
warnings. They represent what was included and what was not included in the
depictions of the "new woman".

Directions: Review the slides and text selections. Address the questions
after each document.

Document 1:"When Lovely Women Vote" (ad for Listerine Tooth Paste), American Magazine,
Oct., 1932.

"To thousands of women of this type -- charming, well-educated, well-to-do, prominent
in the social and civic life of her city, we put this question. What toothpaste do you use?
To our delight, the majority answered Listerine Tooth Paste."

Document 2: "An Ancient Prejudice Has Been Removed" (ad for Lucky Strike cigarettes), Life,
Oct. 25, 1929. "Legally, politically and socially, woman has been emancipated from those
chains which bound her. AMERICAN INTELLIGENCE has exploded the ridiculous
theory that forced the stigma for inferiority upon a sex...Gone is that ancient prejudice
against cigarettes -Progress has been made....'Toasting' has destroyed that ancient
prejudice against cigarette smoking by men and women. "It's Toasted. No Throat
Irritation - No Cough."

Question 1. What new freedoms do women have according to these ads?
Question 2: How are these new “freedoms” connected to the advertiser’s products?



Reading, Thinking, and Writing in the History Classroom, October 2002
Area 3 History and Cultures Project, UC Davis, http://historyproject.ucdavis.edu
Document 3: "Women in Business" (ad for Ladies' Home Journal), Saturday Evening Post, Oct. 4,
1930.

"What a great to-do there was a few years back about Careers for Women!...Militant
suffragettes...the New Woman...Soap-box oratory...'Go home and mind your
babies'...Pickets at the White House gates...Hunger strikers in jail...It was seriously
predicted that women would lose their appealing femininity, and force men out of work,
if they had votes and jobs.

"But stand at the entrance to any office building as the clock strikes five and watch the
girls come out... Stenographers, clerks, secretaries, business executives, insurance
salesmen, writers, artists, newspaper reporters.... all with a sparkle in their eyes and a zest
for life in their steps as they hurry home to cook or sew or read or dance....Are they less
womanly than their mothers and aunts who sat idly home, spending father's money while
they impatiently waited for Prince Charming to come along?

"The LADIES' HOME JOURNAL believes in the woman in business. It admires her
courage, her ability, her independence."

Question 3: What qualities does the “new woman” possess according to this advertisement? And
where does she work?

Document 4: "The Keys That Gave Her Freedom" (ad for Remington Rand business
services), Saturday Evening Post, Aug., 1930.

"The Emancipation of the American Business Woman. This girl and this machine
launched an experiment that changed every practice and custom in American business.
She defied the age-old prejudice against women in business...as courageously as
Remington defied ultra-conservative business minds. She tap...tap...tapped her way to
economic independence, to paying positions, to responsible executive places in every
industry and activity. And her first keys to freedom were the keys of the first of all
typewriters...the Remington...

"It is smooth, swift and accurate, a pleasure to operate - a precision machine. There is
even a special Noiseless model to protect nerves and to calm disorderly offices..."

Question 4. What changes have come for the “new woman” according to this
advertisement? How are those changes related to the product?




Reading, Thinking, and Writing in the History Classroom, October 2002
Area 3 History and Cultures Project, UC Davis, http://historyproject.ucdavis.edu
  THE "NEW WOMAN:" Images of the Emancipation and Progress of the American
         Woman in the 1920s: A Documentary Source Problem page 3.

Section 2: Non-Advertising sources:

Document 5: "Two Million Wives Gainfully Employed, as listed by the U.S. Census", Survey
Magazine, Dec. 1926.

Manufacturing: 466,663, Trade and Transportation: 182,970 Professional Service:
123,570, Domestic and Personal Service: 637,675, Clerical: 129,038, Agricultural:
371,537

Question 5: What does this source suggest about women’s work in the 1920s?

Document 6: "Heinz Bottling Room circa 1920", American Heritage, Feb. 1972.

"A hundred girls pack pickles, one at a time, into spotless bottles with a wooden paddle,
giving the pickles a pattern and inserting one red pepper where it will show nicely. There
is little time for dawdling for the girls at a penny a bottle, and it thus takes 12-1/2 dozen
(150) bottles to bring $1.50, considered a good day's pay. Twice a week the girls scrub
down the room and hands must be kept meticulously clean."

Question 6: What does this source suggest about women’s work in the 1920s?

Document 7: Excerpt from Margaret Sanger’s Woman and the New Race, (New York: Brentano’s,
1920), 95.

         “The basic freedom of the world is woman’s freedom. A free race cannot be born
of slave mothers….No woman can call herself free who does not own and control her
own body. No woman can call herself free until she can choose consciously whether she
will or will not be a mother. It does not greatly alter the case that some women call
themselves free because they earn their own livings, while others profess freedom
because they defy the conventions of a sex relationship. She who earns her own living
gains a sort of freedom that can not be undervalued, but in quality and in quantity it is of
little account beside the untrammeled choice of mating or not mating, or being a mother
or not being a mother.”

Question 7: What does this source suggest about the status of women in the 1920s?

Source for assignment concept, introduction, and advertising sources: Area Three
History and Cultures Project, “Marchand Document Source Lessons.” N.d.,
http://historyproject.ucdavis.edu (28 February 2002).




Reading, Thinking, and Writing in the History Classroom, October 2002
Area 3 History and Cultures Project, UC Davis, http://historyproject.ucdavis.edu
The 1920s and the “New Woman” Assignment:

You have examined several documents related to the changes for women in the 1920s.
Based on this examination, you need to write one paragraph in response to each of the
following questions

Question 1: How was the “new woman” portrayed in 1920s advertising?

Question 2: What limitations existed for women in the 1920s as suggested by the non-
advertising sources?

Question 3: In your interpretation, what was the “new woman” of the 1920s? In other
words, did the “new woman” of the 1920s match the image of the advertisers or was she
something completely different? Explain you answer.

-In answering these questions you must quote from and reference the sources we
examined in class. Your response to questions 1 and 2 must quote from at least 2 sources
each. You should follow the quoting guide for directions of how to quote and how to cite
your sources. You will need to provide citations for the sources you pulled from
inside your written response and in an attached works cited page.

Reminder: Your citations within the paper will be brief. Example: During the 1920s,
advertisers tried to convince women that their gains in suffrage were linked to their
ability to smoke. For example, a Lucky Strike ad stated, “Gone is that ancient prejudice
against cigarettes -Progress has been made” (“Ancient Prejudice”).

Your Works Cited Citation will have the full information:

"An Ancient Prejudice Has Been Removed" (ad for Lucky Strike cigarettes), Life, Oct.
25, 1929.

This assignment must be typed and is worth 80 points total (10 for the content of each
paragraph, 10 for citations within the paper, 10 for the works cited page, 10 for overall
grammar and clarity of writing and 20 points for the work you have done in class.)




Reading, Thinking, and Writing in the History Classroom, October 2002
Area 3 History and Cultures Project, UC Davis, http://historyproject.ucdavis.edu

								
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