DHS Guidance for RDD and IND Rec

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					                                                                             Federal Register / Vol. 73, No. 149 / Friday, August 1, 2008 / Notices                                             45029

                                               All counties within the State of Nebraska                 In order to provide Federal assistance, you        Grants; 97.039, Hazard Mitigation Grant
                                             are eligible to apply for assistance under the           are hereby authorized to allocate from funds          Program.)
                                             Hazard Mitigation Grant Program.                         available for these purposes such amounts as
                                                                                                      you find necessary for Federal disaster               R. David Paulison,
                                               (The following Catalog of Federal Domestic
                                                                                                      assistance and administrative expenses.               Administrator, Federal Emergency
                                             Assistance Numbers (CFDA) are to be used
                                                                                                         You are authorized to provide assistance           Management Agency.
                                             for reporting and drawing funds: 97.030,
                                             Community Disaster Loans; 97.031, Cora                   for emergency protective measures (Category           [FR Doc. E8–17686 Filed 7–31–08; 8:45 am]
                                             Brown Fund; 97.032, Crisis Counseling;                   B), including direct Federal assistance, under        BILLING CODE 9110–10–P
                                             97.033, Disaster Legal Services; 97.034,                 the Public Assistance program in the
                                             Disaster Unemployment Assistance (DUA);                  designated areas; Hazard Mitigation
                                             97.046, Fire Management Assistance Grant;                throughout the State; and any other forms of          DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND
                                             97.048, Disaster Housing Assistance to                   assistance under the Stafford Act that you            SECURITY
                                             Individuals and Households In Presidential               deem appropriate subject to completion of
                                             Declared Disaster Areas; 97.049, Presidential            Preliminary Damage Assessments (PDAs),                Federal Emergency Management
                                             Declared Disaster Assistance—Disaster                    unless you determine that the incident is of
                                             Housing Operations for Individuals and                                                                         Agency
                                                                                                      such unusual severity and magnitude that
                                             Households; 97.050 Presidential Declared                 PDAs are not required to determine the need           [Docket ID FEMA–2004–0004]
                                             Disaster Assistance to Individuals and                   for supplemental Federal assistance pursuant
                                             Households—Other Needs, 97.036, Disaster                 to 44 CFR 206.33(d).                                  [Z–RIN 1660–ZA02]
                                             Grants—Public Assistance (Presidentially                    Consistent with the requirement that
                                             Declared Disasters); 97.039, Hazard                                                                            Planning Guidance for Protection and
                                                                                                      Federal assistance be supplemental, any
                                             Mitigation Grant.)                                                                                             Recovery Following Radiological
                                                                                                      Federal funds provided under the Stafford
                                             R. David Paulison,                                       Act for Public Assistance and Hazard                  Dispersal Device (RDD) and
                                             Administrator, Federal Emergency                         Mitigation will be limited to 75 percent of the       Improvised Nuclear Device (IND)
                                             Management Agency.                                       total eligible costs, except for any particular       Incidents
                                                                                                      projects that are eligible for a higher Federal
                                             [FR Doc. E8–17688 Filed 7–31–08; 8:45 am]                                                                      AGENCY: Federal Emergency
                                                                                                      cost-sharing percentage under the FEMA
                                             BILLING CODE 9110–10–P                                                                                         Management Agency, DHS.
                                                                                                      Public Assistance Pilot Program instituted
                                                                                                      pursuant to 6 U.S.C. 777. If Other Needs              ACTION: Notice of final guidance.
                                                                                                      Assistance is later warranted, Federal
                                             DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND                                   funding under that program will also be               SUMMARY: The Department of Homeland
                                             SECURITY                                                 limited to 75 percent of the total eligible           Security (DHS) is issuing final guidance
                                                                                                      costs.                                                entitled, ‘‘Planning Guidance for
                                             Federal Emergency Management                                Further, you are authorized to make
                                             Agency                                                                                                         Protection and Recovery Following
                                                                                                      changes to this declaration to the extent             Radiological Dispersal Device (RDD)
                                             [FEMA–1780–DR]                                           allowable under the Stafford Act.
                                                                                                                                                            and Improvised Nuclear Device (IND)
                                                                                                         The Federal Emergency Management                   Incidents’’ (the Guidance). This
                                             Texas; Major Disaster and Related                                                                              Guidance is intended for Federal
                                             Determinations                                           Agency (FEMA) hereby gives notice that
                                                                                                      pursuant to the authority vested in the               agencies, State and local governments,
                                             AGENCY: Federal Emergency                                Administrator, Department of Homeland                 emergency management officials, and
                                             Management Agency, DHS.                                  Security, under Executive Order 12148,                the general public who should find it
                                             ACTION: Notice.                                          as amended, Sandy Coachman, of FEMA                   useful in developing plans for
                                                                                                      is appointed to act as the Federal                    responding to an RDD or IND incident.
                                             SUMMARY: This is a notice of the                         Coordinating Officer for this declared                The Guidance recommends ‘‘protective
                                             Presidential declaration of a major                      disaster.                                             action guides’’ (PAGs) to support
                                             disaster for the State of Texas (FEMA–                                                                         decisions about actions that should be
                                             1780–DR), dated July 24, 2008, and                          I do hereby determine the following                taken to protect the public and
                                             related determinations.                                  areas of the State of Texas to have been              emergency workers when responding to
                                                                                                      affected adversely by this declared                   or recovering from an RDD or IND
                                             DATES: Effective Date: July 24, 2008.
                                                                                                      major disaster:                                       incident. The Guidance outlines a
                                             FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT:
                                             Peggy Miller, Disaster Assistance                           Aransas, Bexar, Brooks, Calhoun, Cameron,          process to implement the
                                             Directorate, Federal Emergency                           Hidalgo, Jim Wells, Kenedy, Kleberg, Nueces,          recommendations, discusses existing
                                                                                                      Refugio, San Patricio, Starr, Victoria, and           operational guidelines that should be
                                             Management Agency, Washington, DC
                                                                                                      Willacy Counties for Public Assistance                useful in the implementation of the
                                             20472, (202) 646–2705.                                   Category B (emergency protective measures),
                                             SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Notice is                                                                           PAGs and other response actions, and
                                                                                                      including direct Federal assistance.
                                             hereby given that, in a letter dated July                   All counties within the State of Texas are
                                                                                                                                                            encourages federal, state and local
                                             24, 2008, the President declared a major                 eligible to apply for assistance under the            emergency response officials to use
                                             disaster under the authority of the                      Hazard Mitigation Grant Program.                      these guidelines to develop specific
                                             Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and                                                                         operational plans and response
                                                                                                        (The following Catalog of Federal Domestic
                                             Emergency Assistance Act, 42 U.S.C.                                                                            protocols for protection of emergency
                                                                                                      Assistance Numbers (CFDA) are to be used
                                             5121–5206 (the Stafford Act), as follows:                for reporting and drawing funds: 97.030,
                                                                                                                                                            workers responding to catastrophic
                                                                                                      Community Disaster Loans; 97.031, Cora                incidents involving high levels of
                                                I have determined that the damage in
                                                                                                      Brown Fund Program; 97.032, Crisis                    radiation and/or radioactive
                                             certain areas of the State of Texas resulting
                                             from Hurricane Dolly beginning on July 22,               Counseling; 97.033, Disaster Legal Services           contamination.
                                                                                                      Program; 97.034, Disaster Unemployment
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                                             2008, and continuing, is of sufficient severity                                                                DATES:   This notice is effective August 1,
                                             and magnitude to warrant a major disaster                Assistance (DUA); 97.046, Fire Management
                                             declaration under the Robert T. Stafford                 Assistance; 97.048, Individual and
                                             Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance                 Household Housing; 97.049, Individual and             FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT:
                                             Act, 42 U.S.C. 5121–5206 (the Stafford Act).             Household Disaster Housing Operations;                Craig Conklin, Director Sector Specific
                                             Therefore, I declare that such a major disaster          97.050, Individual and Household Program—             Agency Executive Management Office,
                                             exists in the State of Texas.                            Other Needs; 97.036, Public Assistance                Office of Infrastructure Protection,

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                                             45030                           Federal Register / Vol. 73, No. 149 / Friday, August 1, 2008 / Notices

                                             Department of Homeland Security at                           Guides and Other Activities in RDD or             responses are available at Docket ID No.
                                             703–235–2850 (phone), or                                     IND Incidents                                     FEMA–2004–0004 at http://
                                    (e-mail), or, John                  (a) Group A: Access Control During         
                                                                                                          Emergency Response Operations
                                             MacKinney, Deputy Director, Nuclear/                      (b) Group B: Early Phase Protective Action              In addition to the issuance of this
                                             Radiological/Chemical Threats and                            (Evacuation or Sheltering)                        Guidance, in response to interagency
                                             Science and Technology Policy, Office                     (c) Group C: Relocation and Critical                 working group discussions and public
                                             of Policy, Department of Homeland                            Infrastructure Utilization in Affected            comments, further guidance will be
                                             Security, at (202) 447–3885 (phone), or                      Areas                                             provided for the consequences that
                                    (e-mail).                          (d) Group D: Temporary Access to                     would be unique to an IND attack. This
                                                                                                          Relocation Areas for Essential Activities         Guidance was not written to provide
                                             SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION:
                                                                                                       (e) Group E: Transportation and Access
                                                                                                                                                            specific recommendations for a nuclear
                                             Table of Contents                                                                                              detonation (IND), but to consider the
                                                                                                       (f) Group F: Release of Property From
                                             Preface                                                      Radiologically Controlled Areas                   applicability of existing PAGs to RDDs
                                               (a) Introduction                                        (g) Group G: Food Consumption                        and INDs. In particular, it does not
                                               (b) Characteristics of RDD and IND                      (h) Derivation of Operational Guidelines             consider very high doses or dose rate
                                                  Incidents                                           Appendix 5. References                                zones expected following a nuclear
                                               (1) Radiological Dispersal Device (RDD)                Appendix 6. Acronyms/Glossary
                                               (2) Improvised Nuclear Device (IND)
                                                                                                                                                            weapon detonation and other
                                               (3) Differences Between Acts of Terror and             Background                                            complicating impacts that can
                                                  Accidents                                                                                                 significantly affect life-saving outcomes,
                                                                                                         This Guidance was developed to
                                               (c) Phases of Response                                                                                       such as severely damaged infrastructure,
                                                                                                      address the critical issues of protective
                                               (1) Early Phase                                                                                              loss of communications, water pressure,
                                               (2) Intermediate Phase                                 actions and protective action guides
                                                                                                                                                            and electricity, and the prevalence of
                                               (3) Late Phase                                         (PAGs) to protect human health and to
                                                                                                                                                            secondary hazards. Scientifically sound
                                               (d) Guidance for RDD and IND Incidents                 mitigate the effects caused by terrorists’
                                                                                                      use of a Radiological Dispersal Device                recommendations for responders are a
                                               (1) Protective Actions
                                               (2) Protective Action Guides (PAGs)                    (RDD) or Improvised Nuclear Device                    critical component of post-incident life-
                                               (3) Early and Intermediate Phase Protective            (IND). This document provides                         saving activities, including
                                                  Action Guides for RDD and IND                       guidance for site cleanup and recovery                implementing protective orders,
                                                  Incidents                                           following an RDD or IND incident, and                 evacuation implementation, safe
                                               (A) Early Phase PAGs
                                                                                                      affirms the applicability of existing 1992            responder entry and operations, and
                                               (B) Intermediate Phase PAGs                                                                                  urban search and rescue and victim
                                               (4) Late Phase Guidance                                EPA PAGs for radiological emergencies.
                                                                                                         The development of this Guidance                   extraction. In the interim, this Guidance
                                               (5) Emergency Worker Guidance                                                                                should be used until the IND guidance
                                               (e) Operational Guidelines for Early and               was directed by the White House, Office
                                                  Intermediate PAGs                                   of Science and Technology Policy,                     is developed.
                                               (1) Derived Response Levels (DRLs)                     through the National Science and                         The intended audience of this
                                               (2) Derived Intervention Levels (DILs) for             Technology Council, Committee on                      document are Federal, State, and local
                                                  Food                                                Homeland and National Security,                       radiological emergency response and
                                               (3) Radiation Levels for Control of Access             Subcommittee on Standards (SoS). In                   incident management officials. This
                                                  to Radiation Areas                                  2003, the SoS convened a senior level                 Guidance is not intended to impact site
                                             Appendix 1. Planning for Protection of                                                                         cleanups occurring under other
                                                  Emergency Workers Responding to RDD
                                                                                                      Federal working group, chaired by DHS,
                                                                                                      to develop guidance for response and                  statutory authorities such as the
                                                  and IND Incidents
                                               (a) Guidelines for Emergency Workers in                recovery following a radiological                     Environmental Protection Agency’s
                                                  Responding to RDD and IND Incidents                 dispersal device (RDD) or improvised                  (EPA) Superfund program, the Nuclear
                                               (b) Controlling Occupational Exposures                 nuclear device (IND) incident. The                    Regulatory Commission’s (NRC)
                                                  and Doses to Emergency Workers                      working group consisted of senior                     decommissioning program, or other
                                               (c) Understanding Radiation Risks                      subject matter experts in radiological/               Federal and State cleanup programs. In
                                               (d) Preparedness                                       nuclear emergency preparedness,                       addition, the scope of this Guidance
                                             Appendix 2. Risk Management Framework                                                                          does not include situations involving
                                                  for RDD and IND Incident Planning
                                                                                                      response, recovery, and incident
                                                                                                      management. The following Federal                     U.S. nuclear weapons accidents.
                                               (a) The Stages of the Risk Management
                                                  Framework for Responding to RDD and                 departments and agencies were                            In addition to the issuance of this
                                                  IND Incidents                                       represented on the working group: DHS,                Guidance, further guidance is being
                                               (1) Define the Problems and Put Them in                EPA, Department of Commerce (DOC),                    planned for the devastating
                                                  Context                                             Department of Energy (DOE),                           consequences that would be unique to
                                               (2) Analyze the Risks                                  Department of Defense (DOD),                          INDs. In the interim, the present
                                               (3) Examine the Options                                Department of Labor (DOL), Department                 document will provide general RDD and
                                               (4) Make a Decision                                                                                          IND guidance.
                                               (5) Take Action To Implement Decision
                                                                                                      of Health and Human Services (HHS),
                                               (6) Evaluate the Results                               and Nuclear Regulatory Commission                        By agreement with the Environmental
                                               (b) Technical Advisory Committee                       (NRC).                                                Protection Agency (EPA), the Guidance
                                             Appendix 3. Federal Cleanup                                 On January 3, 2006, DHS issued the                 being published today is final and its
                                                  Implementation Cleanup Activities                   ‘‘Preparedness Directorate; Protective                substance will be incorporated without
                                                  Overview                                            Action Guides for Radiological                        change into the revision of the 1992
                                               (a) General Management Structure                       Dispersal Device (RDD) and Improvised                 EPA Manual of Protective Actions
                                               (1) Technical Working Group                            Nuclear Device (IND) Incidents; Notice’’              Guides and Protective Actions for
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                                               (2) Stakeholder Working Group                          (71 FR 174, Jan. 3, 2006), and requested              Nuclear Incidents (the PAG Manual).
                                               (b) Activities
                                               (1) Optimization and Recommendation
                                                                                                      public comments on this interim                       This notice of final guidance will
                                               (2) Public Review of Decision                          Guidance. Some changes to the                         therefore sunset upon publication of the
                                               (3) Execute Cleanup                                    Guidance were made as a result of these               new EPA PAG Manual (see, http://
                                             Appendix 4. Operational Guidelines for                   comments. A summary of the comments         
                                                  Implementation of Protective Action                 on the interim Guidance document and                  The reader will then be directed to the

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                                                                             Federal Register / Vol. 73, No. 149 / Friday, August 1, 2008 / Notices                                            45031

                                             new EPA PAG Manual, where these                          recovery of critical infrastructure are not           produces radioactive fallout, which may
                                             provisions may be found.                                 made quickly, the disruption and harm                 spread and deposit over very large areas.
                                                                                                      caused by the incident could be                       If a nuclear yield is not achieved, the
                                             (a) Introduction
                                                                                                      inadvertently and unnecessarily                       result would likely resemble an RDD in
                                                For the early and intermediate phases                 increased. Failure to restore important               which fissile weapons material was
                                             of response, this document presents                      services rapidly could result in                      utilized.
                                             levels of projected radiation dose at                    additional adverse public health and
                                             which the Federal Government                             welfare impacts that could be more                    (3) Differences Between Acts of Terror
                                             recommends that actions be considered                    significant than the direct radiological              and Accidents
                                             to avoid or reduce adverse public health                 impacts.                                                 Most radiological emergency planning
                                             consequences from an RDD or IND                                                                                has been conducted to respond to
                                             incident. This document incorporates                     (b) Characteristics of RDD and IND
                                                                                                      Incidents                                             potential nuclear power plant accidents.
                                             guidance and regulations published by                                                                          RDD and IND incidents differ from a
                                             the EPA, Food and Drug Administration                      A radiological incident is defined as               nuclear power plant accident in several
                                             (FDA), and the Occupational Safety and                   an event or series of events, deliberate              ways, and response planning should
                                             Health Administration (OSHA). For the                    or accidental, leading to the release, or             take these differences into account.
                                             late phase of the response, this                         potential release, into the environment               First, the severity of an IND incident
                                             Guidance presents a process for                          of radioactive material in sufficient                 would be dramatically greater than any
                                             establishing appropriate exposure levels                 quantity to warrant consideration of                  nuclear power plant accident. An IND
                                             based on site-specific circumstances.                    protective actions. Use of an RDD or                  would have grave consequences for the
                                             This Guidance addresses key                              IND is an act of terror that results in a             human population and create a large
                                             radiological protection questions at each                radiological incident.                                radius of severe damage from blast and
                                             stage of an RDD or IND incident (early,                                                                        fires, which could not occur in a nuclear
                                             intermediate, and late) and constitutes                  (1) Radiological Dispersal Device (RDD)
                                                                                                                                                            power plant accident.
                                             advice by the Federal government to                         An RDD poses a threat to public
                                                                                                                                                               Second, the radiological release from
                                             Federal, State, and local decision                       health and safety through the malicious
                                                                                                                                                            an RDD or IND may start without any
                                             makers.                                                  spread of radioactive material by some
                                                                                                                                                            advance warning and would likely have
                                                The objective of the Guidance is to aid               means of dispersion. The mode of
                                                                                                                                                            a relatively short duration. In a major
                                             decision makers in protecting the                        dispersal typically conceived as an RDD
                                                                                                                                                            nuclear power plant accident, there is
                                             public, first responders, and other                      is an explosive device coupled with
                                             emergency workers from the effects of                                                                          likely to be several hours or days of
                                                                                                      radioactive material. The explosion
                                             radiation, and cleaning up the affected                                                                        warning before the release starts, and
                                                                                                      adds an immediate threat to human life
                                             area, while balancing the adverse social                                                                       the release is likely to be drawn out over
                                                                                                      and property. Other means of dispersal,
                                             and economic impacts following an                                                                              many hours. This difference means that
                                                                                                      both passive and active, may be
                                             RDD or IND incident. Restoring the                                                                             most early phase, and some
                                             normal operation of critical                                There is a wide range of possible                  intermediate phase, protective action
                                             infrastructure, services, industries,                    consequences that may result from an                  decisions, which may be made in a
                                             business, and public activities as soon                  RDD, depending on the type and size of                timely fashion during power plant
                                             as possible can minimize adverse social                  the device and how dispersal is                       incidents, must be made much more
                                             and economic impacts.                                    achieved. The consequences of an RDD                  quickly (and with less information) in
                                                This Guidance for RDD and IND                         may range from a small, localized area,               an RDD or IND incident if they are to
                                             incidents is not a set of absolute                       such as a single building or city block,              be effective.
                                             standards. The guides are not intended                   to large areas, conceivably several                      Third, an RDD or IND incident is
                                             to define ‘‘safe’’ or ‘‘unsafe’’ levels of               square miles. However, most experts                   more likely to occur in a major city
                                             exposure or contamination; rather they                   agree that the likelihood of impacting a              center with a large population. Because
                                             represent the approximate levels at                      very large area is low. In most plausible             of the rural setting in which many
                                             which the associated protective actions                  scenarios, the radioactive material                   nuclear facilities are located, the lower
                                             are justified. The Guidance provides                     would not result in acutely harmful                   number and density of people affected
                                             Federal, State and local decision makers                 radiation doses, and the primary public               by a nuclear plant incident would be
                                             the flexibility to be more or less                       health concern from those materials                   less, making evacuations much more
                                             restrictive, as deemed appropriate based                 would be increased risk of cancer to                  manageable, and the amount of critical
                                             on the unique characteristics of the                     exposed individuals. Hazards from fire,               infrastructure impacted is also likely to
                                             incident and local considerations.                       smoke, shock (physical, electrical, or                be smaller.
                                                This RDD/IND Guidance can be used                     thermal), shrapnel (from an explosion),                  Fourth, large nuclear facilities have
                                             to select actions to prepare for, respond                hazardous materials, and other chemical               detailed emergency plans developed
                                             to, and recover from the adverse effects                 or biological agents may also be present.             over years that are periodically
                                             that may exist during any phase of a                                                                           exercised including specified protective
                                             terrorist incident—the early (emergency)                 (2) Improvised Nuclear Device (IND)                   actions, evacuation routes, and methods
                                             phase, the intermediate phase, or the                       An IND is an illicit nuclear weapon                to quickly alert the public of the actions
                                             late phase. There may be an urgent need                  bought, stolen, or otherwise originating              to take. This would not be the case for
                                             to evacuate people; there may also be an                 from a nuclear State, or a weapon                     an RDD or IND incident. This level of
                                             urgent need to restore the services of                   fabricated by a terrorist group from                  radiological emergency planning
                                             critical infrastructure (e.g., roads, rail               illegally obtained fissile nuclear                    typically does not exist in most cities
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                                             lines, airports, electric power, water,                  weapons material that produces a                      and towns without nearby nuclear
                                             sewage, medical facilities, and                          nuclear explosion. The nuclear yield                  facilities.
                                             businesses) in the hours and days                        achieved by an IND produces extreme                      Fifth, the radioactive material releases
                                             following the incident—thus, some                        heat, powerful shockwaves, and prompt                 from a nuclear power plant incident
                                             response decisions must be made                          radiation that would be acutely lethal                would be well known in advance based
                                             quickly. If the decisions affecting the                  for a significant distance. It also                   on reactor operational characteristics

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                                             45032                           Federal Register / Vol. 73, No. 149 / Friday, August 1, 2008 / Notices

                                             whereas releases associated with an                      there may be no time to take protective                actions needed to recover from the
                                             RDD or IND would not.                                    actions to significantly reduce plume                  incident, reopen critical infrastructure,
                                               Sixth, in an act of terrorism, the                     exposure. Also, in the event of a covert               and return to a state of relatively normal
                                             incident scene becomes a crime scene.                    dispersal, discovery or detection may                  activity. In general, intermediate phase
                                             As such, the crime scene must be                         not occur for days or weeks, allowing                  decisions should consider late phase
                                             preserved for forensic investigation.                    contamination to be dispersed broadly                  response objectives. However, some
                                             This may impact emergency responders                     by foot, vehicular traffic, wind, rain, or             intermediate phase decisions will need
                                             during the early and intermediate                        other forces.                                          to be made quickly (i.e., within hours)
                                             phases of response. It should be noted                      If an IND explodes, there may only be               and should not be delayed by
                                             that other personnel responding to the                   time to make early phase protective                    discussions on what the more desirable
                                             incident (i.e., law enforcement, security                action recommendations (e.g.,                          permanent decisions will be. Local
                                             personnel) will be involved in addition                  evacuation, or shelter-in-place) many                  officials must weigh public health and
                                             to emergency responders.                                 miles from the explosion to protect                    welfare concerns, potential economic
                                             (c) Phases of Response                                   areas against exposure to fallout. Areas               effects, and many other factors when
                                                                                                      close to the explosion will be                         making decisions. For example, it can
                                                Typically, the response to an RDD or                  devastated, and communications and                     be expected that hospitals and their
                                             IND incident can be divided into three                   access will be extremely limited.
                                             time phases—the early phase, the                                                                                access roads will need to remain open
                                                                                                      Assistance will likely not be                          or be reopened quickly. These interim
                                             intermediate phase, and the late phase—                  forthcoming or even possible for some
                                             that are generally accepted as being                                                                            decisions can often be made with the
                                                                                                      hours. Self-guided protective actions are              acknowledgement that further work may
                                             common to all radiological incidents.                    likely to be the best recourse for most
                                             The phases represent time periods in                                                                            be needed as time progresses.
                                                                                                      survivors (e.g., evacuation
                                             which response officials would be                        perpendicular to the plume movement if                 (3) Late Phase
                                             making public health protection                          it can be achieved quickly, or sheltering
                                             decisions. Although these phases cannot                  in a basement or large building for a day                 The late phase is the period when
                                             be represented by precise time periods,                  or more after the incident 1). Due to the              recovery and cleanup actions designed
                                             and may overlap, they provide a useful                   lack of communication and access,                      to reduce radiation levels in the
                                             framework for the considerations                         outside guidance and assistance to these               environment to acceptable levels are
                                             involved in emergency response                           areas can be expected to be delayed.                   commenced. This phase ends when all
                                             planning.                                                                                                       the remediation actions have been
                                                                                                      Therefore, response planning and public
                                             (1) Early Phase                                          outreach programs are critical measures                completed. With additional time and
                                                                                                      to meet IND preparedness objectives.                   increased understanding of the
                                                The early phase (or emergency phase)                                                                         situation, there will be opportunities to
                                             is the period at the beginning of the                    (2) Intermediate Phase                                 involve key stakeholders in providing
                                             incident when immediate decisions for                                                                           sound, cost-effective cleanup
                                                                                                         The intermediate phase of the
                                             effective protective actions are required,                                                                      recommendations that are protective of
                                                                                                      response may follow the early phase
                                             and when actual field measurement data                                                                          human health and the environment.
                                                                                                      response within as little as a few hours.
                                             generally are not available. Exposure to                                                                        Generally, early (or emergency) phase
                                             the radioactive plume, short-term                        The intermediate phase of the response
                                                                                                      is usually assumed to begin after the                  decisions will be made directly by
                                             exposure to deposited radioactive                                                                               elected public officials, or their
                                             materials, and inhalation of radioactive                 incident source and releases have been
                                                                                                      brought under control and protective                   designees, with limited stakeholder
                                             material are generally taken into
                                                                                                      action decisions can be made based on                  involvement due to the need to act
                                             account when considering protective
                                                                                                      measurements of exposure and                           within a short timeframe. Long-term
                                             actions for the early phase. The
                                                                                                      radioactive materials that have been                   decisions should be made with
                                             response during the early phase
                                             includes initial emergency response                      deposited as a result of the incident.                 stakeholder involvement, and can also
                                             actions to protect public health and                     Activities in this phase typically overlap             include incident-specific technical
                                             welfare in the short term, considering a                 with early and late phase activities, and              working groups to provide expert advice
                                             time period for protective actions of                    may continue for weeks to many                         to decision makers on alternatives,
                                             hours to a few days. Priority should be                  months, until protective actions can be                costs, and impacts. The relationship
                                             given to lifesaving and first-aid actions.               terminated.                                            between typical protective actions and
                                             In general, early phase protective                          During the intermediate phase,                      the phases of the incident response are
                                             actions should be taken very quickly,                    decisions must be made on the initial                  outlined in Figure 1. There is overlap
                                             and the protective action decisions can                                                                         between the phases; this framework
                                             be modified later as more information
                                                                                                         1 Additional protective action guides and
                                                                                                                                                             should be used to inform planning and
                                                                                                      recommendations are needed for the close-in zones      decision-making.
                                             becomes available. If an explosive RDD                   after an IND. A follow-on Federal effort is underway
                                             is deployed without warning, however,                    to address this critical need.                         BILLING CODE 9110–21–I
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                                             BILLING CODE 9110–21–C

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                                             (d) Guidance for RDD and IND Incidents                   under varying emergency                               Though the early and intermediate
                                               This section defines protective actions                circumstances. The 1992 EPA PAGs                      PAGs in this Guidance are values of
                                             and protective action guides, and                        meet the following principal criteria and             dose to be avoided, published dose
                                             provides guidance for their                              goals: (1) Prevent acute effects, (2)                 conversion factors and derived response
                                             implementation in RDD and IND                            reduce risk of chronic effects, and (3)               levels may be utilized in estimating
                                             incidents. In addition, this section                     require optimization to balance                       doses, and for choosing and
                                             provides guidance for protection of                      protection with other important factors               implementing protective actions. Other
                                             emergency workers, and a strategy for                    and ensure that actions taken result in               quantitative measures and derived
                                             devising cleanup plans, criteria, and                    more benefit than harm.                               concentration values may be useful in
                                             options.                                                    The 1992 EPA PAG Manual, however,                  emergency situations; for example, for
                                                                                                      was not developed to address response                 the release of goods and property from
                                             (1) Protective Actions                                   actions following radiological or nuclear             contaminated zones, and to control
                                                Protective actions are activities that                terrorist incidents and does not address              access into and out of contaminated
                                             should be conducted in response to an                    long-term cleanup. The 1992 EPA PAG                   areas.
                                             RDD or IND incident in order to reduce                   Manual was written to address the kinds                 Because of the short time frames
                                             or eliminate exposure of the public to                   of nuclear or radiological incidents                  required for emergency response
                                             radiation or other hazards. These                        deemed likely to occur. While intended                decisions in the early and intermediate
                                             actions are generic and are applicable to                to be applicable to any radiological                  phases, it is likely there will not be
                                             RDDs and INDs. The principal                             release, the 1992 EPA PAGs were                       opportunities for local decision makers
                                             protective action decisions for                          designed principally to address the                   to consult with a variety of stakeholders
                                             consideration in the early and                           impacts of commercial NPP accidents,                  before taking actions. Therefore, this
                                             intermediate phases of an emergency are                  the worst type of incident under                      Guidance incorporates the significant
                                             whether to shelter-in-place, evacuate, or                consideration at that time. This is                   body of work done in the general
                                             relocate affected or potentially affected                important for two reasons: Commercial                 context of radiological emergency
                                             populations. Secondary actions include                   nuclear power plant accidents are                     response planning from the
                                             administration of medical                                almost always signaled by preceding                   development of the 1992 EPA PAGs,
                                             countermeasures, decontamination                         events, giving plant managers time to                 and represents the results of scientific
                                             (including decontamination of persons                    make decisions, and giving local                      analysis, public comment, drills,
                                             evacuated from the affected area), use of                emergency managers time to                            exercises, and a consensus at the
                                             access restrictions, and use of                          communicate with the public and                       Federal level for appropriate emergency
                                             restrictions on food and water. In some                  initiate evacuations if necessary. In                 action.
                                             situations, only one protective action                   addition, the suite of radionuclides
                                             needs to be implemented, while in                        present at nuclear power plants is well-                In order to use the early and
                                             others, numerous protective actions                      known, and is dominated by relatively                 intermediate phase PAGs to make
                                             should be implemented. Many factors                      short-lived isotopes.                                 decisions about appropriate protective
                                             should be considered when deciding                          The 1992 EPA PAG Manual provides                   actions, decision makers will need
                                             whether or not to order a protective                     a significant part of the basis of this               information on suspected radionuclides;
                                             action based on the projected dose to a                  document and should be referred to for                projected plume movement, and
                                             population. For example, evacuation of                   additional details. In deriving the                   radioactive depositions; and/or actual
                                             a population is much more difficult and                  recommendations contained in this                     measurement data or, during the period
                                             costly as the size of the population                     Guidance, new types of incidents and                  initially following the release, expert
                                             increases.                                               scenarios that could lead to                          advice in the absence of good
                                                                                                      environmental radiological                            information. Sources of such
                                             (2) Protective Action Guides (PAGs)                      contamination were considered. The                    information include on-scene
                                               A PAG is the projected dose to a                       interagency working group determined                  responders, as well as monitoring,
                                             reference individual, from an accidental                 that the 1992 EPA PAGs for the early                  assessment, and modeling centers.
                                             or deliberate release of radioactive                     and intermediate phases, including                    (3) Early and Intermediate Phase
                                             material, at which a specific protective                 emergency responder guidelines, are                   Protective Action Guides for RDD and
                                             action to reduce or avoid that dose is                   also appropriate for use in RDD and IND               IND Incidents
                                             recommended. Thus, protective actions                    incidents. This Guidance is intended to
                                             are designed to be taken before the                      supplement the 1992 EPA PAG Manual                      The early and intermediate phase
                                             anticipated dose is realized.                            for application to RDD and IND                        RDD/IND PAGs are generally based on
                                               The Environmental Protection Agency                    incidents, including providing new late               the following sources: The 1992 EPA
                                             (EPA) has published PAGs in the                          phase guidance.                                       PAGs developed by EPA in coordination
                                             ‘‘Manual of Protective Action Guides                        The RDD/IND Guidance provides                      with other Federal agencies through the
                                             and Protective Actions for Nuclear                       generic criteria based on balancing                   Federal Radiological Preparedness
                                             Incidents’’ (EPA 400–R–92–001, May                       public health and welfare with the risk               Coordinating Committee; guidance
                                             1992), in coordination with the Federal                  of various protective actions applied in              developed by the FDA for food and food
                                             Radiological Preparedness Coordinating                   each of the phases of an RDD or IND                   products and the distribution of
                                             Committee (FRPCC). The PAGs                              incident. The RDD/IND Guidance is                     potassium iodide. Table 1 provides a
                                             presented in this manual, hereafter                      specific to radiation and radioactive                 summary of the early and intermediate
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                                             referred to as the 1992 EPA PAGs, are                    materials, and must be considered in the              phase PAGs for protection of the general
                                             non-regulatory. They are designed to                     context of other chemical or biological               public in an RDD or IND incident and
                                             provide a flexible basis for decisions                   hazards that may also be present.                     key protective actions.

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                                                                                       TABLE 1—PROTECTIVE ACTION GUIDES FOR RDD AND IND INCIDENTS
                                                       Phase                      Protective action recommendation                                                       Protective action guide

                                             Early .........................   Sheltering-in-place or evacuation of the                   1 to 5 rem (0.01–0.05 Sv) projected dose.b
                                                                               Administration of prophylactic drugs—                      5 rem (0.05 Sv) projected dose to child thyroid.c,e
                                                                                 potassium iodidec,e Administration of
                                                                                 other prophylactic or decorporation
                                             Intermediate .............        Relocation of the public ........................          2 rem (0.02 Sv) projected dose first year. Subsequent years, 0.5 rem/y (0.005
                                                                                                                                            Sv/y) projected dose.b
                                                                               Food interdiction ....................................     0.5 rem (0.005 Sv) projected dose, or 5 rem (0.05 Sv) to any individual organ
                                                                                                                                            or tissue in the first year, whichever is limiting.
                                                                               Drinking water interdiction .....................          0.5 rem (0.005 Sv) projected dose in the first year.
                                                a Should  normally begin at 1 rem (0.01 Sv); take whichever action (or combination of actions) that results in the lowest exposure for the major-
                                             ity of the population. Sheltering may begin at lower levels if advantageous.
                                                b Total Effective Dose Equivalent (TEDE)—the sum of the effective dose equivalent from external radiation exposure and the committed effec-
                                             tive dose equivalent from inhaled radioactive material.
                                                c Provides thyroid protection from radioactive iodine only.
                                                d For other information on other radiological prophylactics and medical countermeasures, refer to
                                             fault.htm, http:/, or
                                                e Committed Dose Equivalent (CDE). FDA understands that a KI administration program that sets different projected thyroid radioactive dose
                                             thresholds for treatment of different population groups may be logistically impractical to implement during a radiological emergency. If emergency
                                             planners reach this conclusion, FDA recommends that KI be administered to both children and adults at the lowest intervention threshold (i.e., >5
                                             rem (0.05 Sv) projected internal thyroid dose in children) (FDA 2001).

                                                In the early and intermediate phases                               FDA guidance on the administration                        not impacted. The intermediate phase is
                                             of an RDD or IND incident there may                                 of stable iodine is also considered                         also the period during which planning
                                             not be adequate information to                                      appropriate (useful primarily for NPP                       for long-term site cleanup and
                                             determine radiation levels or make dose                             incident involving radioiodine release).                    remediation should be initiated.
                                             projections because there may be little                             The administration of other medical                            For the intermediate phase, relocation
                                             or no advance notice of an attack, the                              countermeasures should be evaluated                         of the population is a protective action
                                             characteristics of the RDD or IND may                               on a case-by-case basis and depend on                       that can be used to reduce dose.
                                             not be immediately known, monitoring                                the nature of the event and                                 Relocation is the removal or continued
                                             equipment may not be available to make                              radionuclides involved.                                     exclusion of people (households) from
                                             measurements, or there may not be time                                The initial zone should be established                    contaminated areas in order to avoid
                                             to do measurements or projections                                   and controlled around the incident site,                    chronic radiation exposure, and it is
                                             before emergency response actions need                              as is the case for other crime scenes and                   meant to protect the general public. For
                                             to be initiated. Therefore, to use this                             hazards. This Guidance allows for the                       the intermediate phase, the existing
                                             guide to determine whether protective                               refinement of that area if the radiation                    relocation PAGs of 2 rem (0.02 Sv) in
                                             action is needed in a particular                                    exposure levels warrant such action.                        the first year and 0.5 rem (0.005 Sv) in
                                             situation, it may be necessary to                                   Advance planning by local officials for                     any subsequent year are considered
                                             compare the PAGs to results of a dose                               messaging, communications, and                              appropriate for RDD and IND incidents.
                                             projection. In general, it should be                                actions in the event of an RDD or IND                       However, for IND incidents, the area
                                             emphasized that realistic assumptions,                              are strongly encouraged.                                    impacted and the number of people that
                                             based on incident-specific information,                                                                                         might be subject to relocation could
                                                                                                                 (B) Intermediate Phase PAGs                                 potentially be very large and could
                                             should be used when making radiation
                                                                                                                    The decisions in the intermediate                        exceed the resources and infrastructure
                                             dose projections so that the final results
                                                                                                                 phase will focus on the return of key                       available. For example, in making
                                             are representative of actual conditions
                                                                                                                 infrastructure and services, and the                        relocation decisions, the availability of
                                             rather than overly conservative
                                                                                                                 rapid return to normal activities. This                     adequate accommodations for relocated
                                             exposures. It is very important that local                                                                                      people should be considered. Decision
                                             officials responsible for carrying out                              will include decisions on allowing use
                                                                                                                 of roads, ports, waterways,                                 makers may need to consider limiting
                                             emergency response actions conduct                                                                                              action to those areas most severely
                                                                                                                 transportation systems (including
                                             advance planning to ensure that they are                                                                                        affected, phasing relocation
                                                                                                                 subways, trains, and airports), hospitals,
                                             adequately prepared if such an incident                                                                                         implementation based on the resources
                                                                                                                 businesses, and residences. It will also
                                             were to occur.                                                                                                                  available.
                                                                                                                 include responses to questions about
                                             (A) Early Phase PAGs                                                acceptable use and release of real and                         The relocation PAGs apply
                                                                                                                 personal property such as cars, clothes,                    principally to personal residences, but
                                                For the early phase, the 1992 EPA                                or equipment that may have been                             may impact other locations as well. For
                                             PAGs for evacuation and sheltering-in-                              impacted by the RDD or IND incident.                        example, these PAGs could impact work
                                             place are appropriate for RDD and IND                               Many of the activities will be concerned                    locations, hospitals, and park lands, as
                                             incidents (see Table 1). Early phase                                with materials and areas that were not                      well as the use of highways and other
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                                             protective action decisions in an RDD or                            affected, but for which members of the                      transportation facilities. For each type of
                                             IND must be made quickly, and with                                  public may have concern. Thus, the                          facility, the individual occupancy time
                                             very little confirmatory data. While                                RDD/IND Guidance serves to guide                            should be taken into account to
                                             sheltering-in-place should be carried out                           decisions on returning to impacted                          determine the criteria for using a facility
                                             at 1 rem (0.01 Sv) sheltering-in-place                              areas, leaving impacted areas, and                          or area. It might be necessary to avoid
                                             can begin at any projected dose level.                              providing assurance that an area was                        continuous use of homes in an area

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                                             because radiation levels are too high;                   short period of time. However, if the                 organizations), already have guidance
                                             however, a factory or office building in                 impacted area is large, achieving low                 and tools that may be used to help
                                             the same area could be used because                      cleanup levels for remediation of the                 establish cleanup levels. The
                                             occupancy times are shorter. Similarly,                  entire area, and/or maintaining existing              optimization process allows local
                                             a highway could be used at higher                        land uses, may not be practicable.                    decision makers to draw on the thought
                                             contamination levels because the                            It should be noted that an                         processes used to develop the dose and/
                                             exposure time of highway users would                     intermediate phase PAG is not                         or risk benchmarks used by these State,
                                             be considerably less than the time spent                 equivalent to a starting point for                    Federal, or other sources. These
                                             by residents in a home.                                  development of the late phase cleanup                 benchmarks, though developed within
                                               The intermediate phase PAG for the                     process. However, contamination and                   different contexts, may be useful for
                                             interdiction of food is set at 0.5 rem                   radiation levels existing after an                    analysis of cleanup options. Decision
                                             (0.005 Sv) projected dose in the first                   incident (e.g., concentrations, or dose               makers might reasonably determine that
                                             year, and the intermediate phase PAG                     rates), as well as actions already taken,             it is appropriate to move up or down
                                             for the interdiction of drinking water is                provide practical starting points for                 from these benchmarks, depending on
                                             set at 0.5 rem (0.005 Sv) projected dose                 further action and cleanup. The goal of               the site-specific circumstances and
                                             for the first year for RDD and IND                       cleanup is to reduce those levels as low              balancing of other relevant factors.
                                             incidents. These values are consistent                   as is reasonable. It is possible that final              In developing this Guidance, the
                                             with those now used or being                             criteria for reoccupation at a given                  Federal Government recognized that
                                             considered as PAGs for other types of                    incident site may be either below or                  experience from existing programs, such
                                             nuclear/radiological incidents.                          above the intermediate phase PAG dose                 as the EPA’s Superfund program, the
                                               The use of simple dose reduction                       value, since no dose or risk cap for the              NRC’s standards for decommissioning
                                             techniques is recommended for personal                   late phase is explicitly recommended                  and decontamination to terminate a
                                             property and all potentially                             under this Guidance.                                  plant license, and other national and
                                             contaminated areas that continue to be                      Late phase cleanup criteria should be              international recommendations, may be
                                             occupied. This technique is also                         derived through a site-specific                       useful in planning the cleanup and
                                             consistent with the 1992 EPA PAGs                        optimization process, which should                    recovery efforts following an RDD or
                                             developed for other types of nuclear/                    include potential future land uses,                   IND incident. This Guidance allows the
                                             radiological incidents. Examples of                      technical feasibility, costs, cost-                   consideration and incorporation, as
                                             simple dose reduction techniques                         effectiveness, and public acceptability.              appropriate, of any or all of the existing
                                             would be washing all transportation                      Optimization is a concept that is                     environmental program elements.
                                             vehicles (e.g., automobiles, trains, ships,              common to many State, Federal, and                       The site-specific optimization process
                                             and aircraft), personal clothing, eating                 international risk management programs                includes quantitative and qualitative
                                             utensils, food preparation surfaces, and                 that address radionuclides and                        assessments applied at each stage of site
                                             other personal property before next use,                 chemicals, although it is not always                  cleanup decision making, from initial
                                             as practicable and appropriate.                          referred to as such. The Risk                         scoping and stakeholder outreach, to
                                                                                                      Management Framework described in                     evaluation of cleanup options, to
                                             (4) Late Phase Guidance
                                                                                                      Appendix 2 provides such a process and                implementation of the chosen
                                                The late phase involves the final                     helps assure the protection of public
                                             cleanup of areas and property at which                                                                         alternative. The evaluation of options
                                                                                                      health and welfare. Decisions should                  for the late phase of recovery after an
                                             radioactive material is present. Unlike                  take health, safety, technical, economic,
                                             the early and intermediate phases of an                                                                        RDD or IND incident should consider all
                                                                                                      and public policy factors into account.               of the relevant factors, including:
                                             RDD or IND incident, decision makers                     Appendix 3 utilizes the framework as a
                                             will have more time and information                                                                               • Areas impacted (e.g., size, location
                                                                                                      basis for RDD and IND site cleanup                    relative to population).
                                             during the late phase to allow for better                planning.                                                • Types of contamination (chemical,
                                             data collection, stakeholder                                Broadly speaking, optimization is a                biological, and radiological).
                                             involvement, and options analysis. In                    flexible, multi-attribute decision process               • Other hazards present.
                                             this respect, the late phase is no longer                that seeks to weigh many factors.                        • Human health risk.
                                             a response to an ‘‘emergency situation,’’                Optimization analyses are quantitative                   • Public welfare.
                                             and is better viewed in terms of the                     and qualitative assessments applied at                   • Ecological risks.
                                             objectives of cleanup and site recovery.                 each stage of site recovery decision-                    • Actions already taken during the
                                                Because of the extremely broad range                  making, from evaluation of remedial                   early and intermediate phases.
                                             of potential impacts that may occur                      options to implementation of the chosen                  • Projected land uses.
                                             from RDDs and INDs (e.g., light                          alternative. The evaluation of cleanup                   • Preservation or destruction of
                                             contamination of one building to                         alternatives, for example, should factor              places of historical, national, or regional
                                             widespread destruction of a major                        in all relevant variables, including areas            significance.
                                             metropolitan area), a pre-established                    impacted (e.g., size and location relative               • Technical feasibility.
                                             numeric cleanup guideline is not                         to population), types of contamination                   • Wastes generated and disposal
                                             recommended as best serving the needs                    (chemical, biological, and/or                         options and costs.
                                             of decision makers in the late phase.                    radioactive), human health, public                       • Costs and available resources to
                                             Rather, a process should be used to                      welfare, technical feasibility, costs, and            implement and maintain remedial
                                             determine the societal objectives for                    available resources to implement and                  options.
                                             expected land uses and the options and                   maintain remedial options, short-term                    • Potential adverse impacts (e.g., to
                                             approaches available, in order to select                 effectiveness, long-term effectiveness,               human health, the environment, and the
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                                             the most acceptable criteria. For                        timeliness, public acceptability, and                 economy) of remedial options.
                                             example, if the incident is an RDD of                    economic effects (e.g., on residents,                    • Short-term effectiveness.
                                             limited size and the impacted area is                    tourism, and business, and industry).                    • Long-term effectiveness.
                                             small, it might reasonably be expected                      Various Federal, and State agencies,                  • Timeliness.
                                             that a complete return to normal                         along with other organizations (e.g.,                    • Public acceptability, including local
                                             conditions can be achieved within a                      national and international advisory                   cultural sensitivities.

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                                               • Economic effects (e.g., on                              As explained in Appendix 3, the                      actions to protect public health and
                                             employment, tourism, and business).                       Incident Command or Unified                            welfare in the short term. Priority
                                               • Intergenerational equity.                             Command should develop a schedule                      should be given to lifesaving and first-
                                               The site-specific optimization process                  with milestones for conducting the                     aid actions. Following an IND
                                             provides the best opportunity for                         optimization process as soon as                        detonation in particular, the highest
                                             decision makers to gain public                            practicable following the incident.                    priority missions should also include
                                             confidence through the involvement of                     While the goal should be to complete                   actions such as suppression of fires that
                                             stakeholders. This process should begin                   the initial optimization process as soon               could result in further loss of life.
                                             during, and proceed independently of,                     as possible following an incident
                                             intermediate phase protective action                                                                                For the purposes of this Guidance,
                                                                                                       (depending on the size of the incident),
                                             activities.                                                                                                      ‘‘emergency worker’’ is defined as any
                                                                                                       the schedule must take into
                                               Appendix 3 provides additional                                                                                 worker who performs an early or
                                                                                                       consideration incident-specific factors
                                             details on a process that may be used to                                                                         intermediate phase work action. Table 2
                                             implement this Guidance, describing                       that would affect successful
                                                                                                                                                              shows the emergency worker guidelines
                                             the role of the Federal Government and                    implementation. This schedule may
                                                                                                                                                              for early phase emergency response
                                             how it could integrate its activities with                need to reflect a phased approach to
                                                                                                       cleanup and is subject to change as the                actions. In intermediate and late phase
                                             State and local governments and the                                                                              actions (i.e., cleanup and recovery),
                                             public. For some radiological terror                      cleanup progresses.
                                                                                                                                                              standard worker protections, including
                                             incidents, States may take the primary                    (5) Emergency Worker Guidelines                        the 5 rem (0.05 Sv) occupational dose
                                             leadership role in cleanup and                                                                                   limit, apply.
                                             contribute significant resources toward                     The response during the early phase
                                             recovery of the site.                                     includes initial emergency response

                                                                                   TABLE 2—EMERGENCY WORKER GUIDELINES IN THE EARLY PHASE 2
                                              Total effective dose
                                              equivalent (TEDE) a                           Activity                                                            Condition

                                             5rem (0.05 Sv) .........   All occupational exposures ...................     All reasonably achievable actions have been taken to minimize dose.
                                             10 rem (0.1 Sv) ........   Protecting valuable property necessary             • All appropriate actions and controls have been implemented; however, ex-
                                                                          for public welfare (e.g., a power                  ceeding 5 rem (0.05 Sv) is unavoidable.
                                                                                                                           • Responders have been fully informed of the risks of exposures they may ex-
                                                                                                                           • Dose >5 rem (0.05 Sv) is on a voluntary basis.
                                                                                                                           • Appropriate respiratory protection and other personal protection is provided
                                                                                                                             and used.
                                                                                                                           • Monitoring available to project or measure dose.
                                             25 rem (0.25 Sv) b ....    Lifesaving or protection of large popu-            • All appropriate actions and controls have been implemented; however, ex-
                                                                           lations. It is highly unlikely that doses         ceeding 5 rem (0.05 Sv) is unavoidable.
                                                                           would reach this level in an RDD in-            • Responders have been fully informed of the risks of exposures they may ex-
                                                                           cident; however, worker doses higher              perience.
                                                                           than 25 rem (0.25 Sv) are conceiv-              • Dose >5 rem (0.05 Sv) is on a voluntarily basis.
                                                                           able in a catastrophic incident such            • Appropriate respiratory protection and other personal protection is provided
                                                                           as an IND incident.                               and used.
                                                                                                                           • Monitoring available to project or measure dose.
                                               a The projected sum of the effective dose equivalent from external radiation exposure and committed effective dose equivalent from internal ra-
                                             diation exposure.
                                               b EPA’s 1992 PAG Manual states that ‘‘Situations may also rarely occur in which a dose in excess of 25 rem for emergency exposure would
                                             be unavoidable in order to carry out a lifesaving operation or avoid extensive exposure of large populations.’’ Similarly, the NCRP and ICRP
                                             raise the possibility that emergency responders might receive an equivalent dose that approaches or exceeds 50 rem (0.5 Sv) to a large portion
                                             of the body in a short time (Limitation of Exposure to Ionizing Radiation, National Council on Radiation Protection and Measures, NCRP Report
                                             116 (1993a). If lifesaving emergency responder doses approach or exceed 50 rem (0.5 Sv) emergency responders must be made fully aware of
                                             both the acute and the chronic (cancer) risks of such exposure.

                                                This Guidance document and the                         impacts and case-specific information                  achievable’’ (ALARA) principle after an
                                             emergency worker guidelines were                          needed, it is impossible to develop a                  incident. Still, in some incidents
                                             developed for a wide range of possible                    single turn-back dose level for all                    medically significant doses above the
                                             radiological scenarios, from a small RDD                  responders to use in all events,                       annual occupational 5 rem (0.05 Sv)
                                             that may impact a single building to an                   especially those that involve lifesaving               dose limit may be unavoidable. For
                                             IND that could potentially impact a                       operations. Indeed, with proper                        instance, in the case of a catastrophic
                                             large geographic region. Therefore, the                   preparedness measures (training,                       incident, such as an IND, Incident
                                             5, 10 and 25 rem guidelines (Table 2)                     personal protective equipment, etc.)                   Commanders may need to consider
                                             should not be viewed as inflexible                        many radiological emergencies                          raising the lifesaving and valuable
                                             limits applicable to the range of early
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                                                                                                       addressed by this document, even                       property (i.e., necessary for public
                                             phase emergency actions covered by                        lifesaving operations, may be                          welfare) emergency worker guidelines
                                             this Guidance. Because of the range of
                                                                                                       manageable within the 5 rem (0.05 Sv)                  in order to prevent further loss of life
                                               2 In the intermediate and late phases, standard
                                                                                                       occupational limit. Moreover, Incident                 and prevent the spread of massive
                                             worker protections, including the 5 rem                   Commanders should make every effort                    destruction. Ensuring that emergency
                                             occupational dose limit, would normally apply.            to employ the ‘‘as low as reasonably                   workers have full knowledge of the

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                                             associated risks prior to initiating                     success of the emergency response/                    radiation levels for control of access to
                                             emergency action and medical                             rescue operation against the potential                radiation areas.
                                             evaluation of emergency workers after                    for and significance of the health and
                                             such exposure is essential. (See                         safety risks to the emergency workers.                (1) Derived Response Levels (DRLs)
                                             Appendix 1 for additional discussion of                  Federal, state and local emergency                      The 1992 EPA PAG Manual contains
                                             ALARA.)                                                  response officials should use these                   guidance and Derived Response Levels
                                                Ideally, the Incident Commanders                      guidelines to develop specific                        (DRLs) for various potential exposure
                                             should define and enforce the                            operational plans and response                        pathways, including external exposure,
                                             emergency dose limits in accordance                      protocols for protection of emergency
                                             with the immediate risk situation and                                                                          inhalation, submersion, ground shine,
                                                                                                      response workers.                                     and drinking water, for application in
                                             the type of emergency action being
                                             performed (see Table 2). However, in                     (e) Operational Guidelines for Early and              the early and intermediate phases.
                                             the case of an attack it may not be                      Intermediate PAGs                                     These values serve as, or can be adapted
                                             possible to conduct dose measurements                       Implementation of the early and                    to serve as, operational guidelines to
                                             or projections before initiating                         intermediate PAGs may be supported by                 readily determine if protective actions
                                             emergency response activities.                           operational guidelines that can be                    need to be implemented. The summed
                                             Therefore, it is crucial that officials                  readily used by decision makers and                   ratios of radionuclide concentrations
                                             responsible for carrying out emergency                   responders in the field. Operational                  obtained through field measurements
                                             response actions in the early phase                      guidelines are levels of radiation or                 can be compared to the DRLs to
                                             conduct thorough advance planning to                     concentrations of radionuclides that can              determine whether the PAGs are likely
                                             ensure that they are adequately                          be accurately measured by radiation                   to be exceeded. If concentrations of
                                             prepared if such an incident occurs.                     detection and monitoring equipment,                   radionuclides obtained through field
                                             Planning should include evaluating data                  and then related or compared to the                   measurements are less than the DRLs,
                                             and information on possible or                           PAGs to quickly determine whether                     the PAGs are not likely to be exceeded
                                             anticipated radiation exposures in RDD                   actions need to be implemented. Federal               and, thus, a protective action may not
                                             or IND incidents, developing procedures                  agencies are continuing development of                need to be taken.
                                             for reducing and controlling emergency                   operational guidelines to support the
                                             responder exposures to allowable dose                                                                          (2) Derived Intervention Levels (DILs)
                                                                                                      application of this Guidance, and other               for Food
                                             limits (Table 2), obtaining appropriate                  site-level decisions; therefore, they are
                                             personal protective equipment (e.g.,                     provided here in overview only.                         The FDA has developed Derived
                                             respirators, clothing) for protecting                       Some values already exist that could               Intervention Levels (DILs) for
                                             emergency responders who enter                           potentially serve as operational                      implementation of the early and
                                             contaminated areas, and developing                       guidelines for RDD and IND response                   intermediate PAGs for food. These DILs
                                             appropriate decision-making criteria for                 and recovery operations, and there are                establish levels of contamination that
                                             responding to catastrophic incidents                     various tools available to help derive
                                             that may involve high radiation                                                                                can exist on crops and in food products
                                                                                                      operational guidelines for response                   and still maintain dose levels below the
                                             exposure levels. Planning should also                    planning. Appendix 4 presents a
                                             include informing and educating                                                                                food PAGs, and could therefore be used
                                                                                                      summary of the types of operational                   as operational guidelines for RDD and
                                             emergency workers about emergency                        guidelines for RDD and IND response
                                             response procedures and controls as                                                                            IND incidents. More information on
                                                                                                      operations currently under                            DILs can be found in ‘‘Accidental
                                             well as the acute and chronic (cancer)                   development.
                                             risks of exposure, particularly at higher                                                                      Radioactive Contamination of Human
                                                                                                         Additional tools and assessment                    Food and Animal Feeds:
                                             dose levels. Effective advance planning                  methodologies to aid in planning and
                                             will help to ensure that the emergency                                                                         Recommendations for State and Local
                                                                                                      development of operational guidelines                 Agencies’’ (U.S. Department of Health
                                             worker guidelines are correctly applied                  for use with PAGs for a wide range of
                                             and that emergency workers are not                                                                             And Human Services, Food and Drug
                                                                                                      situations are available from the Federal
                                             exposed to radiation levels that are                                                                           Administration, August 13, 1998).
                                                                                                      Radiological Monitoring and
                                             higher than necessary in the specific                    Assessment Center (FRMAC). These                      (3) Radiation Levels for Control of
                                             emergency action.                                        tools and methods are written to
                                                In addition, as part of advance                                                                             Access to Radiation Areas
                                                                                                      support FRMAC operations during
                                             planning, officials should develop a                                                                              Additional operational guidelines for
                                                                                                      radiological and nuclear emergency
                                             process for assessing hazards and for                                                                          use in the early and intermediate phases
                                             determining appropriate actions in                       responses. The FRMAC manuals
                                                                                                      provide detailed methods for computing                of response are being developed for
                                             incidents that may involve high                                                                                issues such as clearance of personal and
                                             radiation doses. Decisions regarding                     Derived Response Levels (DRLs) and
                                                                                                      doses based on measurement or                         real property, land and facility access,
                                             emergency response actions in incidents
                                                                                                      modeling results and suggest input                    and for response actions. A DOE project
                                             involving high radiation exposures
                                                                                                      parameters for various situations.3                   supported by an interagency effort is
                                             require careful consideration of the
                                                                                                         Some examples of existing values that              developing needed tools and
                                             benefits to be achieved by the ‘‘rescue’’
                                             or response action (e.g., the significance               can be used as operational guidelines                 operational guidelines that address
                                             of the outcome to individuals, large                     for RDD and IND response operations                   continued use, or necessary control for
                                             populations, general welfare, or                         and tools that could be used to establish             personal property (e.g., vehicles,
                                             valuable property necessary for public                   site-specific operational guidelines                  equipment, personal items, debris) and
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                                             welfare), and the potential health                       include, derived response levels,                     real property (e.g., buildings, roads,
                                             impacts (i.e., acute and chronic) to                     derived intervention levels for food, and             bridges, residential and commercial
                                             emergency workers. The planning for a                                                                          areas, national monuments and icons)
                                                                                                        3 These materials and additional information on
                                             potential high radiation exposure                                                                              that may be impacted by an RDD or IND
                                                                                                      the FRMAC can be obtained at http://
                                             incident should consider how to weigh          
                                                                                                                                                            incident. The effort includes
                                             the potential for and significance of the                homelandsecurity/frmac.                               consideration of short and long term use

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                                             or access to areas. A DOE report 4 is                    radiation levels necessary for the particular         conducting the emergency response
                                             available for review, and use as                         emergency response action.                            operation. That is, in making an emergency
                                             appropriate. The report includes                           This appendix provides information to               response decision, the potential for the
                                                                                                      assist local, State, and Federal authorities,         success of the response/rescue operation and
                                             proposed operational guidelines and
                                                                                                      and emergency workers in planning for                 the significance of its benefits to the
                                             their technical derivation, and provides                 radiological emergencies, in particular those         community should be weighed against the
                                             tools such as the computer model                         related to terrorist attacks using RDDs and           potential for, and significance of, the health
                                             RESRAD–RDD 5 for calculating incident-                   INDs. The appendix is not intended to                 and safety risks to workers.
                                             specific guidelines and worker stay-time                 provide comprehensive training guidance.
                                             tables for access control, and dose-based                Other information useful in the planning              (b) Controlling Occupational Exposures and
                                                                                                      process may be available from the following           Doses to Emergency Workers
                                             soil and building contamination levels
                                             to assist in the site-specific optimization              organizations:                                           Appropriate measures should be taken to
                                             process. The goal of the DOE report is                     • The National Council on Radiation                 minimize radiation dose to emergency
                                                                                                      Protection and Measurements,                          workers responding to an RDD or IND
                                             to provide sufficient information to                       • the International Commission on                   incident. With proper preparedness measures
                                             assist decision makers and responders                    Radiological Protection,                              (e.g., training, personal protective
                                             in executing their responsibilities in a                   • the International Atomic Energy Agency,           equipment), many emergencies that this
                                             safe way. Appendix 4 of this Guidance                      • the American Nuclear Society,                     document addresses, including lifesaving
                                             provides a more detailed overview of                       • the Health Physics Society, and                   actions, may be possible to manage within
                                             the operational guidelines contained in                    • the Conference of Radiation Control               the 5 rem (0.05 Sv) occupational limit.
                                             the DOE draft report and their intended                  Program Directors.                                    Emergency management officials responsible
                                             applications.                                                                                                  for an incident should take steps to keep all
                                                                                                      (a) Guidelines for Emergency Workers in
                                                                                                                                                            doses to emergency workers ‘‘as low as
                                             Appendix 1—Planning for Protection of                    Responding to RDD and IND Incidents
                                                                                                                                                            reasonable achievable’’ (ALARA). Protocols
                                             Emergency Workers Responding to                             Table 2 in Section (d)(5) of the Guidance          for maintaining ALARA should include the
                                             RDD and IND Incidents                                    shows the emergency worker guidelines for             following health physics and industrial
                                                                                                      the early phase. In the intermediate and late         hygiene practices:
                                                The purpose of this appendix is to provide            phases, standard OSHA and other worker                   • Minimizing the time spent in the
                                             Federal, state, and local decision makers with           health and safety standards apply. The DOE            contaminated area (e.g., rotation of
                                             information on how to prepare for, and                   and NRC also have standards that govern               emergency responders);
                                             implement emergency worker guidance in                   worker health and safety for normal                      • Maintaining distance from sources of
                                             RDD and IND incidents. Because there may                 operations at their owned or licensed                 radiation;
                                             not be adequate information or time for                  facilities. OSHA’s occupational radiation                • Shielding of the radiation source;
                                             determining radiation levels or making dose              dose limit (1.25 rem (0.0125 Sv) per annual              • Using hazard controls that are applicable
                                             projections in the early phase of an RDD or              quarter, or 5 rem (0.05 Sv) total in one year)        to the work performed;
                                             IND incident, it is very important that                  minimizes risk to workers consistent with the            • Properly selecting and using respirators
                                             emergency management officials conduct                   Occupational Health and Safety Act (29                and other personal protective equipment
                                             worker health and safety planning and                    U.S.C. 651 et seq.).                                  (PPE), to minimize exposure to internally
                                             training in advance to ensure they are                      In many radiological incidents, particularly       deposited radioactive materials (e.g., alpha
                                             adequately prepared if such an incident                  RDD situations, the actual dose to emergency          and beta emitters); and
                                             occurs.                                                  workers may be controlled to less than 5 rem             • Using prophylactic medications, when
                                                Planning should include evaluating data               (0.05 Sv). However, in other radiological             appropriate, that either block the uptake or
                                             and information on possible or anticipated               incidents precautions may not be sufficient           reduce the retention time of radioactive
                                             radiation exposures in RDD and IND                       or effective to keep emergency worker doses           material in the body.
                                             incidents and on acute and chronic risks of              at or below 5 rem (0.05 Sv), because of the              To minimize the risks from exposure to
                                             radiation exposures, developing procedures               magnitude of the incident and because                 ionizing radiation, all emergency responders
                                             for reducing and controlling emergency                   certain measures typically used to control            should be trained and instructed to follow
                                             worker exposures, obtaining appropriate                  exposures in normal operations may not be             emergency response plans and protocols and
                                             personal protective equipment (e.g.,                     applicable. For example, one of the major             be advised on how to keep exposures as low
                                             respirators, protective clothing) to help                radiation protection controls used in normal          as reasonably achievable. Health physics and
                                             protect emergency workers who enter                      radiological operations is containment of the         industrial hygiene practices should include
                                             exposure areas, and developing appropriate               radioactive material. Another is to keep              the use of dosimetry for monitoring of
                                             decisionmaking criteria for responding in                people away from the source material. During          individual exposure with real-time readings
                                             catastrophic incidents, such as an IND, that             emergency response to an RDD or IND                   (i.e., real-time electronic dosimeters) and
                                             may involve high exposure levels. Planning               incident use of these controls may not be             permanent records (e.g., film badges,
                                             should also include training and educating               possible due to the nature of the incident and        optically stimulated luminescent [OSL], or
                                             emergency workers about emergency                        the urgency of response actions. As a result,         thermoluminescent dosimeters [TLDs]). Also,
                                             response procedures in radiological                      high radiation exposures for emergency                employers should (1) develop procedures
                                             environments, radiation exposure controls                responders may be unavoidable and have the            and training that relate measurements to dose
                                             and the risks of exposure, particularly at               potential to exceed regulatory limits used for        and risk, (2) understand and practice ALARA
                                             higher levels. Effective planning and training           normal operations. Therefore, the 5, 10 and           procedures with workers, and (3) address
                                             will help to ensure that exposures to                    25 rem guidelines found in Table 2 should             other issues related to performing response in
                                             emergency workers are kept to the lowest                 not be viewed as absolute standards                   a radiological environment.
                                                                                                      applicable to the full range of incidents
                                                4 Preliminary Report on Operational Guidelines        covered by this guidance, but rather serve as         (c) Understanding Radiation Risks
                                             Developed for Use in Emergency Preparedness and          decision points for making worker protection             If there is the possibility that emergency
                                             Response to a Radiological Dispersal Device              decisions during emergencies.                         workers would receive a radiation dose
                                             Incident, DOE/HS–0001. The report and associated            Emergency response actions in                      higher than the 5 rem (0.05 Sv) guideline,
                                             material will be available at http://                    catastrophic incidents that involve high              emergency workers should be trained to
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                                                                                                      exposure levels require careful consideration         understand the risk associated with such
                                                5 RESRAD–RDD is derived from RESRAD, which
                                                                                                      of both the benefits to be achieved by the            doses, including a thorough explanation of
                                             is a computer model designed to estimate radiation
                                             doses and risks from residual radioactive materials.
                                                                                                      ‘‘rescue’’ or response action (e.g., the              the latent risks associated with receiving
                                             The RESRAD model has been applied to determine           significance of the benefit to individuals,           doses greater than 5 rem (0.05 Sv), and acute
                                             the risk to human health posed at over 300 sites in      populations, valuable property necessary for          risks at higher doses. Emergency workers
                                             the United States and abroad that have been              general welfare), and the potential for acute         should be fully aware of both the projected
                                             contaminated with radiation.                             and chronic health impacts to individuals             acute and chronic risks (cancer) they may

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                                             45040                           Federal Register / Vol. 73, No. 149 / Friday, August 1, 2008 / Notices

                                             incur in an emergency response action.                   the emergency worker guidelines for                   basic risk management principles were also
                                             Furthermore, emergency workers cannot be                 radiological emergency response, including            used in development of the 1992 EPA PAGs.
                                             forced to perform a rescue action involving              specific emergency responder health and                  The framework is designed to help
                                             radiation doses above regulatory limits, and             safety procedures and ALARA principles.               decision makers make good risk management
                                             they should be given reasonable assurance                The reader is referred to the EPA PAG                 decisions. The level of effort and resources
                                             that normal controls cannot be utilized to               Manual (May 1992), the FRMAC Radiological             invested in using the framework should be
                                             reduce doses to less than 5 rem (0.05 Sv).               Emergency Response Health and Safety                  commensurate with the significance of the
                                             After the event, it is essential that emergency          Manual (May 2001), and the Hazardous                  problem, the potential severity and economic
                                             workers be provided with medical follow up.              Waste Operations and Emergency Response               impact, the level of controversy surrounding
                                                The estimated risk of fatal cancer 6 for              (HAZWOPER) regulations. The EPA has a                 the problem, and resource constraints. The
                                             healthy workers who receive a dose of 10 rem             Worker Protection (40 CFR part 311) standard          health and environmental hazards that must
                                             (0.10 Sv) is about 0.46 percent over the                 that applies the HAZWOPER standard to                 be considered are radiation hazards, and
                                             worker’s lifetime (i.e., 4–5 fatal cancers per           State and local workers in States that do not         potentially chemical or biological hazards.
                                             1000 people, or 0.4–0.5 percent). The risk               have their own occupational safety and                Other factors to be considered include the
                                             scales linearly. For workers who receive a               health program.                                       continued disruption in normal activities,
                                             dose of 25 rem (0.25 Sv), the risk is about 1.1             The HAZWOPER regulations, found in 29              loss of, or limited access to critical
                                             percent. The risk is believed to be greater for          CFR 1910.120 and 1926.65, were                        infrastructure and health care and general
                                             those who are younger at the time of                     promulgated to protect personnel working at           economic damage.
                                             exposure. For example, for 20–30 year olds               a hazardous waste site, or a treatment,                  The framework relies on the three key
                                             the estimated risk of fatal cancer at 25 rem             storage, or disposal facility, or performing          principles of (1) broad context, (2)
                                             (1.75 percent) is about twice as large as the            emergency response. This standard also                stakeholder participation, and (3) iteration.
                                             risk for 40–50 year olds (0.8 percent).                  covers employers whose employees are                  Broad context refers to placing all of the
                                                Above 50 rem (0.5 Sv) acute effects are               engaged in emergency response without                 health and environmental issues in the full
                                             possible. Where lifesaving actions may result            regard to the location of the hazard (unless          range of impacts and recovery factors
                                             in doses that approach or exceed 50 rem                  specifically exempted or where a more                 following an RDD or IND incident, and is
                                             (0.50 Sv), such as in an IND incident,                   protective safety and health standard                 intended to assure that all aspects of public
                                             emergency workers need to have a full                    applies). If an employer anticipates that their       welfare are taken into account. Stakeholder
                                             understanding of the potential acute effects             employees will respond to a potential hazard,         participation is critical to making and
                                             of the expected radiation exposure, in                   HAZWOPER requires such actions as (1) the             successfully implementing sound, cost-
                                             addition to the risk of chronic effects. The             development of an emergency response plan             effective, risk-informed decisions. Iteration is
                                             decision to take these lifesaving actions must           (including personnel roles, lines of authority,       the process of continuing to refine the
                                             be based on the estimation that the human                training, communication, personal protective          analysis base on information available, and
                                             health benefits of the action exceed the safety          equipment, and emergency equipment), (2)              improve the decisions and actions that can be
                                             and health risks to the emergency workers.               procedures for handling a response, (3)               taken at any point in time. Together these
                                                It is important to note that the approach             specific training requirements based on the           principles outline a fair, responsive approach
                                             used to translate dose to risk in this                   anticipated roles of the responder, and (4)           to making the decisions necessary to
                                             discussion is a simplistic approach for                  medical surveillance. For specific                    effectively respond to the impacts of an RDD
                                             developing rough estimates of risks for                  interpretations regarding HAZWOPER and/or             or IND incident.
                                             comparative purposes. Other more realistic               other occupational safety and health                     Risk management is the process of
                                             and accurate approaches are often used in                standards, employers should consult the               identifying, evaluating, selecting, and
                                             assessing risks for risk management decisions            appropriate implementing agency (e.g.,                implementing actions to reduce risk to public
                                             (other than for emergencies) when more                   appropriate Federal agencies, State                   health and the environment. The goal of risk
                                             complete information about the contaminants              Occupational Safety and Health Programs, or           management is scientifically sound, cost-
                                             and the potential for human exposure is                  State Radiation Control Programs).                    effective, integrated actions that reduce or
                                             available. These approaches rely on                                                                            prevent public health impacts while taking
                                             radionuclide-specific risk factors (e.g., found          Appendix 2—Risk Management
                                                                                                                                                            into account social, cultural, ethical, public
                                             in Federal Guidance Report No. 13 and EPA                Framework for RDD and IND Incident                    policy, and legal considerations. In order to
                                             Health Effects Assessment Summary Tables),               Planning                                              accomplish this goal, information will be
                                             and are typically used in long-term                                                                            needed on the nature and magnitude of the
                                                                                                         This appendix contains a description of a
                                             assessments, such as environmental cleanup.                                                                    hazard present as a result of the incident, the
                                                                                                      risk management framework for making
                                             (d) Preparedness                                         decisions to protect public health and                options for reducing risks, and the
                                                                                                      welfare in the context of cleanup and site            effectiveness and costs of those options.
                                                To prepare for large radiological disasters,
                                                                                                      recovery following an RDD or IND incident.            Decision makers also compare the economic,
                                             local officials and Incident Commanders will
                                                                                                      The framework is based on the report,                 social, cultural, ethical, legal, and public
                                             need to have a decision-making process
                                                                                                      ‘‘Framework for Environmental Health Risk             policy implications associated with each
                                             already developed and ready to implement
                                                                                                      Management,’’ mandated by the 1990 Clean              option, as well as the unique safety and
                                             when they can no longer use standard
                                                                                                      Air Act Amendments published by the                   health hazards facing emergency responders
                                             occupational dose limits or when there is the
                                                                                                      Commission on Risk Assessment and Risk                and ecological hazards the cleanup actions
                                             possibility that they may face decisions
                                                                                                      Management in 1997. This appendix                     themselves may cause. Often a stakeholder
                                             involving exposures approaching or
                                                                                                      provides specific material for RDD and IND            working group can provide input needed to
                                             exceeding 25 rem (0.25 Sv) for lifesaving
                                             operations. Preparedness entails investigating           incidents, and reference to the report is             consider all of the relevant information.
                                             the nature of the RDD and IND incident for               encouraged for the details of the general                Stakeholders can provide valuable input to
                                             which local officials must be prepared,                  framework. A plan for implementing this               decision makers during the long-term
                                             having appropriate worker health and safety              framework for RDD and IND incidents is                cleanup effort, and the key decision makers
                                             plans and protocols for such incidents, and              provided in Appendix 4.                               should establish a process that provides for
                                             training and exercises to assure a level of                 The ‘‘Framework for Environmental Health           appropriate stakeholder input. Identifying
                                             readiness among officials and responders.                Risk Management’’ is considered generally             which stakeholders need to be involved in
                                                Incident Commanders and emergency                     suitable for addressing the long-term cleanup         the process depends on the situation. In the
                                             responders should thoroughly understand                  issues for RDDs and INDs. Given the time              case of a site contaminated as a result of an
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                                                                                                      frames following an RDD or IND incident               RDD or IND incident, stakeholders may
                                               6 Risk per dose of a fatal cancer for members of
                                                                                                      there is generally not sufficient time in the         include individuals whose health, economic
                                             the general public is assumed to be about 6 × 10¥4
                                                                                                      early phase to conduct a full risk assessment         well-being, and quality of life are currently
                                             per rem. Cancer incidence is assumed to be about         and get stakeholder involvement. In order for         affected or would be affected by the cleanup
                                             8 × 10¥4 per rem (see Federal Guidance Report No.        the framework to be most useful it must be            and the site’s subsequent use, or nonprofit
                                             13). Occupational risk coefficients are slightly         used in planning and preparing for a                  organizations representing such individuals.
                                             higher.                                                  radiological or nuclear incident. Many of the         They may also include those who have

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                                             regulatory responsibility, and those who may             example, how long the individuals will be             the scientific aspects of a risk and note its
                                             speak on behalf the environment generally,               exposed in the future.                                subjective, cultural, and comparative
                                             business and economics, or future                           The potential for future radiation exposure        dimensions. Stakeholders play an important
                                             generations.                                             of the public from the site must be                   role in providing information that should be
                                                Stakeholder input should be considered                considered within the context of the societal         used in risk analyses and in identifying
                                             throughout all stages of the framework as                objectives to be achieved, and must examine           specific health and ecological concerns.
                                             appropriate, including analyzing the risks,              cleanup options in the context of other risks         (3) Examine the Options
                                             identifying potential cleanup options,                   members of the community face. There may
                                             evaluating options, selecting an approach,               also be broader public health or                         This stage of the risk management process
                                             and evaluating the effectiveness of the action           environmental issues that local governments           involves identifying potential cleanup
                                             afterwards. Their input will assist decision             and public health agencies have to confront           options and evaluating their effectiveness,
                                             makers in providing a reasoned basis for                 and consider.                                         feasibility, costs, benefits, cultural or social
                                             actions to be taken. Further information on                 The goals of the cleanup effort will extend        impacts, and unintended consequences. This
                                             the importance and selection of stakeholders             well beyond the reduction of potential                process can begin whenever appropriate,
                                             can be found in the Framework for                        delayed radiation health effects, and may             after defining the problem and considering
                                             Environmental Health Risk Management.                    include:                                              the context. It does not have to wait until the
                                                Decision makers can also benefit from the                • Public health protection goals, including        risk analysis is completed, although a risk
                                             use of working groups that provide expert                mitigating acute hazards and long-term                analysis often will provide important
                                             technical advice regarding the decisions that            chronic issues, and protecting children and           information for identifying and evaluating
                                             need to be made during the long-term                     other sensitive populations.                          risk management options. In some cases,
                                             recovery process. Further information on                    • Social and economic goals, such as               examining risk management options may
                                             how to incorporate the use of technical                  minimizing disruption to communities and              help refine a risk analysis. Risk management
                                             working groups is provided later in this                 businesses, maintaining property values, and          goals may be redefined after decision makers
                                             appendix.                                                protecting historical or cultural landmarks or        and stakeholders gain some appreciation for
                                                                                                      resources.                                            what is feasible, what the costs and benefits
                                             (a) The Stages of the Risk Management                       • National security goals, such as                 are, and how the process of reducing
                                             Framework for Responding to RDD and IND                  maintaining and normalizing use of critical           exposures and risks can improve human and
                                             Incidents                                                highways, airports, or seaports for mass              ecological health.
                                                The ‘‘Framework for Environmental Health              transit; maintaining energy production; and              Once potential options have been
                                             Risk Management’’ has six stages:                        providing for critical communications.                identified, the effectiveness, feasibility,
                                                1. Define the problem and put it in context.             • Public welfare goals, including                  benefits, detriments, and costs of each option
                                                2. Analyze the risks associated with the              maintaining hospital capacity, water                  must be assessed to provide input into
                                             problem in context.                                      treatment works, and sewage systems for               selecting the best option. Key questions
                                                3. Examine options for addressing the                 protection of community health; assuring              include determining (1) the expected benefits
                                             risks.                                                   adequate food, fuel, power, and other                 and costs, (2) distribution of benefits and
                                                4. Make decisions about which options to              essential resources; and providing for the            costs across the impacted community, (3) the
                                             implement.                                               protection or recovery of personal property.          feasibility of the option given the available
                                                5. Take actions to implement the decisions.                                                                 time, resources, and any legal, political,
                                                                                                      (2) Analyze the Risks                                 statutory, and technology limitations, and (4)
                                                6. Evaluate results of the actions taken.
                                                Risk management decisions under this                     To make effective risk management                  whether the option increases certain risks
                                             framework should do the following:                       decisions, decision makers and other                  while reducing others. Other adverse
                                                • Clearly articulate all of the problems in           stakeholders need to know what potential              consequences may be cultural, political,
                                             their public health and ecological contexts,             harm a situation poses and how great the              social, or economic. Adverse economic
                                             not just those associated with radiation.                likelihood is that people or the environment          consequences may include impacts on a
                                                • Emerge from a decision-making process               will be harmed. The nature, extent, and focus         community, such as reduced property values
                                             that elicits the views of those affected by the          of a risk analysis should be guided by the risk       or loss of jobs, environmental justice issues,
                                             decision.                                                management goals. The results of a risk               and harming the social fabric of a town or
                                                • Be based on the best available scientific,          analysis—along with information about                 tribe by relocating the people away from an
                                             economic, and other technical evidence.                  public values, statutory requirements, court          area.
                                                • Be implemented with stakeholder                     decisions, equity considerations, benefits,              Many risk management options may be
                                             support in a manner that is effective,                   and costs—are used to decide whether and              unfeasible for social, political, cultural, legal,
                                             expeditious, and flexible.                               how to manage the risks.                              or economic reasons—or because they do not
                                                • Be shown to have a significant impact on               Risk analyses can be controversial,                reduce risks to the extent necessary. For
                                             the risks of concern.                                    reflecting the important role that both science       example, removing all the soil from an entire
                                                • Be revised and changed when significant             and judgment play in drawing conclusions              valley that is contaminated with radioactive
                                             new information becomes available.                       about the likelihood of effects on public             material may be infeasible. On the other
                                                • Account for their multi-source,                     health and the environment. It is important           hand, the costs of cleaning up an elementary
                                             multimedia, multi-chemical, and multi-risk               that risk assessors respect both the scientific       school may be considered justified by their
                                             contexts.                                                foundation of risks and the procedures for            benefits: Protecting children and returning to
                                                • Be feasible, with benefits reasonably               making inferences about risks in the absence          daily activities and a sense of normalcy. Of
                                             related to their costs.                                  of adequate data. Risk assessors should               course, the feasibility and cost-effectiveness
                                                • Give priority to preventing risks, not just         provide decision makers and other                     of an option may change in the future.
                                             controlling them.                                        stakeholders with plausible conclusions
                                                                                                                                                            (4) Make a Decision
                                                • Be sensitive to political, social, legal, and       about risk that can be made on the basis of
                                             cultural considerations.                                 the available information. They should also              A productive stakeholder involvement
                                                                                                      provide decision makers with evaluations of           process can generate important guidance for
                                             (1) Define the Problems and Put Them in                  the scientific support for their conclusions,         decision makers. Thus, decisions may reflect
                                             Context                                                  descriptions of major sources of uncertainty,         negotiation and compromise, as long as risk
                                                In the case of RDDs, the initial problem is           and alternative views.                                management goals and intentions are met. In
                                             caused by the dispersal of radioactive                      Stakeholders’ perception of a risk can vary        some cases, win-win solutions that allow
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                                             material. The incident may also result in the            substantially depending on such factors as            stakeholders with divergent views to achieve
                                             release of other types of contaminants                   the extent to which the stakeholders are              their primary goals are possible. Decision
                                             (chemical or biological) or create other types           directly affected, whether they have                  makers should allow the opportunity for
                                             of public health hazards. Individuals exposed            voluntarily assumed the risk or had the risk          public comment on proposed decisions.
                                             may include emergency workers and                        imposed on them, and the nature of their                 Decision makers must weigh the value of
                                             members of the public, and there may be                  connection with the cause of the risk. For            obtaining additional information against the
                                             different associated assumptions; for                    this reason, risk analyses should characterize        need for a decision, however uncertain the

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                                             decision may be. Sometimes a decision must               to determine how best to obtain the necessary         committee would make recommendations to
                                             be made primarily on a precautionary basis.              technical input to support these decisions            the decision makers on whether cleanup has
                                             When sufficient information is available to              and demonstrate to the public that the final          reduced contamination to acceptable levels,
                                             make a risk management decision, or when                 decisions are credible and sound.                     or whether further actions are needed before
                                             additional information or analysis would not                There are a variety of ways to approach            re-occupancy.
                                             contribute significantly to the quality of the           this situation, and decision makers will need
                                             decision, the decision should not be                     to tailor the process to particular site              Appendix 3—Federal Cleanup
                                             postponed.                                               circumstances. This section describes one             Implementation
                                             (5) Take Action To Implement the Decision                approach that is available to decision makers,          This appendix provides a federally-
                                                                                                      which is based on the ‘‘ad hoc’’ mechanisms           recommended approach for environmental
                                                When options have been evaluated and                  used for coordinating interagency expertise
                                             decisions made, a plan for action should be                                                                    cleanup after an RDD or IND incident to
                                                                                                      and assessing the effectiveness in general of         accompany the risk management principles
                                             developed and implemented. The issuance of               the cleanup in response to the 2001 anthrax
                                             protective action recommendations is the                                                                       outlined in Appendix 2. This approach
                                                                                                      attacks in Washington, DC. For significant            describes how State and local governments
                                             responsibility of local officials to protect the         decontamination efforts, the key decision
                                             public and the environment during                                                                              may coordinate with Federal agencies, and
                                                                                                      makers may choose to convene an                       the public, consistent with the National
                                             emergencies: Long-term cleanup decisions                 independent committee of technical experts
                                             have the same basic risk management                                                                            Response Framework (NRF). The approach
                                                                                                      to conduct a deliberative and comprehensive           does not attempt to provide detailed
                                             framework, but entail substantially more                 post-decontamination review. The committee
                                             analysis and stakeholder involvement. When                                                                     descriptions of State and local roles and
                                                                                                      would evaluate the effectiveness of the               expertise. It is assumed those details will be
                                             government officials and stakeholders have               decontamination process and make
                                             agreed on a strategy, cleanup activities                                                                       provided in State and local level planning
                                                                                                      recommendations on whether the                        documents that address radiological/nuclear
                                             should commence. It may take considerable                decontaminated areas or items may be
                                             time for these actions to be completed, and                                                                    terrorism incidents.
                                                                                                      reoccupied or reused. It is important to note           This site cleanup approach is intended to
                                             additional decisions may often be necessary              that although this review may enhance the
                                             as the actions proceed.                                                                                        function under the NRF with Federal
                                                                                                      scientific credibility of the final outcome,          agencies performing work consistent with
                                             (6) Evaluate the Results                                 final cleanup decisions rest with decision            their established roles, responsibilities, and
                                                Decision makers and other stakeholders                makers.                                               capabilities. Agencies should be tasked to
                                             must continue to review what risk                           The committee may consist of experts from          perform work under the appropriate
                                             management actions have been implemented                 Federal agencies, State and tribal public             Emergency Support Function, as a primary or
                                             and how effective these actions have been.               health and environmental agencies,                    support agency, as described in the NRF.
                                             Evaluating effectiveness involves monitoring             universities and private industries, the local        This plan is also designed to be compatible
                                             and measuring, as well as comparing actual               health department, and possibly                       with the Incident Command/Unified
                                             benefits and costs to estimates made in the              representatives of local workers and the              Command (IC/UC) structure embodied in the
                                             decision-making stage. The effectiveness of              community. To maximize objectivity, the               National Incident Management System
                                             the process leading to implementation                    committee should be an independent group              (NIMS).
                                             should also be evaluated at this stage.                  that will provide input to the decision                 The functional descriptions and processes
                                             Evaluation provides important information                makers, not be a part of the decision-making          in this approach are provided to address the
                                             about the following: Whether the actions                 team.                                                 specific needs and wide range of potential
                                             were successful; whether they accomplished                  The scientific expertise in the committee          impacts of an RDD or IND incident. During
                                             what was intended; whether the predicted                 should reflect the needs of the decision              the intermediate phase, site cleanup planners
                                             benefits and costs were accurate; whether                makers in all aspects of the decontamination          should begin the process described below,
                                             any modifications are needed to the risk                 process (e.g., environmental sampling,                under the direction of the on-site IC/UC, and
                                             management plan to improve success;                      epidemiology, risk assessment, industrial             in close coordination with Federal, State and
                                             whether any critical information gaps                    hygiene, statistics, health physics, and              local officials. After early and intermediate
                                             hindered success; whether any new                        engineering). Agencies on the committee may           phase activities have come to conclusion and
                                             information has emerged which indicates                  also have representatives on the technical            only long-term cleanup activities are
                                             that a decision or stage of the framework                working group, but in order to preserve the           ongoing, the IC/UC structure may continue to
                                             should be revisited; whether unintended                  objectivity of the committee, it is best to           support planning and decision-making for
                                             consequences have emerged; how                           designate different experts to serve on each          the long-term cleanup. The IC/UC may make
                                             stakeholder involvement contributed to the               group. The chair and co-chair of the                  personnel changes and structural adaptations
                                             outcome; and what lessons can be learned to              committee should not be a part of the                 to suit the needs of a lengthy, multifaceted
                                             guide future risk management decisions, or to            decision-making group at the site.                    and highly visible remediation process. For
                                             improve the decision-making process.                        The decision makers should develop a               example, a less formal and structured
                                                Evaluation is critical to accountability and          charter for the committee that specifies the          command, more focused on technical
                                             to ensure efficient use of valuable but limited          tasks committee members are intended to               analysis and stakeholder involvement, may
                                             resources. Tools for evaluation include                  perform, the issues they are to consider, and         be preferable for extended site cleanup than
                                             environmental and health monitoring,                     the process they will use in arriving at              what is required under emergency
                                             research, analyses of costs and benefits, and            conclusions and recommendations. The                  circumstances.
                                             discussions with stakeholders.                           charter should also specify whether the                 Radiological and nuclear terrorism
                                                                                                      individual members are expected to                    incidents cover a broad range of potential
                                             (b) Technical Advisory Committee                         represent the views of their respective               scenarios and impacts. This appendix
                                               Making decisions on the appropriate                    agencies, or just their own opinions as               assumes that the Federal Government is a
                                             cleanup approaches and levels following an               independent scientific experts. Consensus             primary funding agent for site cleanup. In
                                             RDD or IND incident will undoubtedly be a                among committee members is desirable, but             particular, the process described for the late
                                             challenging task for decision makers. As                 may not be possible. If consensus cannot be           phase in section (d)(4) of this document
                                             already noted, the technical issues may be               achieved, the charter should specify how              assumes an incident of relatively large size.
                                             complex. Many potentially competing factors              decision makers expect the full range of              For smaller incidents, all of the elements in
                                             will need to be carefully weighed and                    opinions to be reflected in the final                 this section may not be warranted. The
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                                             decision makers should expect public                     committee report.                                     process should be tailored to the
                                             anxiety in the face of a terrorist act involving            In general, the technical peer review              circumstances of the particular incident.
                                             radioactive materials. Different regulatory              committee would evaluate pre- and post-               Decision makers should recognize that for
                                             authorities and organizations historically               decontamination sampling data, the                    some radiological/nuclear terrorist incidents,
                                             have taken different cleanup approaches for              decontamination plan, and any other                   states will take the primary leadership role
                                             radioactively contaminated industrial sites.             information key to assessing the effectiveness        and contribute significant resources toward
                                             Given this context, decision makers will need            of the cleanup. Based on this evaluation, the         cleanup of the site. This section does not

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                                             address such a scenario, but states may                  return to normalcy in accordance with                 Federal materials, the representatives in the
                                             choose to use the process described here.                intermediate phase PAGs—should not be                 UC may change appropriately and the
                                                This implementation plan does not address             delayed for the final site remediation                response will be conducted according to the
                                             law enforcement coordination during                      decision.                                             applicable Federal procedures.
                                             terrorism incident responses, including how                 A process for addressing environmental                Issues that cannot be resolved at the IC/UC
                                             the FBI will manage on-scene activities                  contamination that applies an optimization            or Unified Area Command level may be
                                             immediately following an act of terror.                  process for site cleanup is presented below.          raised with the JFO and JFO Unified
                                             Agencies’ roles and responsibilities will be             As described in this document, optimization           Coordination Group for resolution. The JFO
                                             implemented according to the NRF and                     is a flexible process in which numerous               coordinates and prioritizes Federal resources,
                                             supporting documents. Also, victim triage                factors are considered to achieve an end              and when applicable, issues mission
                                             and other medical response procedures are                result that considers local needs and desires,        assignments to Federal agencies under the
                                             beyond the scope of this Guidance. The plan              health risks, costs, technical feasibility, and       Stafford Act. Issues that cannot be resolved
                                             presented in this appendix is not intended to            other factors. The general process outlined           at the JFO level may be raised to the DHS
                                             impact site cleanups occurring under other               below provides decision makers with input             NOC, senior-level interagency management
                                             statutory authorities such as EPA’s                      from both technical experts and stakeholder           groups, and the White House Homeland
                                             Superfund program, the NRC’s                             representatives, and also provides an                 Security Council.
                                             decommissioning program, or State-                       opportunity for public comment. The extent               Day-to-day tactical management, planning,
                                             administered cleanup programs.                           and complexity of the process for an actual           and operations for the RDD/IND cleanup
                                             Cleanup Activities Overview                              incident should be tailored to the needs of           process will be managed at the IC/UC level,
                                                                                                      the specific incident; for smaller incidents,         but for large-scale cleanups, it is expected
                                                As described earlier in the document,                                                                       that the JFO Unified Coordination Group will
                                                                                                      the workgroups discussed below may not be
                                             radiological/nuclear emergency responses are                                                                   review proposed cleanup plans and provide
                                             often divided roughly into three phases: (1)                                                                   strategic and policy direction. The agency(s)
                                                                                                         The goals of the process described below
                                             The early phase, when the plume is active                                                                      with primary responsibility for site cleanup
                                                                                                      are: (1) Transparency—the basis for cleanup
                                             and field data are lacking or not reliable; (2)                                                                should be represented in the JFO Unified
                                                                                                      decisions should be available to stakeholder
                                             the intermediate phase, when the plume has                                                                     Coordination Group. The IC/UC will need to
                                             passed and field data are available for                  representatives, and to the public at large; (2)
                                                                                                      inclusiveness—representative stakeholders             establish appropriate briefing venues as the
                                             assessment and analysis; and (3) the late
                                                                                                      should be involved in decision-making                 cleanup process proceeds, including the
                                             phase, when long-term issues are addressed,
                                                                                                      activities; (3) effectiveness—technical subject       affected mayor(s) and Governor(s).
                                             such as cleanup of the site. For purposes of
                                                                                                      matter experts should analyze remediation                The discussion below assumes a traditional
                                             this appendix, the response to a radiological
                                                                                                      options, consider established dose and risk           NIMS IC/UC structure; if the IC/UC
                                             or nuclear terrorism incident is divided into
                                                                                                      benchmarks, and assess various technologies           transitions later to a different management
                                             two separate, but interrelated and
                                                                                                      in order to assist in identifying a final             structure for a longer-term cleanup, the IC/
                                             overlapping, processes. The first is
                                                                                                      solution that is optimal for the incident; and        UC would need to determine the appropriate
                                             comprised of the early and intermediate
                                                                                                      (4) shared accountability—the final decision          way to incorporate the workgroups described
                                             phases of response, which consists of the
                                             immediate and near-term on-scene actions of              to proceed will be made jointly by Federal,           below into that structure.
                                             State, local, and Federal emergency                      State, and local officials.                              Appendix 2 presented the general steps in
                                             responders under the IC/UC. On-scene                        Under the NRF, FEMA may issue mission              the cleanup process: Analyze the risks,
                                             actions include incident stabilization,                  assignments to the involved Federal agencies,         examine the options, make and implement a
                                             lifesaving activities, dose reduction actions            as appropriate, to assist in response and             decision, evaluate the results. This process
                                             for members of the public and emergency                  recovery. Additional funding may be                   will be managed by the IC/UC, who
                                             responders, access control and security,                 provided to State/local governments to                ultimately determines the structure and
                                             emergency decontamination of persons and                 perform response/recovery activities through          organization of the Incident Command Post,
                                             property, ‘‘hot spot’’ removal actions, and              other mechanisms. The components of the               but the discussion below provides one
                                             resumption of basic infrastructure functions.            process are as follows:                               recommended approach for managing the
                                                The second process pertains to                                                                              cleanup process within a NIMS ICS response
                                                                                                      (a) General Management Structure                      structure. The Incident Command Post
                                             environmental cleanup, which is initiated
                                             soon after the incident (during the                         Planning for the long-term cleanup should          Planning Section has the lead for response
                                             intermediate phase) and continues into the               begin during the intermediate phase, and at           planning activities, working in conjunction
                                             late phase. The process starts with convening            that time, a traditional NIMS response                with other sections, and would have the lead
                                             stakeholders and technical subject matter                structure should still be in place. However,          for development of the optimization analysis,
                                             experts to begin identifying and evaluating              NIMS was developed specifically for                   working closely with the Operations Section.
                                             options for the cleanup of the site. The                 emergency management and may not be the               The NIMS describes the units that make up
                                             environmental cleanup process overlaps the               most efficient response structure for long-           the Planning Section, and allows for
                                             intermediate phase activities described above            term cleanup. If the cleanup will extend for          additional units to be added depending on
                                             and should be coordinated with those                     years, the IC/UC may decide to transition at          site-specific needs. NIMS states that for
                                             activities. This process is interrelated with            some point to a different long-term project           incidents involving the need to coordinate
                                             the ongoing intermediate phase activities,               management structure.                                 and manage large amounts of environmental
                                             and the intermediate phase protective actions               Under the NRF and NIMS, incidents are              sampling and analytical data from multiple
                                             continue to apply through the late phase                 managed at the lowest possible jurisdictional         sources, an Environmental Unit may be
                                             until cleanup is complete.                               level. In most cases, this will be at the level       established within the Planning Section to
                                                Cleanup planning and discussions should               of the Incident Command or Unified                    facilitate interagency environmental data
                                             begin as soon as practicable after an incident           Command (IC/UC). The IC/UC directs on-                management, monitoring, sampling, analysis,
                                             to allow for selection of key stakeholders and           scene tactical operations. Responding local,          assessment, and site cleanup and waste
                                             subject matter experts, planning, analyses,              State, and Federal agencies are represented in        disposal planning. RDD/IND incidents would
                                             contractual processes, and cleanup activities.           the IC/UC and Incident Command Post in                involve the collection of not only large
                                             States may choose to pre-select stakeholders             accordance with NIMS principles regarding             amounts of radiological data, but also data
                                             for major incident recovery coordination.                jurisdictional authorities, functional                related to other environmental and health
                                             These activities should proceed in parallel              responsibilities, and resources provided. For         and safety hazards, and would therefore
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                                             with ongoing intermediate phase activities,              INDs, and large RDDs, multiple Incident               likely warrant the establishment of an
                                             and coordination between these activities                Command Posts (ICPs) may be established to            Environmental Unit in the Planning Section.
                                             should be maintained. Preliminary                        manage the incident with an Area Command              Planning for FRMAC radiological sampling
                                             remediation activities during the                        or Unified Area Command supporting the                and monitoring activities will be integrated
                                             intermediate phase—such as emergency                     ICPs and prioritizing resources and activities        into the Planning Section, and coordinated
                                             removals, decontamination, resumption of                 among them. If the RDD/IND incident                   with other Situation and Environmental Unit
                                             basic infrastructure function, and some                  happens on a Federal facility or involves             data management activities.

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                                                The IC/UC would assign the responsibility             fields who may warrant representation on the          incorporated as appropriate. A reconvening
                                             for coordinating and development of the                  technical working group.                              of the stakeholder and/or technical working
                                             optimization analysis to a specific unit. For            (2) Stakeholder Working Group                         groups may be useful for resolving some
                                             incidents in which the contaminated area is                                                                    issues.
                                             small and the analysis is straightforward, the              The stakeholder working group should be
                                                                                                      convened as soon as practicable, normally             (3) Execute Cleanup
                                             IC/UC may choose to assign such
                                                                                                      within days or weeks of the incident. The                Cleanup activities should commence as
                                             responsibilities to the Environmental Unit.
                                                                                                      stakeholder working group would be                    quickly as practicable, and allow for
                                             On the other hand, for large incidents
                                                                                                      managed by the Planning Section Unit that             incremental reoccupation of areas as cleanup
                                             requiring more complicated tradeoffs or the
                                                                                                      is assigned responsibility for the                    proceeds. For significant decontamination
                                             evaluation of cleanup goals with broad
                                                                                                      optimization analysis. The IC/UC may direct           efforts, the IC/UC may choose to employ a
                                             implications, the IC/UC may choose to
                                                                                                      the Public Information Officer (who would             technical peer review advisory committee to
                                             establish a separate unit in the Planning                coordinate with the JIC) to work with the
                                             Section (for example, a Cleanup Planning                                                                       conduct a review of the effectiveness of the
                                                                                                      group, including establishing a process for           cleanup. The technical peer review advisory
                                             Unit) to coordinate the development of the               the group to report out its recommendations.
                                             optimization analysis. The IC/UC may then                                                                      committee is discussed in more detail in
                                                                                                      How and where the stakeholder working
                                             convene a technical working group and a                                                                        Appendix 2.
                                                                                                      group would meet to review information and
                                             stakeholder working group, managed by the                provide its input would need to be
                                             Environmental or Cleanup Planning Unit, to
                                                                                                                                                            Appendix 4—Operational Guidelines
                                                                                                      determined in conjunction with the group              for Implementation of Protective Action
                                             analyze cleanup options and develop                      members. The stakeholder working group
                                             recommendations. The Environmental or                                                                          Guides and Other Activities in RDD or
                                                                                                      may also be asked to participate in meetings
                                             Cleanup Planning Unit would coordinate                   with the JFO Unified Coordination Group if
                                                                                                                                                            IND Incidents
                                             working group processes and interactions                 needed.                                                  During all phases of an incident, many
                                             and report the results of the optimization                  Makeup: The stakeholder working group              decisions will need to be made at the field-
                                             analysis and workgroup efforts to the IC/UC              should include selected Federal, State, and           level, such as making protective action
                                             through the Planning Section Chief.                      local representatives; local non-governmental         decisions, opening critical infrastructure,
                                                The development and completion of the                 representatives; and local/regional business          limited re-entry of citizens to homes or
                                             optimization analysis is expected to be an               stakeholders. The exact selection and balance
                                             iterative process, and for large incidents, the                                                                businesses, release of personal property, and
                                                                                                      of stakeholders is incident specific.                 others. This appendix presents operational
                                             cleanup will likely proceed in phases, most                 Function: The function of the stakeholder
                                             likely from the ‘‘outside in’’ toward the most                                                                 guidelines being developed to assist decision
                                                                                                      working group is to provide input to the IC/          makers and emergency responders in
                                             contaminated areas. The extent of the                    UC concerning local needs and desires for
                                             analysis and process used to develop it                                                                        implementing protective actions and making
                                                                                                      site recovery, proposed cleanup options, and
                                             would be tailored to the needs of the specific                                                                 other on-site decisions.7 Operational
                                                                                                      other recommendations. The group should
                                             incident, but the following working groups                                                                     guidelines are levels of radiation or
                                                                                                      present local goals for the use of the site,
                                             may be convened by the IC/UC to assist                                                                         concentrations of radionuclides that can be
                                                                                                      prioritizing current and future potential land
                                             decision makers in the optimization process,             uses and functions, such as utilities and             accurately measured by radiation detection
                                             particularly for large or complex cleanups.              infrastructure, light industrial, downtown            and monitoring equipment that can then be
                                                                                                      business, and residential land uses. The              compared to PAGs, or field-level radiation
                                             (1) Technical Working Group
                                                                                                      stakeholder working group would not be a              dose decision points (such as for the release
                                                A technical working group should be                                                                         of personal property) to quickly determine
                                                                                                      decision-making body.
                                             convened as soon as practicable, normally                                                                      what action should be taken. In most
                                             within days or weeks of the incident. The                (b) Activities                                        situations, the operational guidelines will be
                                             technical working group would be managed                 (1) Optimization and Recommendations                  given in terms of external gamma rates or
                                             by the Planning Section Unit that is assigned                                                                  media-specific (e.g., surfaces, soil, or water)
                                             responsibility for the optimization analysis.               The IC/UC directs the management of the
                                                                                                      optimization analysis through the Planning            radionuclide concentration units. Both
                                             The technical working group may or may not                                                                     external and internal exposure potential were
                                             be physically located at the ICP. The group              Section. Technical and stakeholder working
                                                                                                      groups assist in performing analyses and              considered in the development of the
                                             may review data and documents, provide                                                                         operational guidelines.
                                             input electronically, and meet with incident             developing cleanup options and provide
                                                                                                      input to the IC/UC, and may be asked to                  This appendix discusses the operational
                                             management officials. The group may also be                                                                    guidelines qualitatively and does not provide
                                             asked to participate in meetings with the JFO            participate in meetings with the JFO Unified
                                                                                                      Coordination Group if needed. The IC/UC               actual numeric values. The operational
                                             Unified Coordination Group if needed.                                                                          guidelines are being developed to provide
                                                                                                      reviews the options described in the
                                                Function: The technical working group                                                                       reasonable assurance that field-level
                                                                                                      optimization analysis and selects a proposed
                                             provides multi-agency, multi-disciplinary                                                                      radiation dose decision points and the PAGs
                                                                                                      approach for site cleanup, in close
                                             expert input on the optimization analysis,                                                                     recommended in this document can be met
                                                                                                      coordination with Federal, State and local
                                             including advice on technical issues, analysis
                                                                                                      officials. Again, depending on the incident           under different circumstances. The
                                             of relevant regulatory requirements and
                                                                                                      size, it may be necessary to conduct the              operational guidelines also address, to some
                                             guidelines, risk analyses, and development of
                                                                                                      cleanup in phases. Thus, decisions on                 extent, the impact of protective actions, such
                                             cleanup options. The technical working
                                                                                                      cleanup approaches may also be made in                as controlling wash water after rinsing
                                             group would provide expert technical input
                                                                                                      phases. As appropriate for the magnitude of           vehicles to remove contamination. Actual
                                             to the IC/UC; it would not be a decision-
                                                                                                      the cleanup task, the IC/UC would brief               conditions may warrant development of
                                             making body.                                             relevant Federal, State, and local government         incident-specific guidelines. To support this
                                                Makeup: The technical working group                   officials on proposed cleanup plans for               need, the RESRAD–RDD 8 software tool was
                                             should include selected Federal, State, local,           approval. This may involve the office of the          developed to allow for easy and timely
                                             and private sector subject matter experts in             affected mayor and Governor. At the Federal           calculation of site-specific operational
                                             such fields as environmental fate and                    level, it may involve the JFO Unified
                                             transport modeling, risk analysis, technical             Coordination Group and higher-level                      7 For purposes of this appendix, ‘‘relocation area’’
                                             remediation options analysis, cost, risk and             officials.
                                             benefit analysis, health physics/radiation                                                                     refers to an area that local officials have determined
                                                                                                      (2) Public Review of Decision                         is not safe for prolonged occupation by the public,
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                                             protection, construction remediation
                                                                                                                                                            based on the intermediate phase PAGs, and have
                                             practices, and relevant regulatory                          The IC/UC should work with the POI and             recommended that the public be relocated.
                                             requirements. The exact selection and                    JIC to publish a summary of the process, the             8 RESRAD–RDD is a computer modeling tool
                                             balance of subject matter experts is incident-           options analyzed, and the recommendations             developed by the U.S. Department of Energy for
                                             specific. The Advisory Team for the                      for public comments. Public meetings should           calculating radiation concentrations on different
                                             Environment, Food, and Health is comprised               also be convened at appropriate times. Public         media, and doses and dose rates following an RDD
                                             of Federal radiological experts in various               comments should be considered and                     incident.

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                                             guidelines that can be tailored to the specific                        Individual groups are further categorized into                          derivation, intended application, and tools to
                                             emergency and the required response.                                   subgroups as appropriate. Table 3                                       assist in their application, are provided in the
                                               The operational guidelines are organized                             summarizes operational guideline groups and                             Preliminary Report on Operational
                                             into seven groups that are generally                                   subgroups. A summary description of these                               Guidelines Developed for Use in Emergency
                                             categorized by the phase of emergency                                  groups and subgroups is provided below.                                 Preparedness and Response to a Radiological
                                             response in which they would be                                        Detailed descriptions of the operational                                Dispersal Device Incidents (DOE/HS–0001,
                                             implemented or used for planning purposes.                             guidelines, to include their technical                                  available at

                                                                                              TABLE 3—OPERATIONAL GUIDELINES: GROUPS AND SUBGROUPS
                                                                                                             Groups                                                                                           Subgroups

                                             A. Access control during emergency response operations ..............................................................                          1. Life and property-saving measures.
                                                                                                                                                                                            2. Emergency worker demarcation.
                                             B. Early-phase protective action .......................................................................................................       1. Evacuation.
                                                                                                                                                                                            2. Sheltering.
                                             C. Relocation from different areas and critical infrastructure utilization in relocation areas ............                                    1. Residential areas.
                                                                                                                                                                                            2. Commercial and industrial areas.
                                                                                                                                                                                            3.  Other areas, such as parks and monu-
                                                                                                                                                                                            4. Hospitals and other health care facilities.
                                                                                                                                                                                            5. Critical transport facilities.
                                                                                                                                                                                            6. Water and sewer facilities.
                                                                                                                                                                                            7. Power and fuel facilities.
                                             D. Temporary access to relocation areas for essential activities .....................................................                         1. Worker access to businesses for essential
                                                                                                                                                                                            2. Public access to residences for retrieval of
                                                                                                                                                                                              property, pets, records.
                                             E. Transportation and access routes ................................................................................................           1. Bridges.
                                                                                                                                                                                            2. Streets and thoroughfares.
                                                                                                                                                                                            3. Sidewalks and walkways.
                                             F. Release of property from radiologically controlled areas .............................................................                      1. Personal property, except wastes.
                                                                                                                                                                                            2. Waste.
                                                                                                                                                                                            3. Hazardous waste.
                                                                                                                                                                                            4. Real property, such as lands and buildings.
                                             G. Food consumption ........................................................................................................................   1. Early-phase food guidelines.
                                                                                                                                                                                            2. Early-phase soil guidelines.
                                                                                                                                                                                            3. Intermediate-phase soil guidelines.
                                                                                                                                                                                            4. Intermediate- to late-phase soil guidelines.

                                             (a) Group A: Access Control During                                     exposure rate, gross alpha surface                                      areas that exceed the relocation PAGs. These
                                             Emergency Response Operations                                          contamination, beta/gamma surface                                       areas include residential areas, commercial/
                                                These operational guidelines are designed                           contamination, and/or air concentration.                                industrial areas, and other areas such as
                                             to assist responders in decision making for                            Radionuclide-specific correction factors as                             parks, cemeteries, and monuments. Group C
                                             worker health and safety in the early to                               well as radionuclide-specific and respiratory                           operational guidelines also assist in efforts to
                                             intermediate phases of response when the                               protection-specific tables are also provided.                           ensure that facilities critical to the public
                                             situation has not been fully stabilized or                             Stay times are provided for a range of doses                            welfare can continue to operate, if needed.
                                             characterized. They are designed to guide                              (i.e., 0.1 rem (.001 Sv), 0.5 rem (.005 Sv), 1                          These facilities include hospitals, airports,
                                             responders in establishing radiological                                rem (.01 Sv), 2 rem (.02 Sv), 5 rem (.05 Sv),                           railroads and ports, water and sewer
                                             control zones or boundaries for the areas                              10 rem (.10 Sv), 25 rem (.25 Sv), 100 rem (1                            facilities, and power and fuel facilities. These
                                                                                                                    Sv), many of which correspond to guidelines                             operational guidelines are typically
                                             directly impacted by the RDD or IND
                                                                                                                    used for workers and the public).                                       expressed as soil, building, or street-surface
                                             incident where first responders and
                                                                                                                                                                                            contamination concentrations (e.g., pCi/m2).
                                             emergency response personnel are working.                              (b) Group B: Early-Phase Protective Action
                                             They are not intended to restrict emergency                            (Evacuation or Sheltering)                                              (d) Group D: Temporary Access to Relocation
                                             worker access, but rather to inform workers                              Group B operational guidelines are                                    Areas for Essential Activities
                                             of potential radiological hazards that exist in                        designed to help decision makers make                                     Group D operational guidelines pertain to
                                             the area and to provide tools to those                                 timely protective action decisions, such as                             intermediate phase protective actions. They
                                             responsible for radiation protection during                            whether to evacuate or shelter the general                              are designed to assist in determining
                                             response activities. These operational                                 public in the early phase. These operational                            constraints necessary to allow for temporary
                                             guidelines may be used to restrict the access                          guidelines are similar to values presented in                           access to restricted (relocation) areas. For
                                             of nonessential personnel and members of                               the FRMAC Assessment Manual for                                         example, the public, or owners/employees of
                                             the public to specific areas. Examples of                              evacuation and sheltering. Group B                                      businesses, may need temporary access to
                                             operational guidelines developed in this                               operational guidelines are typically                                    residences, or commercial, agricultural, or
                                             group include life- and property-saving                                expressed as limiting concentrations of                                 industrial facilities in order to retrieve
                                             measures and emergency worker zone                                     radioactivity in surface soil.                                          essential records, conduct maintenance to
                                             demarcation.                                                                                                                                   protect facilities, prevent environmental
                                                Group A operational guidelines are                                  (c) Group C: Relocation and Critical                                    damage, attend to animals, or retrieve pets.
                                                                                                                    Infrastructure Utilization in Affected Areas
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                                             expressed as a series of reference ‘‘stay time’’                                                                                               These operational guidelines describe the
                                             tables for responders who may have only                                   These operational guidelines are intended                            level and timeframes at which these actions
                                             limited health physics information and                                 for early-to intermediate-phase protective                              can be taken without supervision or
                                             personal protective equipment at the time of                           actions. They are designed for use in                                   radiological protections. The public or
                                             the response. For example, the health physics                          deciding whether to relocate the public from                            employees may occasionally (e.g., a few days
                                             information available to them could include                            affected areas for a protracted period of time.                         per month) access areas that do not exceed
                                             or be limited to measurements of the external                          Screening values are provided to delineate                              these guidelines. Temporary access to

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                                             45046                           Federal Register / Vol. 73, No. 149 / Friday, August 1, 2008 / Notices

                                             relocation areas that exceed these levels                establish three property categories: at greater       been growing during the incident. Subgroups
                                             should be permitted only under the                       than 200 times ANSI N13.12 screening levels,          G.3 and G.4 are intended for use of soil in
                                             supervision, or with the permission of,                  monitored remediation or control is                   the intermediate to long-term recovery
                                             radiation protection personnel. The                      recommended; at levels between 10 and 200             phases and can be used for placing land use
                                             guidelines are typically expressed in terms of           times the levels, self-remediation                    restrictions on agricultural activities after an
                                             stay-times during which the public or                    (conventional washing) of the property is             RDD incident. They can be used to determine
                                             employees may access the areas without                   recommended as soon as practical; and                 if crops can be grown on residually
                                             receiving a predetermined dose.                          below the self-remediation levels, no control         contaminated soil to produce a harvest that
                                                                                                      or protective action is necessary.                    would be acceptable for public consumption.
                                             (e) Group E: Transportation and Access                      Operational guidelines for real property
                                             Routes                                                   (buildings and lands) are designed to assist          (h) Derivation of Operational Guidelines
                                                These operational guidelines apply to                 on-scene decision-making, and in                         Operational guidelines for each group are
                                             intermediate phase actions. They are                     development of the cleanup options                    being derived through a systematic approach
                                             designed to assist in determining whether                described in section (d)(4), Late Phase               in which, (1) applicable release/exposure
                                             transportation routes (e.g., bridges, highways,          Guidance, of this document. Section (d)(4) on         scenarios for each group were defined, (2)
                                             streets) or access ways (e.g., sidewalks and             long-term cleanup incorporates the principle          appropriate human receptors for each
                                             walkways) may be accessed by the public for              of site-specific optimization, and highlights         scenario were identified, and (3) the receptor
                                             general, limited, or restricted use. The                 stakeholder involvement and shared                    doses from applicable exposure pathways
                                             relocation PAGs serve as the basis for these             accountability. The guidelines for real               were estimated. Operational guidelines
                                             operational guidelines. For example,                     property are unique in that there is no one           (Groups A–G; see Table 4A), which
                                             operational guidelines may be defined for                specific, predefined numeric criterion (i.e.,         correspond to specific PAGs, were derived
                                             industrial or commercial use of various                  expressed in terms of concentration, dose, or         for 11 potential RDD radionuclides:10 Am-
                                             roads, bridges, or access ways. These may be             risk) on which to base decisions. These               241, Cf-252, Cm-244, Co-60, Cs-137, Ir-192,
                                             necessary to allow for access between non-               guidelines are intended to be utilized in the         Po-210, Pu-238, Pu-239, Ra-226, and Sr-90.
                                             relocation areas via a highway that passes               optimization process, which will likely               The concepts and overarching methodology
                                             through a relocation area or for access to               consider the magnitude and extent of the              used to derive operational guidelines for
                                             recovery areas in the immediate area of an               contamination and the radionuclide(s)                 RDD-related radionuclides could also be
                                             incident. These operational guidelines                   involved, the proposed long-term land and             generally applied, with modifications, to
                                             assume regular or periodic use and are not               building use in the affected areas, the need          radionuclides associated with an IND.
                                             appropriate for one-time events, such as                 for expedited recovery, public welfare issues,           Additional RDD or IND incident scenarios
                                             evacuation or relocation actions. They are               the cost impacts for each proposed cleanup            were analyzed to support the derivation of
                                             typically expressed as surface contamination             option, the ecological considerations, and            the operational guideline groups and
                                             concentrations (e.g., pCi/m2).                           other factors. Real property operational              subgroups described above. Two of these
                                             (f) Group F: Release of Property From                    guidelines are provided as reference values           additional scenarios involve the use of water
                                             Radiologically Controlled Areas                          (e.g., soil and building-surface concentrations       to flush streets and clean vehicles.
                                                                                                      or risks) that can be used as a starting point        Accordingly, operational guidelines for street
                                                Group F operational guidelines are
                                                                                                      for evaluating options and impacts relative to        flushing and cleaning contaminated vehicles
                                             intended for intermediate to long-term
                                                                                                      a range of dose or risk-based benchmarks              are also provided. The operational guidelines
                                             recovery-phase protective actions. During
                                                                                                      (e.g., 500, 100, 25, or 4 millirem per year;          will be submitted in the Federal Register for
                                             response and recovery operations, property
                                                                                                      lifetime risk ranges, and others) that could be       comment prior to finalization.
                                             and wastes must be cleared from
                                                                                                      considered as part of cleanup options
                                             radiologically controlled areas (relocation                                                                    Appendix 5—References and Resources
                                                                                                      analysis. Thus, they are not regulatory dose
                                             areas). Property includes personal property,
                                                                                                      limits or criteria, but serve as concentration        ‘‘Access to Employee and Medical Records.’’
                                             debris and non-radiological wastes,
                                             hazardous waste, and real property (e.g.,                values that provide support to the                       Occupational Safety and Heath Standards.
                                             buildings and lands). These operational                  optimization analyses.                                   29 CFR part 1910.1020.
                                             guidelines support such actions. Because                 (g) Group G: Food Consumption                         ‘‘Accidental Radioactive Contamination of
                                             subsequent retrieval of cleared, or released,                                                                     Human Food and Animal Feeds:
                                                                                                         Group G operational guidelines apply to               Recommendations for State and Local
                                             properties will be difficult, these levels
                                                                                                      early through long-term recovery phase                   Agencies’’, U.S. Department of Health and
                                             should be consistent with late-phase cleanup
                                                                                                      protective actions, as needed. They are                  Human Services, Food and Drug
                                             goals wherever practicable. For this reason,
                                                                                                      designed to aid in decision making about the             Administration, August 13, 1998.
                                             they should not be applied to property that
                                                                                                      need for placing restrictions on consumption          ‘‘Developing Radiation Emergency Plans for
                                             will continue to be used within controlled
                                                                                                      of contaminated foods or on agricultural                 Academic, Medical or Industrial
                                             areas. These operational guidelines should
                                             also be used for screening property that was             products during and following an RDD or                  Facilities.’’ National Council on Radiation
                                             located outside the controlled area for                  IND incident. Four subgroups were                        Protection and Measurement (NCRP).
                                             possible contamination. In general, the                  developed (Subgroups G.1–G.4; see Table                  NCRP Report No. 111 (1991).
                                             operational guidelines in this group provide             4A), which are intended for use in                    ‘‘Framework for Environmental Health Risk
                                             reasonable assurance that the cleared                    conjunction with the operational guidelines              Management.’’ Commission on Risk
                                             property is acceptable for long-term,                    in other groups. Subgroup G.1 guidelines                 Assessment and Risk Management (1997).
                                             unrestricted use (or appropriate disposition,            pertain to food consumption in the early              ‘‘FRMAC Radiological Emergency Response
                                             in the case of wastes) without further                   response phase immediately after an                      Health and Safety Manual’’ (May 2001),
                                             radiological reassessment or control.                    incident. These guidelines can be used to                see,
                                                For personal property such as vehicles and            screen against measured concentrations taken             nationalsecurity/homelandsecurity/frmac/
                                             equipment, the operational guideline values              from previously harvested food or from                   default.htm.
                                             were derived using the ANSI N13.12                       animal products exposed during the incident.          ‘‘Guidance: Potassium Iodide as a Thyroid
                                             standard clearance screening levels.9 These              Subgroup G.1 guidelines also can be used to              Blocking Agent in Radiation Emergencies.’’
                                             draft operational guidelines are available for           determine the need for a food embargo, or                Food and Drug Administration, 66 FR
                                             review and use as appropriate at http://                 restrictions on consumption of contaminated              64046, Dec. 11, 2001.
                                    The guidelines                     foods. Subgroup G.2 guidelines, soil                  ‘‘Hazardous Waste Operations and
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                                                                                                      guidelines, also apply to the early phase of             Emergency Response.’’ Occupational
                                               9 The American National Standards Institute
                                                                                                      response, but they are intended for use in
                                             (ANSI) produces consensus based national
                                                                                                      evaluating crops or animal products exposed              10 These radionuclides were determined by a joint

                                             standards. ANSI standard N13.12, Surface and             during the RDD incident (e.g., after the plume        DOE and NRC study to be the most likely sources
                                             Volume Radioactivity Standards for Clearance, can        has passed). They serve as a comparison with          available for potential terrorist use in an RDD
                                             be found at                        measured concentrations taken from surface            (Interagency Working Group on Radiological
                                             N13_12_1999.html.                                        soil in which plant foods and fodder had              Dispersal Devices, May 2003) (DOE/NRC 2003).

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                                                                             Federal Register / Vol. 73, No. 149 / Friday, August 1, 2008 / Notices                                                45047

                                                Safety and Health Standards. 29 CFR part              ‘‘Standards for Protection Against                    FDA Food and Drug Administration, U.S.
                                                1910.120.                                                Radiation.’’ Nuclear Regulatory                       Department of Health and Human Services.
                                             ‘‘Health Effects Summary Tables,’’                          Commission. 10 CFR part 20.                        FRMAC Federal Radiological Monitoring
                                                Environmental Protection Agency, http://              ‘‘Surface and Volume Radioactivity                       and Assessment Center—A coordinating
                                                                  Standards for Clearance.’’ American                   center for Federal, State, and local field
                                             ‘‘Health Risks from Exposure to Low Levels                  National Standards Institute (ANSI),                  personnel performing radiological
                                                of Ionizing Radiation: BEIR VII Phase 2.’’               N13.12 (1999).                                        monitoring and assessment—specifically,
                                                National Research Council of The National                                                                      providing data collection, data analysis
                                                Academies (2006).                                     Appendix 6—Acronyms/Glossary                             and interpretation, and finished products
                                             ‘‘Ionizing Radiation.’’ Occupational Safety              AMS Aerial Measuring System—A DOE                        to decision makers. The FRMAC is a
                                                and Health Standards. 29 CFR part                       technical asset consisting of both fixed               deployable asset of the NIRT administered
                                                1910.1096.                                              wing and helicopter systems for measuring              by DOE. For more information, see http://
                                             ‘‘Key Elements of Preparing Emergency                      radiation on the ground; a deployable asset  
                                                Responders for Nuclear and Radiological                 of the NIRT.                                           homelandsecurity/frmac/default.htm.
                                                Terrorism.’’ National Council on Radiation            ALARA As low as reasonably achievable—                FRN Federal Register Notice.
                                                Protection and Measurements (NCRP).                     A process to control or manage radiation            Gy One gray is equal to an absorbed dose
                                                NCRP Commentary No. 19 (2005).                          exposure to individuals and releases of                (mean energy imparted to a unit of matter
                                             ‘‘Management of Equipment Contaminated                     radioactive material to the environment so             mass) of 1 joule/kilogram. 1 gray (Gy) =
                                                with Depleted Uranium or Radioactive                    that doses are as low as social, technical,            10,000 erg/g = 100 rad.
                                                Commodities.’’ Army Regulation 700–48                   economic, practical, and public welfare             HHS U.S. Department of Health and Human
                                                (2002).                                                 considerations permit.                                 Services.
                                             ‘‘Management Of Terrorist Events Involving               ANSI American National Standards                      HAZWOPER Hazardous Waste Operations
                                                Radioactive Material.’’ National Council on             Institute.                                             and Emergency Response Standard (29
                                                Radiation Protection and Measurements                 ARS Acute Radiation Syndrome.                            CFR 1910.120).
                                                (NCRP). NCRP Report No. 138 (2001).                   CERCLA Comprehensive Environmental                    HSPD Homeland Security Presidential
                                             ‘‘Manual of Protective Action Guides and                   Response, Compensation, and Liability                  Directive—Executive Order issued to the
                                                Protective Actions for Nuclear Incidents’’              Act, commonly known as Superfund. This                 Federal agencies by the President on
                                                (1992 EPA PAG Manual). EPA 400–R–92–                    legislation was enacted by Congress in                 matters pertaining to Homeland Security.
                                                001 (1992).                                             1980 to protect households and                      IC/UC Incident Command/Unified
                                             National Response Framework, U.S.                          communities from abandoned toxic waste                 Command—A system to integrate various
                                                Department of Homeland Security (2008).                 sites.                                                 necessary functions to respond to
                                             National Incident Management System, U.S.                CFR Code of Federal Regulations.                         emergencies. The system is widely used by
                                                Department of Homeland Security (2007).               CMS Consequence Management Site                          local responders. Under Unified
                                             ‘‘National Oil and Hazardous Substances                    Restoration, Cleanup and Decontamination               Command, multiple jurisdictional
                                                Pollution Contingency Plan.’’ 40 CFR part               Subgroup.                                              authorities are integrated.
                                                300.                                                  DEST Domestic Emergency Support                       ICP Incident Command Post—The field
                                             ‘‘Occupational Radiation Protection.’’                     Team—A technical advisory team designed                location where the primary functions are
                                                Department of Energy. 10 CFR part 835.                  to pre-deploy and assist the FBI Special               performed. The ICP may be co-located with
                                             ‘‘Preliminary Report on Operational                        Agent in Charge. The DEST may deploy                   the incident base or other incident
                                                Guidelines Developed for Use in                         after an incident to assist the FBI.                   facilities.
                                                Emergency Preparedness and Response to                DHS U.S. Department of Homeland                       ICRP International Commission on
                                                a Radiological Dispersal Device Incident.’’                                                                    Radiological Protection.
                                                                                                      DIL Derived Intervention Level—The
                                                DOE/HS–0001. http://                                                                                        ICS Incident Command System—A
                                                                                                        concentration of a radionuclide in food
                                                                                                                                standardized, on-scene, all-hazard incident
                                                                                                        expressed in Becquerel/kg which, if
                                             ‘‘Protective Action Guides for Radiological                                                                       management concept. ICS is based upon a
                                                                                                        present throughout the relevant period of
                                                Dispersal Device (RDD) and Improvised                   time (with no intervention), could lead to
                                                                                                                                                               flexible, scalable response organization
                                                Nuclear Device (IND) Incidents; Notice.’’               an individual receiving a radiation dose               providing a common framework within
                                                71 FR 174, Jan. 3, 2006.                                equal to the PAG.                                      which people can work together
                                             ‘‘Radiation Protection Guidance to Federal               DOD U.S. Department of Defense.                          effectively.
                                                Agencies for Occupational Exposure.’’                 DOE U.S. Department of Energy.                        IND Improvised Nuclear Device—An illicit
                                                Presidential Directive. 52 FR 2822, Jan. 27,          DRL Derived Response Level—A level of                    nuclear weapon that is bought, stolen, or
                                                1987.                                                   radioactivity in an environmental medium               otherwise obtained from a nuclear State, or
                                             ‘‘Radiological Dispersal Devices: An Initial               that would be expected to produce a dose               a weapon fabricated by a terrorist group
                                                Study to Identify Radioactive Materials of              equal to its corresponding PAG.                        from illegally obtained fissile nuclear
                                                Greatest Concern and Approaches to their              EMP Electromagnetic Pulse—                               weapons material and produces a nuclear
                                                Tracking, Tagging, and Disposition.’’ DOE/              Electromagnetic radiation from a nuclear               explosion.
                                                NRC Interagency Working Group on                        explosion.                                          JFO Joint Field Office—The operations of
                                                Radiological Dispersal Devices, Report to             EMS Emergency Medical Service.                           the various Federal entities participating in
                                                the NRC and the Secretary of Energy                   EOC Emergency Operations Center—A                        a response at the local level should be
                                                (2003).                                                 response entity’s central command and                  collocated in a Joint Field Office whenever
                                             ‘‘Reporting and Recording Occupational                     control center for carrying out emergency              possible, to improve the efficiency and
                                                Injuries and Illnesses.’’ U.S. Department of            management functions.                                  effectiveness of Federal incident
                                                Energy Occupational Safety and Health                 EPA U.S. Environmental Protection                        management activities.
                                                Standards. 29 CFR part 1904.                            Agency.                                             JFO Unified Coordination Group JFO
                                             ‘‘Risks from Low-Level Environmental                     ESF Emergency Support Function—The                       structure is organized, staffed and managed
                                                Exposure to Radionuclides,’’ Federal                    ESFs provide the structure for coordinating            in a manner consistent with NIMS
                                                Guidance Report 13, Environmental                       Federal interagency support for domestic               principles and is led by the Unified
                                                Protection Agency, January 1998, EPA                    incident response.                                     Coordination Group. Personnel from
                                                402–R–97–014.                                         FBI Federal Bureau of Investigation, U.S.                Federal and State departments and
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                                             ‘‘Standards for Cleanup Of Land and                        Department of Justice.                                 agencies, other jurisdictional entities and
                                                Buildings Contaminated with Residual                  FCO Federal Coordinating Officer—                        private sector businesses and NGOs may be
                                                Radioactive Materials from Inactive                     Appointed by the Director of the Federal               requested to staff various levels of the JFO,
                                                Uranium Processing Sites.’’ Health and                  Emergency Management Agency, on behalf                 depending on the requirements of the
                                                Environmental Protection Standards for                  of the President, to coordinate federal                incident.
                                                Uranium and Thorium Mill Tailings. 40                   assistance to a state affected by a disaster        JIC Joint Information Center—A focal point
                                                CFR part 192.10–12.                                     or emergency.                                          for the coordination and provision of

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                                             45048                           Federal Register / Vol. 73, No. 149 / Friday, August 1, 2008 / Notices

                                               information to the public and media                      oversee and coordinate Federal activities           Sv Sievert; the SI unit of radiation dose
                                               concerning the Federal response to the                   for the incident.                                     equivalent. 1 Sv = 100 rem.
                                               emergency.                                             PIO Public Information Officer—The PIO                TEDE Total effective dose equivalent—The
                                             JOC Joint Operations Center—The focal                      acts as the communications coordinator or             sum of the effective dose equivalent from
                                               point for management and coordination of                 spokesperson within the Incident                      external radiation exposure and the
                                               local, State and Federal investigative/law               Command System.                                       committed effective dose equivalent from
                                               enforcement activities.                                PPE Personal protective equipment.                      internal exposure.
                                             KI Potassium Iodide.                                     R Roentgen—Measure of exposure in air.                  Dated: July 18, 2008.
                                             LNT or LNT model—Linear no-threshold                     Rad Radiation absorbed dose. One rad is
                                                                                                                                                            Michael Chertoff,
                                               dose-response for which any dose greater                 equal to an absorbed dose of 100 erg/gram
                                               than zero has a positive probability of                  or 0.01 joule/kilogram. 1 rad = 0.01 gray           Secretary, U.S. Department of Homeland
                                               producing an effect (e.g. , mutation or                  (Gy).                                               Security.
                                               cancer). The probability is calculated either          RAP Radiological Assistance Program—A                 [FR Doc. E8–17645 Filed 7–31–08; 8:45 am]
                                               from the slope of a linear (L) model or from             DOE emergency response asset that can
                                                                                                                                                            BILLING CODE 9110–21–P
                                               the limiting slope, as the dose approaches               rapid deploy at the request of State or local
                                               zero, of a linear-quadratic (LQ) model.                  governments for technical assistance in
                                             MERRT Medical Emergency Radiological                       radiological incidents. RAP teams are a
                                               Response Team—Provides direct patient                    deployable asset of the NIRT.                       DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND
                                               treatment, assists and trains local health             RDD Radiological Dispersal Device—Any                 SECURITY
                                               care providers in managing, handling, and                device that causes the purposeful
                                               treatment of radiation exposed and                       dissemination of radioactive material,              Transportation Security Administration
                                               contaminated casualties, assesses the                    across an area with the intent to cause
                                               impact on human health, and provides                     harm, without a nuclear detonation                  Extension of Agency Information
                                               consultation and technical advice to local,              occurring.                                          Collection Activity Under OMB Review:
                                               State, and Federal authorities.                        REAC/TS Radiation Emergency Assistance                TSA Customer Comment Card
                                             NCP National Oil and Hazardous                             Center/Training Site—A DOE asset located
                                               Substances Pollution Contingency Plan (40                in Oak Ridge, TN, with technical expertise          AGENCY:  Transportation Security
                                               CFR part 300)—The Plan provides the                      in medical and health assessment                    Administration, DHS.
                                               organizational structure and procedures for              concerning internal and external exposure           ACTION: 30 Day Notice.
                                               preparing for and responding to discharges               to radioactive materials. REAC/TS is a
                                               of oil and releases of hazardous substances,             deployable asset of the NIRT.                       SUMMARY: This notice announces that
                                               pollutants, and contaminants.                          Rem Roentgen Equivalent Man; the                      the Transportation Security
                                             NCRP National Council on Radiation                         conventional unit of radiation dose                 Administration (TSA) has forwarded the
                                               Protection and Measurements.                             equivalent. 1 rem = 0.01 sievert (Sv).              Information Collection Request (ICR)
                                             NIEHS National Institute for Environmental               REMM Radiation Event Medical
                                                                                                                                                            abstracted below to the Office of
                                               Health Sciences.                                         Management—A Web-based algorithm
                                             NIMS National Incident Management                          providing just-in-time information for              Management and Budget (OMB) for
                                               System—The Homeland Security Act of                      medical responders. It is also useful for           review and approval of an extension of
                                               2002 and HPSD–5 directed the DHS to                      education and training. Developed by the            the currently approved collection under
                                               develop NIMS. The purpose of the NIMS                    Office of Assistant Secretary for                   the Paperwork Reduction Act. The ICR
                                               is to provide a consistent nationwide                    Preparedness and Response and the                   describes the nature of the information
                                               approach for Federal, State, and local                   National Library of Medicine. Available at          collection and its expected burden. TSA
                                               governments to work effectively and                                        published a Federal Register notice,
                                               efficiently together to prepare for, respond           RERT Radiological Emergency Response                  with a 60-day comment period soliciting
                                               to, and recover from domestic incidents.                 Team—An EPA team trained to do
                                                                                                                                                            comments, of the following collection of
                                             NIRT Nuclear Incident Response Team—                       environmental sampling and analysis of
                                               Created by the Homeland Security Act of                  radionuclides. RERT provides assistance             information on May 9, 2008, 73 FR
                                               2002, the NIRT consists of radiological                  during responses and takes over operation           26404. TSA uses a customer comment
                                               emergency response assets of the DOE and                 of the FRMAC from DOE at a point in time            card to collect passenger comments
                                               the EPA. When called upon by the                         after the emergency phase. RERT is a                including complaints, compliments, and
                                               Secretary for Homeland Security for actual               deployable asset of the NIRT.                       suggestions at airports.
                                               or threatened radiological incidents, these            Shelter-in-Place The use of a structure for           DATES: Send your comments by
                                               assets come under the ‘‘authority,                       radiation protection from an airborne               September 2, 2008. A comment to OMB
                                               direction, and control’’ of the Secretary.               plume and/or deposited radioactive
                                             NOC National Operations Center.                            materials.
                                                                                                                                                            is most effective if OMB receives it
                                             NPP Nuclear Power Plant.                                 SI International System of Units.                     within 30 days of publication.
                                             NRC U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission.                  Stakeholder A stakeholder is anybody with             ADDRESSES: Interested persons are
                                             NRF National Response Framework—The                        an interest (a ‘stake’) in a problem and its        invited to submit written comments on
                                               successor to the National Response Plan.                 solution. The involvement of stakeholders           the proposed information collection to
                                               The Framework presents the doctrine,                     (i.e., parties who have interests in and            the Office of Information and Regulatory
                                               principles, and architecture by which our                concern about a situation) is seen as an            Affairs, Office of Management and
                                               nation prepares for and responds to all-                 important input to the optimization
                                                                                                                                                            Budget. Comments should be addressed
                                               hazard disasters across all levels of                    process. It is a proven means to achieve
                                               government and all sectors of                            incorporation of values into the decision-          to Nathan Lesser, Desk Officer,
                                               communities.                                             making process, improvement of the                  Department of Homeland Security/TSA,
                                             OSHA Occupational Safety and Health                        substantive quality of decisions, resolution        and sent via electronic mail to
                                               Administration, U.S. Department of Labor.                of conflicts among competing interests,    or faxed
                                             PAG Protective Action Guide—The                            building of shared understanding with               to (202) 395–6974.
                                               projected dose to a reference individual,                both workers and the public, and building           FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT:
mstockstill on PROD1PC66 with NOTICES

                                               from an accidental or deliberate release of              of trust in institutions. Furthermore,              Joanna Johnson, Communications
                                               radioactive material at which a specific                 involving all concerned parties reinforces
                                               protective action to reduce or avoid that                the safety culture, and introduces the
                                                                                                                                                            Branch, Business Management Office,
                                               dose is recommended.                                     necessary flexibility in the management of          Operational Process and Technology,
                                             PFO Principal Federal Official—The PFO                     the radiological risk that is necessary to          TSA–11, Transportation Security
                                               will act as the Secretary of Homeland                    achieve more effective and sustainable              Administration, 601 South 12th Street,
                                               Security’s local representative, and will                decisions.                                          Arlington, VA 22202–4220; telephone

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