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INTERNATIONAL COUNCIL OF CHEMICAL ASSOCIATIONS WHAT IS CHEMISTRY? The global chemical industry will be widely valued and supported for its economic, social and environmental contributions to society Mr. Alain Perroy, Council Secretary, ICCA c/o CEFIC, Ave. E. Van Nieuwenhuyse 4, BTE 2, B-1160 Brussels, Belgium - Telephone: ++32 2 676 7217 Fax: ++ 32 2 676 7226 Email: firstname.lastname@example.org - Web site: http://www.icca-chem.org WHAT IS CHEMISTRY? Chemistry – it’s in everything and everywhere. By its very nature, the world and everything around us – air, water, the ground beneath us, the infinite number of things and technologies we use every day, as well as our own living tissue - is chemistry in motion. As society learned to harness the chemistry of nature and things, a wide range of innovative products and services - that make people’s lives better, healthier and safer - has emerged. Good chemistry makes it possible. What is “it”? “It” is extended and healthier life spans, saved lives, improved quality of life, higher standards of living, an improved environment, economic benefits, and myriad social and other benefits of chemistry. Chemistry is essential to our everyday lives. It makes possible many innovations and benefits for society. When the science of chemistry is applied, it helps make the lives of people throughout the world safer, healthier and more productive. Indeed, our food, safe water supply, clothing, shelter, health care, computer technology, transportation and every other facet of modern life, all depend upon the business of chemistry. The business of chemistry transforms the natural raw materials of the earth, sea and air into products that we use everyday. It creates products that bring major societal benefits to quality of life, health, productivity, convenience and safety. Think of the following as the value chain of the business of chemistry: Chemistry Discovery and Innovation Better Products Social and Economic Benefits from Better Products Improved Quality of Life, Safety and Well-Being Peace of Mind, Security, and Enjoyment of Life Thus, the business of chemistry involves problem solving companies providing solutions to improve the world. It is a science and technology, knowledge-based industry that is key to a sustainable world economy and improved health and nutrition. Chemical Chains The figures that follow provide a simplified overview of some key parts of the production chain of the business of chemistry, from raw material inputs to valued outputs. There are two kinds of chemistry, organic and inorganic. Organic inputs, like oil and natural gas, contain hydrocarbons, which form the backbone of final organic chemical outputs. Very few chemicals use oil and natural gas directly as raw materials. Rather, they are first processed into natural gas liquids such as ethane, propane or into heavier liquids such as naphtha and gas oil. In the first stage of processing, these raw materials are refined to produce primary outputs like benzene and ethylene. Primary outputs like these are the building blocks of the business of chemistry. In subsequent stages of processing, (Figures 2.3 - 2.10) chemicals such as chlorine are added to the hydrocarbon backbones to give the compounds certain desired characteristics. The final output may, for example, be nylon or polyester fiber, plastic, a pharmaceutical product, or other products, which are often not thought of as business of chemistry outputs. Inorganic inputs are often compounds of two or more natural elements. Salt, a simple compound formed from sodium (Na) and chlorine (Cl) can be broken down by electrolysis to produce chlorine and caustic soda (sodium hydroxide). Chlorine (Figure 2.4), a common inorganic chemical, is used both by industries and consumers. The paper industry, for example, uses chlorine to bleach paper pulp, and consumers may appreciate it as a means of keeping their clothes white and their drinking water safe. Caustic soda is another inorganic chemical used extensively in manufacturing processes and in the production of soaps and detergents. The figures that follow do not attempt to report all chemical products and processes. The vast spectrum of chemical products makes it impractical to describe more than a few simple process chains. What is Chemistry? Mining Inorganic Organic Raw Oil Gas Raw Materials, Production Materials Coal, Biomass Heat Chemical Air Processing Water Chemical Building Blocks Heat Air Chemical Processing Water Chemical Intermediate & Finished Products Other Consumers Exports Manufacturers Chemistry combines organic and inorganic materials from the earth, with heat, air, and water to make products useful in modern civilization. Organic chemicals begin with raw materials containing hydrocarbons such as oil, natural gas, and coal. Inorganic chemicals do not contain carbon but are made from ores taken from the earth, such as salt. Chlor-Alkali Chain Polyvinyl Chloride Siding, Resins Pipe, Ethylene Vinyl Flooring Dichloride Chloride (PVC) Methyl Chloride, Miscellaneous Methylene Chloride, Chloroform, Carbon Tetrachloride, & Other Chlorinated Solvents, Metal Cleaning, Methanes Electronics, Polymers Chlorine Ethylene PVC Siding, Flooring, Pipe, Dichloride, & Resins Shower Curtains Other Chlorinated Ethanes Solvents Dry Cleaning, Metal Cleaning, Degreasing Chlorinated Benzene Pesticides, Dyes Chlor-Alkali Coatings, Plant Adhesives, Printed Epoxy Resins Circuit Board Epichlorohydrin Toothpaste, Other Chemicals Glycerin Cosmetics, Food Miscellaneous Pulp Bleaching Other Water Treatment Chemicals Pulp & Paper Caustic Soda Soaps, Detergents, Cleaners Miscellaneous Water Treatment Oil Refining Miscellaneous Ammonia Chain Ammonium Sulfate Fertilizer, Natural Gas Ammonia Feeds, Ammonium Phosphates Explosives, Chemicals Nitric Acid Urea Carpet, Nylon Home Caprolactam Fibers Furnishing, Apparel Apparel, Acrylonitrile Acrylic Home Fibers Furnishings Miscellaneous Chemicals Methanol Chain Gasoline Methyl-Tertiary Butyl Ether Phenol Formaldehyde Plywood, Particle Board, Natural Gas Methanol Formaldehyde Insulation Urea Formaldehyde Urea Carbon Monoxide Latex, Paints, Other Coatings, Acetic Acid Adhesives, Textile Finishing Chlorine Chloromethanes Electronics, Metal Cleaning, Paint Remover, Silicones, Insulation Acetone Glazing, Signs, Methyl- Other Acrylics Methacrylate Miscellaneous Chemicals Ethylene Chain Low Density Food Packaging, Film, Polyethylene Trash Bags, Diapers, (LDPE) & Linear Toys, Housewares Low Density Polyethylene (LLDPE) Housewares, Crates, High Density Drums, Food Polyethylene Containers, Bottles (HDPE) Ethylene Dichloride Vinyl Chloride PVC Siding, Window Frames, Swimming Pool Liners, Pipes Automotive Ethylene Oxide Ethylene Glycol Antifreeze Crude Oil/ Natura Ethylen l Gas Pantyhose, Fibers Carpets, Clothing Polyester Bottles Resin Film Miscellaneous Insulation, Cups, Polystyrene Models Resins Ethylbenzene Styrene Styrene Instrument Acrylonitrile Lenses, Resins Houseware Styrene Tires, Linear Alcohols Detergents Butadiene Footwear, Rubber Sealants Styrene Carpet Adhesives, Butadiene Backing, Vinyl Acetate Coatings, Latex Paper Textile/Paper Coatings Miscellaneous Miscellaneou Propylene Chain Auto Patch Compounds, Propylene Propylene Glycol Polyesters Furniture Parts, Oxide Boats, Fibers Polyols Foams, Polyurethane Coatings, Lacquers Resins Auto Steering Wheels, Knobs, Auto Grills, Pipe, Polypropylene Film, Shirt Packages, Strapping, Rope & Twine Fibers Indoor/Outdoor Carpets, Matting Crude Oil Propylene Isopropyl Alcohol Acetone Methyl Methacrylate Plastics, Signs, Plexiglass, Paints, Tail- Solvents, Coatings, Light Lenses, Cosmetics, Health Care Lighting Panels Oxo- Rain PVC alcohols Plasticizers Coats, Plastics Inflatable Toys Solvents Coatings Acrylonitrile Polyacrylonitrile Carpets, Sweaters, Draperies, Acrylic Dresses, Coats Fiber Acrylic Lenses, Light Resins Fixtures, Coatings, Modacrylic Domestics Fiber Synthetic Furs, Coatings Cumene ABS Resins Telephones, Auto Parts, Bathtubs Phenol Phenolic Resins, Nylon Fibers, Solvents Acrylic Acid, Acrylates Super Absorbent Polymers, Coatings, Miscellaneous Adhesives, Detergents C-4 Chain Styrene-Butadiene Rubber Tires, Footwear Polybutadiene Rubber Tires, Golf Balls Styrene-Butadiene Carpet Backing, Latex Adhesives ABS Resins Automotive Parts, Spas Butadiene Chloroprene Rubber Gaskets, Seals, Hoses Nitrile Rubber Shoe Soles, Kitchen Mats, Hoses, Gaskets Crude Oil C-4 Miscellaneous Isobutylene Synthetic Rubber Auto Tires, Plastic Compounds Gasoline Miscellaneous Foams, Insulation Butylene Oxide Polyurethanes Unsaturated Polyesters Maleic Anhydride Alkyd Resins Benzene Chain Insulation, Polystyrene Cups, Resins Models Styrene Instrument Acrylonitrile Lenses, Resins Houseware Ethylbenzene Styrene Styrene Butadiene Tires, Rubber Footwear, Sealants Styrene Butadiene Carpet Latex Backing, Paper Coatings Crude Miscellaneous Football Oil Helmets, Eyeglasses, Acetone Polycarbonate Computers Resins Benzene Cumene Epoxy Resins Protective Bisphenol Coatings, A Adhesives Phenol Miscellaneous Ethylene Cracker Phenolic Plywood, Resins Coatings, Housings Adipic Nylon Fibers Acid Cyclohexane & Resins Miscellaneous Caprolactam Nylon Fibers Isocyanates & Resins Miscellaneous Rubber Chemicals Aniline Pesticides Dyes Miscellaneous Chlorobenzenes Pesticides, Dyes Miscellaneous Toluene Chain Ethylbenzene Styrene Cumene Benzene Cyclohexane Aniline Other o-Xylene Crude Oil Toluene Xylene p-Xylene m-Xylene Urethane Bedding, Foams Insulation Toluene Diisocyanate Urethane Varnishes, Adhesives, Coatings Sealants Urethane Footwear Solvents Elastomers Miscellaneous Xylene Chain Plasticizer Plastic D.O.P. Products Phthalic Anhydride Alkyd Resins Auto Parts, Solvents and Coatings, o-Xylene Miscellaneous Furniture Polyester Foams, Polyol Urethanes Insulation TV Dyes Alkyd parts Resins Crude Xylene m-Xylene Oil Isophthalic Polyamide Adhesives Acid Resins Solvents Unsaturated Polyesters Polyester Fibers for Apparel, Terephthalic p-Xylene PET Resins for Acid/ Bottles, Dimethyl Tapes & Films Terephthalate The International Council of Chemical Associations (ICCA) is the world-wide voice of the chemical industry, representing chemical manufacturers and producers all over the world. It accounts for more than 75 per cent of chemical manufacturing operations with a production exceeding USD 1.6 trillion annually. Almost 30 percent of this production is traded internationally. ICCA promotes and co-ordinates Responsible Care and other voluntary chemical industry initiatives. ICCA has a central role in the exchange of information within the international industry, and in the development of position statements on matters of policy. It is also the main channel of communication between the industry and various international organizations that are concerned with health, environment and trade-related issues, including the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), the World Trade Organization (WTO) and the Organisation for Economic Co-operation & Development (OECD).
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