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WHAT IS CHEMISTRY

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					                                                                          INTERNATIONAL

                                                                          COUNCIL OF

                                                                          CHEMICAL

                                                                          ASSOCIATIONS




                 WHAT IS CHEMISTRY?




       The global chemical industry will be widely valued and supported for its economic, social
                             and environmental contributions to society
                             Mr. Alain Perroy, Council Secretary, ICCA
c/o CEFIC, Ave. E. Van Nieuwenhuyse 4, BTE 2, B-1160 Brussels, Belgium - Telephone: ++32 2 676 7217
          Fax: ++ 32 2 676 7226 Email: mca@cefic.be - Web site: http://www.icca-chem.org
                           WHAT IS CHEMISTRY?

  Chemistry – it’s in everything and everywhere. By its very nature, the world and
everything around us – air, water, the ground beneath us, the infinite number of things
and technologies we use every day, as well as our own living tissue - is chemistry in
motion. As society learned to harness the chemistry of nature and things, a wide range of
innovative products and services - that make people’s lives better, healthier and safer -
has emerged. Good chemistry makes it possible. What is “it”? “It” is extended and
healthier life spans, saved lives, improved quality of life, higher standards of living, an
improved environment, economic benefits, and myriad social and other benefits of
chemistry.

 Chemistry is essential to our everyday lives. It makes possible many innovations and
benefits for society. When the science of chemistry is applied, it helps make the lives of
people throughout the world safer, healthier and more productive. Indeed, our food, safe
water supply, clothing, shelter, health care, computer technology, transportation and
every other facet of modern life, all depend upon the business of chemistry.

  The business of chemistry transforms the natural raw materials of the earth, sea and air
into products that we use everyday. It creates products that bring major societal benefits
to quality of life, health, productivity, convenience and safety. Think of the following as
the value chain of the business of chemistry:
                                       Chemistry

                             Discovery and Innovation

                                   Better Products

              Social and Economic Benefits from Better Products

               Improved Quality of Life, Safety and Well-Being

                Peace of Mind, Security, and Enjoyment of Life

Thus, the business of chemistry involves problem solving companies providing solutions
to improve the world. It is a science and technology, knowledge-based industry that is
key to a sustainable world economy and improved health and nutrition.
Chemical Chains
  The figures that follow provide a simplified overview of some key parts of the
production chain of the business of chemistry, from raw material inputs to valued
outputs. There are two kinds of chemistry, organic and inorganic. Organic inputs, like oil
and natural gas, contain hydrocarbons, which form the backbone of final organic
chemical outputs. Very few chemicals use oil and natural gas directly as raw materials.
Rather, they are first processed into natural gas liquids such as ethane, propane or into
heavier liquids such as naphtha and gas oil.

   In the first stage of processing, these raw materials are refined to produce primary
outputs like benzene and ethylene. Primary outputs like these are the building blocks of
the business of chemistry. In subsequent stages of processing, (Figures 2.3 - 2.10)
chemicals such as chlorine are added to the hydrocarbon backbones to give the
compounds certain desired characteristics.

  The final output may, for example, be nylon or polyester fiber, plastic, a
pharmaceutical product, or other products, which are often not thought of as business of
chemistry outputs.

   Inorganic inputs are often compounds of two or more natural elements. Salt, a simple
compound formed from sodium (Na) and chlorine (Cl) can be broken down by
electrolysis to produce chlorine and caustic soda (sodium hydroxide). Chlorine (Figure
2.4), a common inorganic chemical, is used both by industries and consumers. The paper
industry, for example, uses chlorine to bleach paper pulp, and consumers may appreciate
it as a means of keeping their clothes white and their drinking water safe. Caustic soda is
another inorganic chemical used extensively in manufacturing processes and in the
production of soaps and detergents.

  The figures that follow do not attempt to report all chemical products and processes.
The vast spectrum of chemical products makes it impractical to describe more than a few
simple process chains.
What is Chemistry?




       Mining                    Inorganic                 Organic Raw                 Oil Gas
                                    Raw                     Materials,               Production
                                 Materials                 Coal, Biomass




                      Heat
                                              Chemical
                           Air                Processing

                      Water




                                       Chemical Building Blocks




                  Heat

                     Air                      Chemical
                                              Processing
                  Water




                                 Chemical Intermediate & Finished Products




                        Other                 Consumers                    Exports
                     Manufacturers




  Chemistry combines organic and inorganic materials from the earth, with heat, air, and water to
make products useful in modern civilization. Organic chemicals begin with raw materials containing
hydrocarbons such as oil, natural gas, and coal. Inorganic chemicals do not contain carbon but are
made from ores taken from the earth, such as salt.
Chlor-Alkali Chain

                                                                                           Polyvinyl
                                                                                           Chloride                   Siding,
                                                                                            Resins                     Pipe,
                                     Ethylene                  Vinyl                                                  Flooring
                                     Dichloride               Chloride                      (PVC)




                                              Methyl Chloride,                              Miscellaneous
                                                 Methylene
                                                  Chloride,
                                                 Chloroform,
                                                   Carbon
                                               Tetrachloride, &
                                              Other Chlorinated                          Solvents, Metal Cleaning,
                                                  Methanes                                Electronics, Polymers



               Chlorine
                             Ethylene                   PVC
                                                                                     Siding, Flooring, Pipe,
                           Dichloride, &               Resins
                                                                                        Shower Curtains
                              Other
                           Chlorinated
                             Ethanes
                                                    Solvents
                                                                                     Dry Cleaning, Metal
                                                                                    Cleaning, Degreasing


                             Chlorinated
                              Benzene                        Pesticides, Dyes

Chlor-Alkali                                                                                                 Coatings,
   Plant                                                                                                 Adhesives, Printed
                                                                                Epoxy
                                                                                Resins                     Circuit Board

                                Epichlorohydrin

                                                                                                                Toothpaste,
                               Other Chemicals                                   Glycerin
                                                                                                                Cosmetics,
                                                                                                                   Food
                                                                                Miscellaneous

                                 Pulp Bleaching




                                                                                                         Other
                                           Water Treatment                                             Chemicals


                                                                                                   Pulp & Paper

                           Caustic Soda
                                                                                                Soaps, Detergents,
                                                                                                    Cleaners

                          Miscellaneous
                                                                                                 Water Treatment


                                                                                                       Oil Refining

                                                                                                   Miscellaneous
Ammonia Chain



                         Ammonium Sulfate


                                                            Fertilizer,
Natural Gas   Ammonia                                        Feeds,
                         Ammonium Phosphates
                                                           Explosives,
                                                           Chemicals

                         Nitric Acid




                        Urea




                                                             Carpet,
                                               Nylon          Home
                         Caprolactam           Fibers       Furnishing,
                                                             Apparel




                                                                 Apparel,
                         Acrylonitrile           Acrylic          Home
                                                 Fibers         Furnishings



                          Miscellaneous
                           Chemicals
Methanol Chain




                                                                     Gasoline
                                    Methyl-Tertiary
                                     Butyl Ether




                                                         Phenol
                                                      Formaldehyde


                                                                                        Plywood,
                                                                                      Particle Board,
Natural Gas      Methanol    Formaldehyde
                                                                                        Insulation


                                                      Urea Formaldehyde
                             Urea


                             Carbon
                            Monoxide

                                                                Latex, Paints, Other Coatings,
                            Acetic Acid                          Adhesives, Textile Finishing



                            Chlorine



                             Chloromethanes                 Electronics, Metal Cleaning, Paint
                                                             Remover, Silicones, Insulation

                               Acetone



                                                          Glazing, Signs,
                              Methyl-
                                                          Other Acrylics
                            Methacrylate




                              Miscellaneous
                               Chemicals
  Ethylene Chain


                           Low Density                                         Food Packaging, Film,
                           Polyethylene                                        Trash Bags, Diapers,
                         (LDPE) & Linear                                        Toys, Housewares
                           Low Density
                           Polyethylene
                            (LLDPE)
                                                                                   Housewares, Crates,
                          High Density                                                Drums, Food
                          Polyethylene                                              Containers, Bottles
                            (HDPE)




                    Ethylene Dichloride           Vinyl Chloride             PVC                Siding, Window
                                                                                                    Frames,
                                                                                                Swimming Pool
                                                                                                 Liners, Pipes



                                                                                              Automotive
                             Ethylene Oxide                Ethylene Glycol                    Antifreeze

Crude
   Oil/
Natura    Ethylen
 l Gas
                                                                                            Pantyhose,
                                                                   Fibers                    Carpets,
                                                                                             Clothing



                                                                   Polyester
                                                                                               Bottles
                                                                    Resin
                                                                                                Film

                                                                    Miscellaneous
                                                                                                            Insulation,
                                                                                                              Cups,
                                                                                       Polystyrene            Models
                                                                                         Resins

                    Ethylbenzene                   Styrene
                                                                                         Styrene                  Instrument
                                                                                        Acrylonitrile               Lenses,
                                                                                          Resins                 Houseware


                                                                                         Styrene               Tires,
                      Linear
                     Alcohols                 Detergents                                Butadiene            Footwear,
                                                                                         Rubber              Sealants


                                                                                         Styrene                  Carpet
                                                  Adhesives,                            Butadiene                Backing,
                    Vinyl Acetate                 Coatings,                               Latex                   Paper
                                                 Textile/Paper                                                   Coatings

                    Miscellaneous                                                     Miscellaneou
        Propylene Chain                                                                                          Auto Patch
                                                                                                                Compounds,
                           Propylene               Propylene Glycol                 Polyesters                 Furniture Parts,
                             Oxide                                                                              Boats, Fibers



                                         Polyols                                                        Foams,
                                                                      Polyurethane                     Coatings,
                                                                                                       Lacquers




                                                                           Resins                     Auto Steering Wheels,
                                                                                                     Knobs, Auto Grills, Pipe,
                            Polypropylene                                                              Film, Shirt Packages,
                                                                                                     Strapping, Rope & Twine

                                                                       Fibers
                                                                                                   Indoor/Outdoor
                                                                                                   Carpets, Matting



Crude Oil      Propylene      Isopropyl Alcohol              Acetone                    Methyl
                                                                                      Methacrylate                          Plastics, Signs,
                                                                                                                              Plexiglass,
                                                                                                                              Paints, Tail-
                                                          Solvents, Coatings,                                                Light Lenses,
                                                        Cosmetics, Health Care                                              Lighting Panels



                                Oxo-                                                                              Rain
                                                                                         PVC
                              alcohols                      Plasticizers                                         Coats,
                                                                                        Plastics
                                                                                                               Inflatable
                                                                                                                  Toys

                                                          Solvents                     Coatings


                              Acrylonitrile                   Polyacrylonitrile
                                                                                                                      Carpets, Sweaters,
                                                                                                                          Draperies,
                                                                                             Acrylic
                                                                                                                       Dresses, Coats
                                                                                             Fiber


                                                                                          Acrylic                         Lenses, Light
                                                                                          Resins                       Fixtures, Coatings,
                                                             Modacrylic                                                    Domestics
                                                               Fiber
                                                                                             Synthetic Furs, Coatings

                               Cumene                      ABS Resins
                                                                                                             Telephones, Auto
                                                                                                              Parts, Bathtubs
                                              Phenol                    Phenolic Resins, Nylon
                                                                           Fibers, Solvents

                              Acrylic Acid, Acrylates
                                                                                             Super Absorbent
                                                                                            Polymers, Coatings,
                                Miscellaneous                                              Adhesives, Detergents
 C-4 Chain


                                        Styrene-Butadiene
                                             Rubber
                                                                              Tires, Footwear

                                          Polybutadiene
                                             Rubber                           Tires, Golf Balls




                                        Styrene-Butadiene                    Carpet Backing,
                                              Latex                            Adhesives




                                       ABS Resins
                                                                       Automotive Parts,
                                                                            Spas
                   Butadiene
                                       Chloroprene
                                         Rubber                   Gaskets, Seals,
                                                                      Hoses




                                       Nitrile Rubber                  Shoe Soles, Kitchen
                                                                       Mats, Hoses, Gaskets

Crude Oil    C-4
                                        Miscellaneous



                   Isobutylene          Synthetic Rubber                           Auto Tires,
                                                                               Plastic Compounds


                                        Gasoline


                                        Miscellaneous



                                                                                  Foams, Insulation
                   Butylene Oxide          Polyurethanes




                                                        Unsaturated
                                                         Polyesters
                    Maleic Anhydride


                                                        Alkyd Resins
Benzene Chain                                                                                        Insulation,
                                                                             Polystyrene               Cups,
                                                                               Resins                  Models


                                                                           Styrene                   Instrument
                                                                          Acrylonitrile                Lenses,
                                                                            Resins                   Houseware


                          Ethylbenzene             Styrene                Styrene
                                                                         Butadiene                    Tires,
                                                                          Rubber                    Footwear,
                                                                                                    Sealants


                                                                              Styrene
                                                                             Butadiene                  Carpet
                                                                               Latex                   Backing,
                                                                                                        Paper
                                                                                                       Coatings


  Crude                                                                       Miscellaneous                          Football
   Oil
                                                                                                                     Helmets,
                                                                                                                    Eyeglasses,
                                         Acetone                                          Polycarbonate             Computers
                                                                                             Resins


            Benzene   Cumene                                                               Epoxy
                                                                                           Resins               Protective
                                                                 Bisphenol                                      Coatings,
                                                                     A                                          Adhesives

                                         Phenol                                            Miscellaneous
 Ethylene
 Cracker
                                                              Phenolic                          Plywood,
                                                               Resins                           Coatings,
                                                                                                Housings


                                                                                  Adipic
                                                                                                                Nylon Fibers
                                                                                   Acid
                           Cyclohexane                                                                           & Resins


                                                                                                                Miscellaneous
                                                                                   Caprolactam

                                                                                                                 Nylon Fibers
                                                   Isocyanates
                                                                                                                  & Resins
                                                                                         Miscellaneous


                                            Rubber Chemicals

                       Aniline
                                                    Pesticides


                                                        Dyes


                                              Miscellaneous


                       Chlorobenzenes
                                                   Pesticides, Dyes


                        Miscellaneous
Toluene Chain



                                                         Ethylbenzene      Styrene




                                                         Cumene
                           Benzene




                                                         Cyclohexane




                                                         Aniline




                                                         Other



                                              o-Xylene

  Crude Oil     Toluene   Xylene
                                              p-Xylene




                                              m-Xylene




                                                   Urethane                 Bedding,
                                                    Foams                  Insulation


                              Toluene
                           Diisocyanate            Urethane
                                                                        Varnishes, Adhesives,
                                                   Coatings
                                                                              Sealants




                                                    Urethane            Footwear
                          Solvents                 Elastomers




                              Miscellaneous
Xylene Chain
                                                                       Plasticizer            Plastic
                                                                        D.O.P.               Products

                                                Phthalic
                                               Anhydride
                                                                        Alkyd
                                                                        Resins

                                                                                            Auto Parts,
                                              Solvents and                                   Coatings,
                        o-Xylene              Miscellaneous                                  Furniture




                                              Polyester                                  Foams,
                                               Polyol              Urethanes            Insulation




                                                                                                 TV
                                                   Dyes                 Alkyd
                                                                                                parts
                                                                        Resins
 Crude         Xylene   m-Xylene
  Oil
                                                 Isophthalic         Polyamide              Adhesives
                                                    Acid              Resins




                                                  Solvents

                                                                       Unsaturated Polyesters




                                                                         Polyester Fibers
                                                                           for Apparel,
                                                    Terephthalic
                                   p-Xylene                              PET Resins for
                                                       Acid/
                                                                             Bottles,
                                                     Dimethyl
                                                                          Tapes & Films
                                                   Terephthalate
The International Council of Chemical Associations
(ICCA) is the world-wide voice of the chemical industry,
representing chemical manufacturers and producers all over the
world. It accounts for more than 75 per cent of chemical
manufacturing operations with a production exceeding USD 1.6
trillion annually. Almost 30 percent of this production is traded
internationally. ICCA promotes and co-ordinates Responsible
Care and other voluntary chemical industry initiatives.

ICCA has a central role in the exchange of information within
the international industry, and in the development of position
statements on matters of policy. It is also the main channel of
communication between the industry and various international
organizations that are concerned with health, environment and
trade-related issues, including the United Nations Environment
Programme (UNEP), the World Trade Organization (WTO) and
the Organisation for Economic Co-operation & Development
(OECD).

				
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