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THE GLOBAL ORIGINS OF ATLANTIC S

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					            Mapping the Beat: A Geography through Music Curriculum

                                  ArtsBridge America
            Center for Learning through the Arts and Technology, UC Irvine
                Funded by National Geographic Education Foundation

This curriculum unit for Mapping the Beat: A Geography through Music Curriculum
was developed by the ArtsBridge America program at the University of California, San
Diego with support from a grant from the National Geographic Education Foundation.
The original curriculum was compiled by Dr. Nina Eidsheim and William Boyer (2002).
The extended unit below was created by Dr. Timothy Keirn and the ArtsBridge America
program at the California State University, Long Beach (2009). Music Extension and
classroom worksheets created by Sarah Tochiki, Lawrence University ArtsBridge scholar
(2006). Curriculum complied by Jasmine Yep for the UCI Center for Learning through
the Arts and Technology.

Other on-line resources, videos and lesson plans complied by the UC Irvine Center for
Learning through the Arts and Technology are available at: http://www.clat.uci.edu/.


LESSON: THE GLOBAL ORIGINS OF ATLANTIC SLAVERY AND THE
AFRICAN DIASPORA

Included in this document are:
      Part I: Lesson
      Part II: Music Extension
      Part II: On-line Resources for use with Lesson
      Part III: Supporting Materials
      Part IV: Classroom Handouts, Worksheets and Visuals


PART I: LESSON
Mapping the Beat Fifth Grade Lesson:
The Global Origins of Atlantic Slavery and the African Diaspora

LESSON OBJECTIVE
To identify how characteristics of different physical and social environments placed
constraints on the creation of music among African Slaves in the United States and
recognize parallel changes in their own lives. Ideally a banjo player would be invited to
perform as part of this lesson.

STANDARDS ADDRESSED

National Geography Standards
Standard 4: The physical and human characteristics of places.
How: Students identify and compare the music of Africa with that of the American South
at the time of slavery.

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                                     Center for Learning through the Arts & Technology (2010)
Standard 9: The characteristics, distribution and migration of human populations on
earth's surface.
How: Students describe how African slaves influenced the music of the American South
as well as how the forced migration of
slavery changed the culture of African Americans.

California Content Standards for Music - 5th grade
Standard 3.4: Describe the influences of various cultures and historical events on
musical forms and styles.
How: Students learn how the banjo evolved from the African ngoni as a result of the
Atlantic Slave Trade.

California History-Social Science Standards
Standard 5.4: Students understand the political, religious, social and economic
institutions that evolved in the colonial era.

Standard 5.46: Describe the introduction of slavery into America, the responses of slave
families to their condition, the ongoing struggle between proponents and opponents of
slavery, and the gradual institutionalization of slavery in the South.


TEACHER PREP
 Prepare listening samples of ngoni and bango (either have internet downloads ready to
play or obtain CDs)
 Arrange for a guest performer who plays either ngoni or banjo.

MATERIALS NEEDED
Lined paper for writing assignment
Pencils
Picture/Image of Ngoni
Map of Atlantic Slave Trade
Map of North America and the World
Maps 1, 2, 3
Charts 1, 2
CD samples of ngoni and banjo music (See Suggested Listening)
CD player

VOCABULARY
If you are teaching the whole Mapping the Beat unit, you may want to keep a chart of
vocabulary up in the classroom or have students write the words and definitions in a
portfolio.

Adapt- To change purpose or function to better meet the demands of one surroundings.
Ngoni -A stringed instrument and the African ancestor of the banjo.
Banjo- A stringed instrument invented in the United States by African slaves.


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                                    Center for Learning through the Arts & Technology (2010)
LESSON PLAN SEQUENCE


DAY ONE

1. VOCABULARY – DEFINE THE FOLLOWING TERMS

     Migration

     Involuntary

     Plantation

     Indentured Servant

     Slave

2. FIND WESTERN AFRICA ON MAP 1 AND EXAMINE THE PICTURE OF
THE NGONI

     What is the instrument made of? What other instruments do they use?

     Play examples of West African music – King Sunny Ade “Samba/E Falaba Lewe”

     Who brought stringed instruments to West Africa? How?

     Trace on MAP 1 the movement of stringed instruments from the Arab Middle
      East across the Sahara via the camel caravan routes to West Africa

3. AFRICANS CAME MAINLY AS SLAVES TO THE FOLLOWING ENGLISH
PLANTATION COLONIES. LOCATE THEM ON MAP 2 – WHAT WAS THE
MAIN CROP GROWN IN EACH COLONY?

     The West Indies Colonies (Barbados, Jamaica, Leeward Island)

     The Chesapeake Colonies (Virginia and Maryland)

     South Carolina

4. MOST AFRICANS WHO CAME TO THE AMERICAS WERE ENSLAVED TO
WORK ON SUGAR PLANTATIONS

     Why was sugar so popular in Europe?

     Trace on MAP 2 the movement of sugar planting from India to the Americas


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                                  Center for Learning through the Arts & Technology (2010)
      What climate do you need to grow sugar? Mark on MAP 2 where sugar
       plantations were started.


5. LOOK AT THE PICTURES OF THE SUGAR PLANTATIONS – WAS SUGAR
CHEAP OR EXPENSIVE TO PRODUCE? WHY?


6. WHY WOULD ENGLISH WORKERS OR SERVANTS NOT WORK ON
SUGAR PLANTATION?


7. WHY DID THE USE OF NATIVE AMERICAN SLAVES ON PLANTATIONS
NOT WORK?


8. SO WHY DID THE ENGLISH USE AFRICAN SLAVES?


9. HOW DID THE ENGLISH ENFORCE SLAVERY? WHAT WERE THE
SLAVE CODES?


10. WHY DID TOBACCO PLANTERS IN THE CHESAPEAKE SWITCH FROM
SERVANTS TO AFRICAN SLAVES?


11. WHY DID THE SOUTH CAROLINA RICE PLANTERS ALWAYS USE
AFRICAN SLAVES?


12. LOOKING AT MAP 3 AND CHART 1 -- WHERE DID MOST AFRICANS
GO IN THE AMERICAS? WHAT PERCENTAGE WENT TO WHAT IS NOW
THE USA?


13. LOOK AT CHART 2 -- DID MORE AFRICANS OR EUROPEANS COME TO
THE AMERICAS BY 1760?


14. WHAT CULTURE AND TECHNOLOGY DID AFRICANS BRING TO
AMERICA?

Finish lesson with contemporary music from the West Indies – Bob Marley “Jammin”




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                                 Center for Learning through the Arts & Technology (2010)
DAY TWO

Vocabulary

       Adapt- To change purpose or function to better meet the demands of one
       surroundings.

       Ngoni -A stringed instrument and the African ancestor of the banjo.

       Banjo- A stringed instrument invented in the United States by African slaves.


Show overhead of Atlantic Slave Trade Routes on MAP 3 and ask students to
identify and name the coastal African countries from which the slaves were being
shipped on the wall map.

For these slaves, music and entertainment provided a rare respite from the harshness of
slavery. Because many societies in Africa used drums to communicate, drums were
banned on plantations.

Ask students to identify reasons why slave owners would ban drums?
       Answer: If slaves were allowed to communicate in code they might organize
       escapes.

Have student suggest ways in which one could communicate with drums.

       String instruments were not banned. Musicians from African built instruments
       similar to those that were taken from them before they were sold as slaves.

Show overhead of man playing ngoni.

       The ngoni, from Mali, is built from a hollowed out piece of wood, covered with a
       cowhide head, much like the head of a drum. A ngoni is strung with 4 to 8 strings,
       once made from animal gut but now frequently made with fishing line.

Play sample of ngoni:
       http://www.coraconnection.com/pages/ngoni.html (online sample of ngoni)
       or
       Tunga, [sound recording] by Mamadou Diabete.

       When the slaves from Mali arrived they did not have their instruments from
       Africa or access to the natural resources used to build their African instruments.

       So they had to invent new instruments with the natural resources of the American
       south. The banjo is one of those instruments. The first banjos were built out of
       dried, hollow calabashes. The calabash gourds were cut in half and an animal skin


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                                     Center for Learning through the Arts & Technology (2010)
       was stretched across the hole. Then a neck and strings were attached. Later banjos
       were built out of wood, like the ngoni. Historians have offered guesses as to how
       the first banjos were played. Most agree that they were played similarly to how
       the ngoni were played (and are still played today).

Play sample of banjo music:
       http://www.drhorsehair.com/recordings.html
       or
       Civil War Banjo, [sound recording] by Bob Flesher. Recorded at Reel to Real
       Recording Studios, Stockbridge, GA; 1992.

Discussion Questions:
    How do the banjo and ngoni sound similar?
    In what ways do they sound different?
    Why might the African slaves have chosen calabash gourds to built the first
       banjos from given that the ngoni was made out of wood?

       Possible Answers:
        Wood was more difficult to attain than the gourds.
        Slaves did not have tools to hollow out the wood because they could not bring
          any belongings from Africa.
        It was more time consuming to build the instruments out of the wood and they
          did not have much leisure time as slaves.


40 min Project Description

In small groups have students discuss the vast cultural change that was forced upon the
African slaves as a result of the Atlantic Slave Trade. Music was obviously only one
aspect of their lives that changed. Encourage students to consider how language, diet,
health, families, housing, clothing, religion, etc would have changed in moving to the
America. What changes were forced by a new social/political environment? What
changes were forced by a new geographical environment?

Bring class back together and have each group share what came out in their
discussions.

Then have each student write about a time when he or she had to move and leave
something behind. Perhaps it is as simple as moving to a new classroom or as big as
moving to a new country. The students can focus on one aspect of the story. For example,
the students could find an example of how movement has changed some aspect of their
own life (language, food, clothing, environment, weather). And they should explain what
they did to adapt to the change. It might be helpful if the teacher has written an
example story of his /her own before class and reads it to the class.




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                                    Center for Learning through the Arts & Technology (2010)
5-10 min Wrap up

Review vocabulary

Discussion Question:
    How did forced migration change African culture in America?

       Possible Answers:
        Loss of possessions
        Loss of instruments
        New instruments were made
        Loss of communications means
        Students will likely have more ideas.


ASSESSMENT
Review writing assignment for students’ comprehension of adaptation to a new
environment.

SELECTING A GUEST PERFORMER
Select a banjo player who can speak about the roots of banjo music in the United States.
Someone who could involve the students in a music making experience would be ideal. It
is probably not likely that the students would be able to play the banjo, but they could
sing along to a traditional banjo folk song or clap a rhythm. Invite your guest to share
his/her personal story relating the banjo. How did he/she come to play?; to own their
instrument?; how ling has he/she been playing the banjo?

SUGGESTED LISTENING
 “Samba/E Falaba Lewe” by King Sunny Ade. From the album Juju Music.
  http://itunes.apple.com/us/album/juju-music/id340558
 Contemporary music from the West Indies (suggestion: “Jammin” by Bob Marley)
 Sample of banjo music:
      http://www.drhorsehair.com/recordings.html
      or
      Civil War Banjo, Bob Flesher. Recorded at Reel to Real Recording Studios,
      Stockbridge, GA; 1992.
 Sample of ngoni:
      http://www.coraconnection.com/pages/ngoni.html (online sample of ngoni)
      or
      Tunga, [sound recording] by Mamadou Diabete. Available online at:
      http://www.coraconnection.com/pages/artist_profiles_fs.html




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                                    Center for Learning through the Arts & Technology (2010)
PART II: MUSIC EXTENSION

DAY 3

Lesson: The Ngoni, the Banjo and the Atlantic Slave Trade

This ArtsBridge America lesson was developed in conjunction with unit lessons in
Mapping the Beat: A Geography through Music Curriculum suitable for fifth grade.
This lesson was developed by Sarah Tochiki (Lawrence University ArtsBridge scholar,
2006-2007) with support from Matt Bonson (fifth grade host teacher), Phillip Swan
(ArtsBridge faculty mentor) and Jasmine Yep (ArtsBridge director).

Activity 1: African Drumming Ensemble

Learning Objectives:
 Students will be able to recreate a West African drumming ensemble.
 Students will know a little about the culture the African slaves came from.
 Students will understand why slaves were not allowed to play drums.

Vocabulary:
Ensemble- a group of musicians playing or singing together.
Solo- a musical composition or a passage in a musical composition written for
performance by one singer or instrumentalist.
Stereotype- oversimplified standardized image of a group of people, held by another
person or group of people.

Sequence of Instruction:
Read any “Anansi the Spider” story to the kids. Talk about how they are going to learn a
West African drumming ensemble written in honor of the spider.

Activity: African Drumming Ensemble
 Using the preprinted cards, teach the students how to read the music. Teach the
    different parts and have them come up with different sounds to help imitate what the
    instruments sound like.
 Give them actual instruments and rotate the students on each part. After they have
    done this, let them improvise their own drumming ensemble, each coming up with a
    different rhythm using 1-8.

Supporting Materials and Documents:
MTB_AtlanticSlaveTrade_Worksheet_MapWorksheet
MTB_AtlanticSlaveTrade_Worksheet_DrumEnsembleMusicActivity
MTB_AtlanticSlaveTrade_Worksheet_DrumEnsembleMusicCards
MTB_AtlanticSlaveTrade_Worksheet_ListeningJournal



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                                    Center for Learning through the Arts & Technology (2010)
Activity 2: Make your own Banjos

Learning Objectives:
 Students will be able to recognize the various parts of the banjo.
 Students will know the history of the banjo and the process the slaves had to go
   through to make their banjos.
 Students will understand the process of making a banjo.

Vocabulary:
Slave trade- the transportation of slaves from Africa to North and South America
between the seventeenth and nineteenth centuries.
Banjo- a stringed instrument invented in the United States by African slaves.
Ngoni- a stringed instrument and the African ancestor of the banjo.

Prep:
 Acquire materials needed to make the banjos: paper core and cardboard, sticks or 18
   inch long pieces of molding, screws and wing nuts, fishing line or RexLace, thick
   shower curtain, electrical tape, and triangle lengths of balsa wood in two sizes.
 Cut a hole in the top of the paper core.
 Cut the balsa wood into 1.5 inch lengths.
 Cut shower curtains or similar material into 6 inch by 10 inch rectangles.
 Drill holes into the end of the sticks.

Sequence of Instruction:
 Students complete the first page of the worksheet. Review the answers as a class.
 Discuss the banjo making process. Pass out the materials to make the banjos.

Activity: Make your own banjos
 Students draw a design for the body of their banjo.
 Students sand the neck and edges of their paper core.
 Glue the design to the back of the body.
 Have the students tie a knot at the end of their strings and tape these strings to the end
    of their stick on the side that does not have the hole drilled into it.
 Trace the ends of the paper core on the pieces of cardboard and have them cut out the
    circles. Glue these on to the ends of the paper core. When dry, trace the stick on the
    straight edge of the cardboard circles section and trim the sides. Bend the flaps of
    cardboard and glue the stick to it with the strings facing downward.
 Tape the shower curtain tightly over the paper core with electrical tape.
 Lightly screw on the screw and wing nut.
 Glue the skinny balsa wood to the end by the screws. Glue the fat balsa wood in the
    middle of the shower curtain.
 String the strings tightly around the screws.

Supporting Materials and Documents:
MTB_AtlanticSlaveTrade_Worksheet_BanjoNgoniWorksheet

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                                     Center for Learning through the Arts & Technology (2010)
PART III: ON-LINE RESOURCES FOR USE WITH LESSON
Suggested Listening

   “Samba/E Falaba Lewe” by King Sunny Ade. From the album Juju Music.
    http://itunes.apple.com/us/album/juju-music/id340558

   Contemporary music from the West Indies (suggestion: “Jammin” by Bob Marley)

   Sample of banjo music:
       http://www.drhorsehair.com/recordings.html
       or
       Civil War Banjo, Bob Flesher. Recorded at Reel to Real Recording Studios,
       Stockbridge, GA; 1992.

   Sample of ngoni:
       http://www.coraconnection.com/pages/ngoni.html (online sample of ngoni)
       or
       Tunga, [sound recording] by Mamadou Diabete. Available online at:
       http://www.coraconnection.com/pages/artist_profiles_fs.html

   Mali music on Nat Geo Music (online samples)
    http://worldmusic.nationalgeographic.com/worldmusic/view/page.basic/country/conte
    nt.country/mali_7


PART II: Additional Worksheets for the Mapping the Beat Music Extension

Map Worksheet
MTB_AtlanticSlaveTrade_Worksheet_MapWorksheet.doc

Drumming Ensemble Music Activity
MTB_AtlanticSlaveTrade_Worksheet_DrumEnsembleMusicActivity.doc
MTB_AtlanticSlaveTrade_Worksheet_DrumEnsembleMusicCards.doc

Listening Activity
MTB_AtlanticSlaveTrade_Worksheet_ListeningJournal,doc

Atlantic Slave Trade Lesson Worksheet: Banjo and Ngoni Worksheet
MTB_AtlanticSlaveTrade_Worksheet_BanjoNgoniWorksheet.doc




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                                   Center for Learning through the Arts & Technology (2010)
PART IV: SUPPORTING MATERIALS

Additional Mapping the Beat Lessons, Activities and Resources
 Powerpoint Presentation for Educators
  Introduction to African Rhythms: Music & Culture of Mali
  http://www.clta.uci.edu/documents/MusicCultureofMali.ppt
 Picture/image of ngoni
  http://www.clta.uci.edu/Ngoni/ManPlayingNgoni.pdf
 Map of Atlantic Slave Trade
  http://www.clta.uci.edu/Ngoni/MapOfAtlanticSlaveTrade.pdf


On-line Sources/References for Educators
 National Geographic Xpeditions Atlas: Maps and Activities
  http://www.nationalgeographic.com/resources/ngo/education/xpeditions/atlas/
 British History 1700-1930: The Slave Trade
  http://www.spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk/slavery.htm
 Congo Square: Keeping the African Beat Alive. Thomas L Morgan, 1992, 2000.
  http://jass.com/congo.html
 The Banjo, Our American Heritage
  http://www.drhorsehair.com/history.html
 The ngoni, a plucked lute from West Africa
  http://www.coraconnection.com/pages/ngoni.html
 Ama, A Story of the Atlantic Slave Trade
  http://www.ama.africatoday.com/


Information on the History of Sugar
Plant Cultures: Sugar cane – and the slave trade
http://www.plantcultures.org/plants/sugar_cane_history_slave_trade.html

Plant Cultures: Sugar can – early origins and spread
http://www.plantcultures.org/plants/sugar_cane_history_early_origins_and_spread.html


Information on the History of Tobacco
Tobacco Timeline: The Seventeenth Century
http://www.tobacco.org/resources/history/Tobacco_History17.html

History of Tobacco
http://academic.udayton.edu/health/syllabi/tobacco/history.htm




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                                    Center for Learning through the Arts & Technology (2010)
 PART V: CLASSROOM HANDOUTS, WORKSHEETS & VISUALS
Select resources are attached to this lesson plan. Please refer to the resources provided in
Part II and III for additional materials.

Mapping the Beat materials available on-line at www.clat.uci.edu.

 Picture/image of ngoni
http://www.clta.uci.edu/Ngoni/ManPlayingNgoni.pdf

 Map of Atlantic Slave Trade
http://www.clta.uci.edu/Ngoni/MapOfAtlanticSlaveTrade.pdf

 Map of United States of America (Detailed)
http://www.nationalgeographic.com/resources/ngo/education/xpeditions/atlas/index.html
?Parent=usofam&Rootmap=&Mode=d&SubMode=w

 Map of United States of America (Blank)
http://www.nationalgeographic.com/resources/ngo/education/xpeditions/atlas/index.html
?Parent=usofam&Rootmap=&Mode=b&SubMode=w

 Blank Map of Africa
http://www.nationalgeographic.com/xpeditions/atlas/index.html?Parent=africa&Mode=b

 Map 1: Blank World Map or Detailed World Map
Blank World Map
http://www.nationalgeographic.com/resources/ngo/education/xpeditions/atlas/index.html
?Parent=world&Mode=d&SubMode=

Detailed World Map
http://www.nationalgeographic.com/resources/ngo/education/xpeditions/atlas/index.html
?Parent=world&Mode=b&SubMode=w

 Map 2: First Settlements on Eastern Coast of North America
http://www.earlyamerica.com/earlyamerica/maps/settlements/

 Map 3: Atlantic Slave Trade Routes
http://www.clta.uci.edu/Ngoni/MapOfAtlanticSlaveTrade.pdf

 Blank map of the British Colonies in North America, c. 1750
http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:British_Colonies_in_North_America_c1750_v2
.png

 Map of the British Empire
http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:The_British_Empire.png


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                                      Center for Learning through the Arts & Technology (2010)
Source: New York Life’s, Slavery in America website at http://www.slaveryinamerica.org/geography/slave_trade.htm



    MTB Overhead




                                                                                                                   43
Source: http://www.swt.edu/anthropology/mansa/images/image17.jpg




           MTB Overhead




                                                                   44
                    British Colonies in North America, c. 1750




The numbers represent the following:

1: Newfoundland
2: Nova Scotia
3: The Thirteen Colonies
4:Bermuda
5: Bahamas
6: British Honduras
7: Jamaica
8: Lesser Antilles


http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:British_Colonies_in_North_America_c1750_v2.png
                 The British Empire




Current British overseas territories are underlined in red.

http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:The_British_Empire.png
                                              Name:__________________

Answer the following questions using the map below.
What was the main industry in the South?
_____________________________

How many slaves were brought to America?
_____________________________

Where did the most slaves go to?
_____________________________

Which part of Africa did the slaves leave from?
_____________________________

What is the name of the ocean the slaves traveled on?
_____________________________




Mapping the Beat: The Ngoni, the Banjo and the Atlantic Slave Trade
Map Worksheet
          Anansi
                  Claves
                12345678
                Gankogui
         (like a cow bell)
             12345678                                    Anansi is the name of a
            L*H*HH*H                                      spider often found in
           Medium Drum                                   West African folk tales.
               12345678
                  Donno
              (softly)
             12345678
             HLMLHLML
               Low Drum
               12345678
                 Axatse
          (gourd shaker)
             12345678
            DUD*DUD*



Mapping the Beat: The Ngoni, the Banjo and the Atlantic Slave Trade
Anansi: Drumming Ensemble Music Activity
                                         Claves


Mapping the Beat: The Ngoni, the Banjo and the Atlantic Slave Trade
Anansi: Drumming Ensemble Music Cards
                            Gankogui
                                                (like a cow bell)




                            2 4                                       7
Mapping the Beat: The Ngoni, the Banjo and the Atlantic Slave Trade
Anansi: Drumming Ensemble Music Cards
                            *                           *             *
       Medium Drum

Mapping the Beat: The Ngoni, the Banjo and the Atlantic Slave Trade
Anansi: Drumming Ensemble Music Cards
Mapping the Beat: The Ngoni, the Banjo and the Atlantic Slave Trade
Anansi: Drumming Ensemble Music Cards
                                         Donno
                                                         (softly)




Mapping the Beat: The Ngoni, the Banjo and the Atlantic Slave Trade
Anansi: Drumming Ensemble Music Cards
                        Low Drum
                                                             4        8
Mapping the Beat: The Ngoni, the Banjo and the Atlantic Slave Trade
Anansi: Drumming Ensemble Music Cards
                                          Axatse
                                                  (gourd shaker)




Mapping the Beat: The Ngoni, the Banjo and the Atlantic Slave Trade
Anansi: Drumming Ensemble Music Cards
                                                             4            8
                                                               *      *

Mapping the Beat: The Ngoni, the Banjo and the Atlantic Slave Trade
Anansi: Drumming Ensemble Music Cards
                                          Name



                     Listening Journal
Music Title: ____________                  Ngoni__________________

Choose one from each row:

                             fast         or       slow
                             loud         or       soft
                            smooth        or      rough
                              happy       or       sad

Write down three words to describe the sound of the instrument:
_________________________________________________
_________________________________________________
_________________________________________________

**********************************************************

Music Title: _____________                 Banjo_________________

Choose one from each row:

                             fast         or       slow
                             loud         or       soft
                            smooth        or      rough
                              happy       or       sad

Write down three words to describe the sound of the instrument:
_________________________________________________
_________________________________________________
_________________________________________________


Mapping the Beat: The Ngoni, the Banjo and the Atlantic Slave Trade
Listening Journal
                           Name:_____________________________

You will turn this sheet in at the end of class. Use this
worksheet to help you make your own banjo.

The picture with the scary man is a picture of a gourd banjo, a
more modern version on the ngoni. The other picture is a picture
of an ngoni. Name 2 similarities and 2 differences:




Similarities:                                     Differences:
1)____________________                           1)___________________
2)___________________                            2)___________________

Draw a line from the words in the boxes to that part of the
instrument in the picture:


     Parts:
     Neck                                                         Natural
     Body                                                         Resources:
     Bridge                                                       Fish guts
     Pegs                                                         Wood
     Strings                                                      Leather
     Tail Piece                                                   Gourd
     Resonator-
     Cover




Mapping the Beat: The Ngoni, the Banjo and the Atlantic Slave Trade            1
Banjo and Ngoni Worksheet
                           Name:_____________________________


Match the man-made material we will use for our banjos with the
natural resource they used to make earlier banjos:

Gourd                                         Plastic String

Neck Wood                                     Wood Molding

Pegs                                          Nuts and bolts

Fish Guts                                     Shower Curtains

Leather                                       Paper Core and Cardboard




Order the steps we will use when we make our banjos:

_____Glue cardboard circles to the sides of paper core

_____Decorate paper core

_____Tie strings onto neck

_____Attach the bridge

_____Glue the neck onto the body

_____Stretch shower curtain over the body and attach

_____Screw on pegs



Mapping the Beat: The Ngoni, the Banjo and the Atlantic Slave Trade      2
Banjo and Ngoni Worksheet

				
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