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					          Petroleum™
Renewable Petroleum Products and Technology

               Steve del Cardayre
                      LS9 Inc
                      LS9, Inc.
               South San Francisco, CA

            Synthetic Biology Webinar
                February 27, 2009




                         -1-
Petroleum Dependence

Ink Dishwashing liquids Paint brushes Telephones Toys Unbreakable dishes Insecticides
                                              g                             y
Antiseptics Dolls Car sound insulation Fishing lures Deodorant Tires Motorcycle helmets
Linoleum Sweaters Tents Refrigerator linings Paint rollers Floor wax Shoes Electrician's tape
Plastic wood Model car Glue Roller-skate wheels Trash bags Soap dishes Skis
Permanent press clothes Hand lotion Clothesline Dyes Soft contact lenses Shampoo Panty hose
Cameras Food preservatives Fishing rods Oil filters Combs Transparent tape Anesthetics
Upholstery Dice Disposable diapers TV cabinets Mops Sports car bodies Salad bowls House paint
Purses Electric blankets Awnings Ammonia Dresses Car battery cases Safety glass Hair curlers
Pajamas Synthetic rubber DVDs Eyeglasses Pillows Vitamin capsules Movie film Ice chests
Candles Rubbing alcohol Loudspeakers Ice buckets Boats Ice cube trays Credit cards Fertilizers
Crayons Insect repellent Water pipes Toilet seats Caulking Roofing shingles Fishing boots
Life jackets Balloons Shower curtains Garden hose Golf balls Curtains Plywood adhesive
Umbrellas Detergents Milk jugs Beach umbrellas Rubber cement Sun glasses Putty
Faucet washers C ld cream B d
F      t    h    Cold                   Tool    k Antihistamines H i coloring N il polish Sl k
                             Bandages T l racks A tihi t i        Hair l i Nail li h Slacks
Drinking cups Guitar strings False teeth Yarn Petroleum jelly Toothpaste Golf bag Roofing
Tennis rackets Toothbrushes Perfume Luggage Wire insulation Folding doors Shoe polish
Fan belts Ballpoint pens Shower doors Cortisone Carpeting Artificial turf Heart valves CD’s
Lipstick Artificial limbs Hearing aids Vaporizers Aspirin Shaving cream Wading pools Parachutes
Road Asphalt Running shoes Tires Wax paper Insulation Anti-Freeze

                                              -2-
 Petroleum Products Market (US)
                                                                                                                                 Other Finished       NGLs &
                                                                                        Vehicle Fuels
                                                                                                                                  Petrol Prods         LRGs
     100%                                                                                       (10.9%)
                                                                                      Jet Fuel (10 9%)
                                                                                                                                  Kerosene & Other
                                                                                                                                                       Other
                                                                                                                                 L bi    t    Waxes
                                                                                                                                 Lubricants & W
                                                                                    [25.2 billion gallons]                                            (10.2%)
                                                                                                                                 Petroleum Coke
                                                                         Diesel                                                      (15.5%)
                                                                         • Highest demand
                                                                        Distillate Fuel Oil (Diesel) (27.8%)
                                                                                                                                                       Ethane
                                                                                                                                                          &
                                                                         • Fastestbillion gallons]
                                                                                 [64.0 g
                                                                                 [64 0 growing    g                                 Asphalt &
                                                                                                                                    Road Oil          Eth l
                                                                                                                                                      Ethylene
                                                                         • Simplest specification
                                                                                                                                     (15.2%)          (33.2%)
                                                                         • Existing infrastructure
                                                                         • What the planet needs!
                                                                                                                                     Still Gas
   Market
                                                                                                                                     (
                                                                                                                                     (21.3%) )
   Share


                                                                                                                                  Petrochemical        Propane
                                                                         Finished Motor Gasoline (61.4%)
                                                                                                                                   Feedstocks             &
                                                                               [141.5 billion gallons]                               (21.7%)          Propylene
                                                                                                                                                      (56.6%)

                                                                                                                                   Residential
                                                                                                                                    Fuel Oil
                                                                                                                                                                   Other
                                                                                                                                    (20.4%)                        Liquids


       0%
                                                                                               73.3%                                 16.2%             10.4%      0.2%

                         0%                                                                                     Industry Share                             100%
2006 Total U.S. Consumption of Petroleum Products = 7,497,246,000 barrels or 314.9 billion gallons
Source: Energy Information Administration (http://tonto.eia.doe.gov/dnav/pet/pet_cons_psup_dc_nus_mbbl_m.htm)      -3-
LS9 Products and Technology

• Microrefinery™ Catalysts: all chemical conversions in a single catalyst
• Processes: single step, biphasic, high yield.
• Products: fuels and chemicals
                                                           Renewable PetroleumTM
                                                           Products
                                                           - Fuels
                                               Organic
                                                           - Chemicals
Synthetic biology                              (fuel)


             Microrefinery™ Catalyst
                                               Aqueous
                                               (sugar)

                         Diverse                                  Single
                         Renewable                       Microbial transformation
                         Feedstocks                           sugar to fuel




                                       -4-
Modularity of Biological Systems

Components of a gene
                   When       How Much      Where            Function

     DNA


        Software Engineering Paradigm                             Synthetic Biology Paradigm


                                Computer Program                                      Synthetic Microbe




      File Input                         File Output         Feedstock                           Secretion
       Module           Data               Module            Processing      Chemical             Genes
                    Transformation                             Genes      Transformation
                       Modules                                                Genes



 •   Synthetic biology enables “plug and play” approach to cellular design
 •   For each necessary operation, we can “plug in” the appropriate genes
                                                       -5-
Synthetic Biology

•   State of the art of molecular biology
     –   HTP sequencing – fast and inexpensive
     –   DNA synthesis – fast, inexpensive, and larger constructs
     –   Genome modification – precise, rapid, and combinatorial
     –   Systems biolog    genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics,
         S stems biology – genomics transcriptomics proteomics metabolomics


•   Implications
     – Design precision has increased
     – Design scope has increased from the gene level to the genome level
     – Many more hypothesis can be evaluated in a shorter period of time for a
                       cost
       fraction of the cost.
     – New “parts” or “modules” are being designed and evaluated.
     – The path from concept to product is clearer and of lower risk.

     System design is becoming the limiting factor as opposed to system
       construction.
                                        -6-
LS9 Fatty Acid Technology:
Engineering Biological Hydrocarbons
  g       g      g      y

    ACP

     S
O




                                              productivity.
          • Primary metabolism: natural high productivity
          • Precedent for high level production.
          • Biochemistry well understood, controllable.
            Metabolic    d l 90%           ti ffi i
          • M t b li model: >90% energetic efficiency.
          • Immiscible

          Ideal pathway for the production of fuels and chemicals
                                  -7-
Renewable Petroleum™
Products and Technology
      Glucose


                                Malonyl CoA

       Pyruvate
                               Fatty Acyl ACP                   Lipids, etc.
                                         LS9 Synthetic Pathways
      Acetyl CoA
                                LS9 Products

                   O
                                                                    O


                       OH
                              Acids       Esters
                                                                        OR
                   O                                        O

                            Aldehydes Ketones
                       H



                       OH   Alcohols     Olefins

                             Alkanes - 8 -α−Olefins
Designer Biofuels and Chemicals:
Fit for Purpose

   Structural and functional            Precise product composition and
    diversity controlled b
    di     it     t ll d by                 performance engineered
       individual genes                  genetically for specific end use
                               O


                         n         R
                               O
                                             Volatility                          Cloud point

                         n         R
                               O


                         n         R
                               O                          Synthetic operon                       Designer
                                                                                               Biofuels and
                                                            Microrefinery™ Catalyst             Chemicals
                         n         R
                               O


                         n         R
                               O

                                             Cetane                              Flashpoint
                         n         R



                                       -9-
Optimization

•   Today faster than ever:
         –       Genetic engineering            Raw Material
         –       Process engineering
         –
         –
                 Rational
                 Stochastic                       X X
         –
         –
                 Combinatorial
                 High Throughput
                                                  X
                                                  X         X
    Diesel g/L
           g




                                                  Product
                        Time (h)

                                       - 10 -
Fermentation: 1 step production




                                                                  L)
                                                       Product (g/L
                     OD
                                    (hr)
                               Time ( )
                               OD          [Product]


                                              Cells



                                       Fuel
                      - 11 -
Simple Recovery




          Sugar   Culture       Centrifuged   Fuel
                                 Culture


                       - 12 -
Synthetic Biology in Action
LS9’s UltraClean™ Diesel



Synthetic biology
                                                                                           Diesel
                                                                                           Di   l



   Microrefinery™ Catalyst


                                                        Light Phase             2nd pass                            UltraClean™ Diesel
                                                                                                                       Vehicle Ready




                                                                                                    Water recycle
                                            1st Stage           Water recycle




GREET Model for farm to wheels sugar cane derived
UltraClean™ Diesel: >75% reduction in GHG emissions
relative to petroleum derived diesel.
                                                  - 13 -
Questions?


    - 14 -

				
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