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World War II – The Home Front

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					World War II – The Home
        Front
           Judy Sharman
       Gettys Middle School
 8th Grade English Language Arts
                Patriotism
• After Pearl Harbor was bombed, Congress
  voted 470-1 to declare war.
• Americans were almost 100 percent behind
  the government and the war effort.
• US citizens bought 49 billion dollars in War
  Bonds to finance the war.
School Children Show Support for Country




              Children Stage a Patriotic Demonstration.
              Fenno Jacobs, photographer.
              May 1942.
Americans Bought $49 Billion in
         War Bonds




            Bethlehem Fairfield Shipyard.
            Arthur Siegel, photographer.
            May 1943.
 Women Entered the Workplace
   to Help with War Effort
• At first, industry hired only 80,000 women who
  applied for jobs.

• By 1944, women helped reduce the time needed to
  make a bomber from 200,000 hours to 13,000
  hours.
                Girl Power
• “Mrs. Irma McElroy
  paints an insignia on
  an airplane wing with
  patriotic zeal.”
• 3.5 million women
  stood by 6 million
  men in assembly lines

                          Mrs. Irma McElroy
                          Howard R. Hollem, photographer.
                          November 1942.
       The Salvage Campaign

• For the salvage
  campaign, people were
  asked to donate old
  scrap metal from their
  homes to be recycled
  into the war effort.
• Old books were sent to
  blitzed libraries and
  service men.
                           Annette del Sur.
                           Alfred T. Palmer, photographer.
                           October 1942.
       Scavenger Hunt
• Old radiators were used to make rifles.
• Tires were converted into gas masks.
• One old shovel helped make 4 hand
  grenades.
• Kids saved toothpaste tubes for the
  scrap metal drives.
      Vegetables for Victory
• In 1941 the Secretary of Agriculture
  made the suggestion that Americans
  plant Victory Gardens.
• All of the commercial farmers were
  busy growing food for the army.
• By 1943, Sunday farmers produced
  one third of all the fresh vegetables
  grown in the whole country.
                                     Victory Garden
                                                                      Americans who did not
                                                                       know a shovel from a
                                                                       hoe began planting in
                                                                       their own backyards.
                                                                       They also planted in
                                                                       places that ranged
                                                                       from zoos to race
                                                                       tracks.
New York, New York. Victory gardening on the Charles Schwab estate.
Howard R. Hollum, photographer.
                                      Rationing
                                                               • Almost everything
                                                                 Americans liked to eat
                                                                 was rationed: meat,
                                                                 coffee, butter, cheese,
                                                                 sugar.
                                                               • The average driver
                                                                 was limited to three
                                                                 gallons of gasoline a
                                                                 week.
Detroit, Michigan. Waiting in Line at Sugar Rationing Board.
Arthur S. Siegel, Photographer.
Spring 1942.
       Entertainment Industry
        Supported the War

• Hollywood made movies with soldier
  heroes.
• Song writers created popular war ballads.
• Superman declared 4-F because of X-ray
  vision. Worked for Red Cross during war.
  Joe Palooka Joined the Army
• Draft increased
• President
  Roosevelt
  thanked
  cartoonist.
• Other comic strip
characters also
became heroes.        Joe Palooka Comic Book #46.
                      Golden Age Comics 1940’s and 1950’s Vintage.
                          Bibliography
Hollem, Howard R. “Mrs. McElroy.” August 1942. American from the Great
Depression to World War II: Color Photographs from the FSA-OWI 1939-1942 from
the American Memory Collection.
{http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/fsowhome.html} November 10, 2001.

Jacobs, Fenno. “Children Stage a Patriotic Demonstration.” May 1942. American
from the Great Depression to World War II: Color Photographs from the FSA-OWI
1939-1942 from the American Memory Collection. [http://memory.loc.gov/cgi-
bin/query/D?fsaall:46./temp/~ammem_AVRu:] {fsac 1a35006} November 10, 2001.

Palmer, Alfred T. “Annette del Sur.” October 1942. American from the Great
Depression to World War II: Color Photographs from the FSA-OWI 1939-1942 from
the American Memory Collection.
[http://memory.loc.gov/cgi/bin/query/D?fsaall:303:./temp/~ammem_AVRu::] {fsac
1a35350} November 10, 2001.

Hollem, Howard R. “New York, New York Victory Gardening on the Charles Schwab
Estate.” June 1944. American from the Great Depression to World War II: Color
Photographs from the FSA-OWI 1939-1942 from the American Memory Collection.
[http://memory.loc.gov/cgi-bin/query/D?fsaall:28:./temp/~ammem_O0Rn:]
{fsac8d3544} November 10, 2001.
                       Bibliography
Siegel, Arthur G. “Bethlehem-Fairfield Shipyard, Baltimore Maryland. Worker with a War Bond.”
America from the Great Depression to World War II: Black and White Photographs from the FSA-OWI
1939-1942 from the American Memory Collection.
[http://memory.loc.gov/cgi-bin/query/D?fsaall:1:./temp/~ammem_Iys0::] {fsa 8d29137}
May 1943.
{fsa 8d29137}



Joe Palooka Comic Book #46. Golden Age Comics, 1940's and 1950's Vintage. 20 Nov. 2001.
<http://showcase.netins.net/web/ travelgenie/attic/comics.htm>.

				
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