Document Sample
					Special Topics in Crime

          Week 13
   Introduction/Overview
   The major dilemma in crime prevention
   Crime prevention in disadvantaged neighbourhoods
   Applying crime prevention to organized and white-collar
   Crime prevention for women
   Crime prevention for youth
   Crime prevention for schools
   The Major Dilemma in
     Crime Prevention

The neighbourhoods that are in the
    most need of crime prevention
   projects, are the ones that are
   most resistant to organizing and
        programs taking root
               Major Challenges
Major challenges facing crime prevention programs in
    disadvantaged neighbourhoods/social housing:

1)   Social – poverty, lack of ownership, transience, lack of
     belonging, heterogeneity (ethic, racial), low social
     interaction, low level of social cohesion, little informal
     social control

2)   Organizational – problems with program implementation:
     lack of leadership, few resources, poor/inappropriate
     outreach/communications, lack of integration with
     surrounding neighbourhoods

3)   Physical – Multi-residential environments (esp. high rises)
     encourage crime and discourage crime prevention
                         Case Studies
Crime Free Multi-Housing Program - Specifically designed to
    provide services to multi-residential (social housing)

Comprehensive - Attacks crime & disorder problems from many different
     angles (preventative & enforcement strategies).

Problem-oriented - Crime prevention strategies are tailored to the specific
      problems of the environment. Prior to program implementation, research
      and site assessment is conducted.

Manager and tenant involvement - The resident manager is an especially
     critical factor in the success of crime prevention programs in multi-
     residential properties.

Partnerships – Strong partnerships among police, security, & staff and
      residents of the multi-residential complex.
                       Case Studies
Crime Free Multi-Housing Program

   site assessments to identify the nature and scope of the problem
   development of site-specific crime prevention strategies
   training of building managers
   training and mobilization tenants
   promoting community, collective action programs
   training of security personnel in crime prevention & community policing
   security upgrades and design modifications
   screening managers and tenants
   identifying and helping to evict problem tenants
   implement as a formal program, including certificate/plaque for
    successful completion
                         Case Studies
Crime Free Multi-Housing Program: Training Resident

Orientation - The overall role of the property manager in keeping multi-
      residential properties safe, secure and healthy.

Tenant screening - Screening out potentially troublesome applicants, while
     assuring that honest applicants are encouraged to apply; how to identify
     potentially troublesome tenants; how to conduct a background check.

Eviction - Learn the eviction process and laws for that province. How to evict
       problem tenants without incident.
                  Specific Programs/
                     Case Studies
Crime Free Multi-Housing Program: Training Resident
    Managers (cont.)

Community-building - How to build a healthy livable community, within multi-
     residential complexes; training and organizing residents.

Criminal activity recognition - How to recognize suspicious people and activities
      (including drug trafficking, prostitution, gang problems).

Working with the Security/Special Constables/Police - How to maximize the
     manager‟s, owner‟s and tenants‟ working relationship with law

Security and maintenance - How to conduct ongoing security and maintenance
      checks of the property, the use of CPTED and security technology
           What Young People Need to Lead Crime-Free Lives

         Opportunities and responsibilities to go along with rights.
                           Meaningful things to do.
   Fair, clear, consistent and meaningful consequences for their actions
                            A life free from abuse
                     Both physical and emotional support.
                     Freedom from other types of harm
                       Accurate, complete information.
                             Positive role models
                       A voice in what happens to them
                     A chance to be part of the solution.

Source: NCPC (Canada). 1995. Clear Limits and Real Opportunities: The Keys
      to Preventing Youth Crimes. Ottawa: NCPC.
             Youth: Case Studies
Sosjale Joenits (The Netherlands)

   60 youth advisory centres (Sosjale Joenits) exist
   Offer advice & support to young people on matters
    relating to housing, employment, education, social
    security, substance abuse
   Target at-risk youth: runaways, unemployed, homeless
   Philosophy: help young people help themselves
   Emphasis: teach young people
       how to make decisions for themselves and live with the
       how to gain self-confidence and self-esteem
       how they are worthy in spite of their limitations and the
        difficulties they may face
            Youth: Case Studies
The Ete-Jeunes Program (France)

   Summer camps and activities for young people
   Wide range of activities: sporting and outward bound
    activities, discos, open-air film shows, theatre, etc.
   Objectives:
      1.   Remove young people from deleterious environments,
           while providing them with some form of supervision
      2.   Allow them to take part in activities which interest
           them and gave them a positive image of themselves and
           their society while protecting them (at least
           temporarily) from their deprived environment and
      3.   Give them some say in the design and implementation
           of activities.
      4.   Integrate marginalized and ethnic minority groups into
           „mainstream‟ social and sporting activities.
Organized Crime
   Traditional Enforcement

 State-sanctioned enforcement carried out by criminal
   justice agencies (little help solicited from public or other

 A reactive, situational, and tactical enforcement approach

 The unilateral operations of one enforcement agency
   exclusively within their jurisdictional boundaries

 The use of traditional investigative and interdiction

 A reliance on a retributive model of criminal sanctions, which
   stresses punishment and imprisonment.
      Non-Traditional Criminal
        Justice Approaches

 (Community) crime prevention

 Passive citizen participation: Information
  dissemination, awareness raising, hotlines

 Active citizen participation: Civic action groups, crime
  commissions, grand juries

 Community policing – key to developing “source
  intelligence” within communities
          Financial Services Sector
            Regulatory Agencies
United States: Federal Reserve Board
   Anti-money laundering program by regulatory agency
   Prevention and deterrent guidelines for banks
   Integrate money laundering prevention and BSA compliance into
    regulatory examinations
   Imposed strong penalties for non-compliance

Canada: Office of the Superintendent of Financial Institutions
   Policies and procedures (guidelines and best practices) to prevent and
    deter money laundering through banks
   No compliance measures
   Little action taken by other regulatory agencies, especially at provincial
Economic Crime
    Economic Crime Prevention

The best tools to combat consumer fraud is:

 Education of the Public!!

 Awareness Raising

 Information Dissemination
    Case Study: Fraud Prevention in
        Nassau County, Florida
In cooperation with seniors groups and the private sector, the police
   developed a multi-faceted strategy:

·   Increased education and information dissemination to the public (e.g.,
    info on latest scams printed on back of ATM receipts)

·   Training bank officials on the latest fraud techniques

·   Working with banks to detect fraud by developing a warning system
    that identifies practices inconsistent with client‟s banking history,

·   Educating police officers on all available resources to combat fraud,
    including the use of municipal laws and consumer affair regulations,

·   Encouraging seniors and others to use certified cheques, money orders,
    or wire transfers in lieu of large cash withdrawals, and