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					                CASE STUDY


Name: COL MOHAN LAL ASWAL



Title:   FIVE MILE



DS Guide:   BRIG VK YADAV,SC




         cdm
         college of defence management
            CASE STUDY - FIVE MILE

                             BY

              COL MOHAN LAL ASWAL

          DS GUIDE: BRIG VK YADAV,SC




            cdm
          college of defence management



A Case study submitted to College of Defence Management in
partial fulfillment of curriculum of Higher Defence Management
                  Course – 04 and MMS Degree.
                         DS COMMENTS


Name of Participant:       Col Mohan Lal Aswal

DS:     Brig VK Yadav,SC              Fac/Dept: BS

Subject:      Case study- FIVE MILE

Date-      15 Dec 2008
  6




CASE
NOTES
                                         7




                               CASE NOTES




Background


1.     The Indian Army is a unique institution. It has covered itself with glory
in the most trying of circumstances. The Army rests on the strong foundations,
esprit de corps and discipline. The CO is the most important entity, on whom,
the hopes and aspirations of the unit lie. He is a role model for his unit. The
unit responses reflect his leadership traits. However, every CO must realise
that the organisation he leads, will be more effective in achieving its goals, if
all the managerial processes involved in its running are implemented
effectively. To achieve this the commander must be flexible in his style of
leadership to suit to the given environment and the group of people he is
leading.

Relevance and Importance of the Case

2.     This case vividly brings out the importance of the right leadership style
in all situations. This is especially true when the unit is in the low self- esteem.
However, the CO is first a leader and then a manager. He should possess all
the intangible qualities of charisma and heroism to be effective. Concern for
the welfare and development of subordinates, need for a clear interpersonal
communication, motivation and creation of the right environment within an
organization are vital aspects for any organization to be effective.

Author’s Access

3.     The author was the Commanding Officer of the unit when the incident
referred in the case took place. All identities, and the locations mentioned in
the case have been changed for reasons of anonymity.
                                         8




Aim

4.     The aim of this case study is to highlight importance of leadership style,
the interplay between power, authority and responsibility, motivation, and the
creation of the right organisational climate for organisational effectiveness.

Conduct of The Case

5.     Suitability for Instruction.          The case relates to the style of
leadership in trying conditions. It is suitable for study by officers undergoing
Staff Course, HDMC and SDMC. This case study may be scheduled after the
capsules on Leadership, Communication, Motivation and Org Climate have
been conducted for course officers. The case should preferably be conducted
in groups of 25-30 officers.

6.     Methodology.            The suggested methodology for the conduct of the
case study is as follows: -

       (a)    The case be given to the participants two days in advance so
       that they can familiarise themselves with the events of the case in
       order to participate in the discussion meaningfully. One participant may
       be asked to prepare the milestones.

       (b)    Participants be asked to read the case aloud in the class,
       starting from the beginning and pausing in between from one event to
       another to take stock of happenings and their bearing on the
       management aspects. These aspects be noted down on the black
       board also by the Directing Staff.

       (c)    The session could culminate with the participants’ views on the
       ideal style of leadership that could have been followed in the unit in the
       given situation.
                                        9


7.     Time Plan.       The discussion of the case should be conducted in two
periods of 40 minutes each. General time frame for conduct of the case may
be as follows: -

      (a)      Introduction by DS                                   5 minutes

      (b)      Enumeration of milestones                            5 minutes

      (c)      Reading of the part case by participants             5 minutes

      (d)      Discussion on various management issues              25
               involved.                                            minutes

      (e)      Break                                                5 minutes

      (f)      Reading of the part case by participants             5 minutes

      (g)      Discussion on various management issues              25
               involved                                             minutes

      (h)      Summing up by DS                                     10
                                                                    minutes




Main Characters

8.     Main characters in this case study are as follows:-

       (a)    Maj Gen K Singh           - GOC 71 Mtn Div
       (b)    Brig RP Rana               - Dy GOC
       (c)    Col Shararat              - Outgoing CO
       (d)    Col Prakash                -Incoming CO
       (e)    Lt Co Good Man           - 2IC
       (f)    Maj A Sharma              - OIC HQ
       (g)     Lt F Khan                - Newly arrived women officer
       (h)    Lt Rita                   - Quarter Master
       (i)    Sub Pyara                 - Stocking wing I/C
       (j)    Sub Maj Tikka Ram         - Sub Maj
                                      10




Milestones

9.   The important milestones of this case study are enumerated as under:

     (a)     04 Mar 2005      -            Col Prakash takes over unit.
     (b)     08 Apr 2005       -           Corps Day Celebration
     (c)     12 Apr 2005       -           CO meets GOC
     (d)     22 May 2005       -           Water Problem Starts
     (e)     28 Sep 2006       -           Bus accident, Successful Rescue Op
     (f)     30 May 2007          -        CO Posted out
   11




 CASE

ANALYSIS
                                        12


                  CASE ANALYSIS: LEADERSHIP


1.     Leadership is the ability of a person to mobilise and direct the efforts of
his group members for solving the group problem. A leader, in order to
achieve results of a high order has to, not only manage resources available to
him effectively but also, influence his subordinates in such a way as to obtain
their willing obedience, confidence, respect and co-operation. Two relevant
approaches of leadership are discussed in succeeding paragraphs.

Functional Approach

2.     The term leadership is equated with the term leader. But leadership is
the result of the interaction of three main factors: the leader, the group and the
situation. No one has proved an effective leader in all types of situations; no
two groups are similar with regard to their background and exact
characteristics; and no two problematic situations are alike. Leadership,
therefore, is a function of leader’s ability and style, group members’ needs
and values, and demands of the situation. This aspect of leadership has been
explained with the help of a formula as given below.

     L eff = f (l, g, s) where,

     L eff = Leadership effectiveness

     f = function of

     I = leader g = group

     s = situation

3.     Some of the important characteristics of the leader, the group and the
situation, and their interrelations are discussed below.




                                        Leader




              Group                                         Situation


                       Figure 1: Leadership as a Dynamic Process
                                         13


Characteristics of the Leader

4.     Mental Ability.        It is necessary that a leader have more basic
intelligence than the average intelligence of his group.



5.     Courage.      It is the most important requirement of a military leader.
The courage of a man is correlated with his risk taking ability. The risk taking
ability is circumstantially determined and is situational related.



6.     Motivation.       This term refers to the inner desire of a person to do his
job better. A leader motivates the members of his group in two ways: first,
through personal example, and second, by providing them challenging tasks.



7.     Energy.       A military leader should be active and agile.



8.     Social Orientation.           A leader must achieve the objective of the
organization through the genuineness of his behaviour, personal example,
convincing arguments, mutual regard, courtesy or the combination of such
behavioural qualities.



9.     Maturity.     Maturity can be defined, as the capacity to set high but
obtainable goals (achievement motivation), willingness, and ability to take
responsibility.




Characteristics of the Group



10.    In the overall process of leadership, the group has three functions to
perform, that is, goal achievement, team maintenance, and at least partial
fulfillment of individual needs of the group members. The relatively more
                                          14


important characteristics of a group are discussed in the succeeding
paragraphs.



11.    Understanding of Goal. Higher the understanding of goal to be
achieved by a group, the better would be the commitment of its members to
achieve it



12.    Sense of Responsibility.                This   refers   to   the   degree   of
involvement of group members with the achievement of the group goal.



13.    Need For Autonomy.              It is a very strong need of the adult and
intelligent persons. It does not reflect a person’s desire to be free from all
types of controls and disciplines; it only reflects his desire to be a master of
his own job situation. The Military leaders of the future, therefore, have to
balance the desire for work related autonomy of their men within the norms of
discipline of the services.



14.    Interests and Motivation.               A motivated person works more
often for intrinsic rewards like challenge of the task, recognition by his group,
actualization of his potential through the performance of job, etc, than for
extrinsic rewards.



15.    Knowledge and Expertise.                Knowledge gives confidence to a
person and expertise lends a shine to his personality. Both these
characteristics fill him with a sense of importance and help him in improving
the quality and quantity of his job.


16.    Homogeneity.           The members of a homogeneous group develop a
cohesive bond, which helps them to move either towards or away from a goal
in a united manner and with great speed.
                                        15




Characteristics Of The Situation


17.    The important aspects of a situation, which must be considered by a
leader to prove effective, are discussed in the succeeding paragraphs.


18.    Urgency.        The correct analysis of the timely requirement to take
action is a very important factor.


19.    Pressure.       A psychological pressure can be built around a military
leader by the successes or failures of other troops operating in his area. An
effective leader takes two steps to mitigate such a pressure. First, he gives
correct information to his group members about their strength and position
vis-à-vis the enemy. Second, he adopts a bold and authoritarian style of
leadership.


20.    Time.           Time is the scarcest resource, and unless it is managed
nothing else can be managed. An effective leader must learn to work
systematically and cultivate an eye for detail.


21.    Job Demands.        A highly unstructured job, having no precedent or
guidelines to perform necessitates authoritarian style of leadership. The jobs,
which have scope for innovation and creativity, require the democratic type of
leadership.



Relevance To The Case

22.    In this case, Col Prakash, CO displayed the following important
leadership traits: -

       (a)     Mental Ability.       He displayed high basic intelligence by
       carrying out correct appreciation of the problem in the unit. Focusing on
       the key areas to get the desired results.
                                         16


      (b)    Compassion.              CO showed the compassion to various
      needs and problems of the men and their families. With these actions
      every individual identified himself with the unit.

      (c)    Motivation and Energy.           CO was himself highly motivated. He
      motivated all ranks to perform exceptionally well to achieve the goals
      set for the unit.

      (d)   Social Orientation. CO believed in teamwork and persuasion.
      He set personal example in leading various events there by improving
      the bonding in the unit.

      (e)   Maturity.       CO displayed high level of maturity in selection of
      attainable goals and making each member a part of it.

      (f) Delegation.       Due to the confidence in the men and delegation
      of work, men could take initiative in their work.



23.   Group. The unit displayed characteristics of a homogeneous group. It
fully understood the goal of becoming best unit of the formation. All ranks
displayed sense of responsibility, were fully motivated, and interested in
accomplishing the task.


24.   Situation. Unit and APs were deployed in High Altitude Area at wide
spread locations      occupying isolated detachments.           It required good
administration to keep unit in a healthy state both physically and mentally.
Having   realized   the   situation    Col     Prakash   systematically   improved
administration and morale of the unit.


      TRANSACTIONAL AND TRANSFORMATIONAL LEADERSHIP

25.   The leadership researcher Bernard M Bass while studying leadership
from the angle of motivating subordinates divided leaders into two categories:
transactional leaders, and transformational leaders.

Transactional Leadership.
                                       17


26.    A transactional leader considers relationship between him and
subordinates as a transaction in which followers’ needs are met if their
performance comes up to the explicit or implicit contract with the leader. He
recognizes what are the objectives of his organization and knows actions to
be taken by the subordinates to achieve those objectives. The transactional
leader has the following characteristics: -

       (a)    Contingent Reward and Punishment.            He     mainly      works
       through the exploitation of the physiological and security needs of the
       subordinates to motivate them to work.

       (b)    Management by Exception.           He prefers to intervene only
       when things go wrong.

       (c)    A Diffident Style.   Somewhere deep down in his heart he
       remains unsure about the efficacy of his method of motivating the
       subordinates. He fails to become genuine and spontaneous in his
       interactions with his subordinates.

       (d)    Ineffective Communication.         He   is   more     general    than
       specific in giving feedback to his subordinates.



27.    In sum, a transactional leader depends upon external reinforcement to
motivate his subordinates.



Transformational Leadership



28.    Characteristics of Transformational Leader.              A
transformational leader relies more on intrinsic rather than extrinsic rewards,
to motivate his subordinates. His main characteristics are: -

       (a)    Situational Sensitivity and Style Flexibility.      His approach to
       work is based on a balanced mix of rational and emotional factors. In
       designing work programmes, therefore, he provides enough scope for
       soothing the emotions of subordinates.
                                      18



      (b)     Inspirational Leadership.          He knows that striving for
      excellence and producing high quality performance could be as intense
      a desire of workers as any, provided they are explained their jobs
      thoroughly and given certain amount of freedom to develop their job
      related potentials. This approach of the leader improves the self-
      confidence of subordinates on the one hand and their belief in the
      leader on the other.

      (c)     Individualized Attention and Consideration.            A    trans-
      formational leader understands the importance of ego and recognizes
      the contribution its promotion can make, to quality performances. He
      therefore builds up ego.

      (d)     Role Model.    He serves as the role model for his subordinates.
      It often inspires them to emulate the leader and produce high quality
      work.

      (e)     Management by Human Values.              He    cares   a   lot   for
      human dignity and equal rights.

      (f)     Charismatic Leadership.           He has greater chances to
      acquire the image of being charismatic as against a transactional
      leader.    Charisma gets formed easily when the leader has high
      personal power and the subordinates are of a highly dependent type.
      Whenever required, he can arouse the subordinates emotionally and
      ask them to put in extra effort and achieve higher results.

29.   Behaviour of transformational leaders.           The     transformational
leaders gain the capacity to exert profound influence over others through
these techniques:

      (a)     First, they articulate a vision. They describe usually in vivid,
      emotion-provoking terms, what their organization could or should
      become.

      (b)     They define the purpose of their organization in unique ways.
                                                     19


                  (c)      They show greater than average willingness to take risks and
                  engage in unconventional actions to reach their goals.

      30.         Other qualities of transformational leaders include: -

                  (a)      High level of self-confidence and Stirring personal style.

                  (b)      High degree of concern for follower’s needs.

                  (c)      Excellent communication skills.




      31.         Model for implementation in the Armed Forces is given below: -



                                                     ORGANISATIONAL
                                                     TRANSFORMATION

                                                      •   Creation of
           Reinforcement                                  Armed Forces                     Reinforcement
                                                          Culture-Values of
                                                          Discipline,
                                                 3        Obedience,
                             7                            Patriotism, Work
                                                                                             6
                                                          ethics,                 4
                                                          Subordinate
                                                          develop-ment
Leaders             Transf             Exercis-       •   Group Cohesion      Individual         Increa-
                                                      •   Belief in and
own                 ormati             e of               Commitm-ent to      Identif-           sed Org
              1                   2                                                         5
Transf-             onal               Transf-                                ication            Effecti-

ormatio             Leade              ormati-          INDIVIDUAL            with Org           veness
                                                     TRANSFORMATION

                                                      •   Belief in Armed         4
                                                          Forces Values
                            7                         •   Awareness of and
                                                 3        Elevation to                      6
                                                          Higher Order
          Reinforcement                                   Needs
                                                                                           Reinforcement
                                                      •   Moral Elevation
                                                      •   Belief in and
                                                          Commitment to
                                                          Superordinate
                                                          Goals

                                 Figure 2: Leadership as a Dynamic Process
                                        20


Transactional Leadership-Relevance To The Case



32.    CO initially started with transactional type of leadership by awarding
the achievement to achieve short terms objectives.



Transformational Leadership Model- Relevance To The Case



33.    The       CO   practiced   Transformational   kind   of   leadership.   The
transformational characteristics displayed by him are given in succeeding
paragraphs.



34.    Inspirational Leadership.        CO convinced the men that they were
capable of producing extra ordinary results. Personal interaction of the CO
inspired all ranks to achieve organizational objectives.          He went about
meeting men and explaining them their goals and that of the unit. He gave
freedom of action to subordinates. Thus he inspired the unit for achievement
of unit goals.


35.    Role Model.       CO was physically present at all places, whether it was
the games field, training area or the forward operational area. His high quality
work inspired all ranks to emulate him.


36.    Defining Purpose Of Organisation.         He explained to all ranks that
the purpose of the unit was to become the best unit of the formation.


37.    Empowering Profile.           The empowering profile of the CO was
evident when he entrusted officers with corps day preparation tasks.
                                         21


38.    Confidence in Men and Officers.              It was extreme confidence in
men and officers that they came up with such good corps day event. The
prompt actions taken by JCO and men without waiting for any instructions for
such a large rescue mission shows that they were trained in taking decisions
after logical analysis of any given situation. Also they had confidence in their
command that they will be supported for any of their action.



39.    Concern for Needs of Followers.              CO displayed high concern for
the needs of the followers. Some examples are: -

       (a)    Recognizing their need for appreciation.

       (b)    Publicly applauding them.

       (c)    Being very responsive to their problems.


40.    Stirring Style.      CO was present everywhere with the troops
sharing their aspirations and thoughts.


                     BEHAVIORAL APPROACH


41.    Symbolic Behaviour. This is the positional authority given to a leader
by the organisation, in the form of legal authority. Giving authority to the SM
and other JCOs and NCOs improved their performance.

42.    Decision making behaviour.             The four main abilities that make one
decisive are: -
       (a)    Self Concept.       This is one’s estimation of one self.
       (b)    Risk Taking Ability.         This is one’s ability to take risks by
       sticking out the neck, when the group is faced with a critical situation.
       (c)    Tolerance for Ambiguity. This is one’s ability to remain calm
       in uncertain situations.
       (d)    Internal Vs External Control. This is one’s ability to rely more
       on own ability and effort to solve a problem, rather than rely on fate and
       chance.
                                         22



Continuum Of Leadership

43.    The Continuum of leadership behaviour is explained in the diagram
given below, from ‘Authoritarian Task Oriented’ to ‘Democratic Relationship
Oriented’.



              Authoritarian                               Democratic
              Task Oriented                               Relationship Oriented

 Source of      Use of authority
 Authority      by leader                                          Area of freedom
                                                                   for subordinates

                                                                        Leader permits
  Leader makes decision                                                 subordinates to function
 and announces it (tells)                                               within defined limits
                      Leader sells                           Leader defines limits, asks
                       Decision                              group to make decisions
                       Leader presents ideas        Leader presents problems gets
                       and invites questions        suggestions and makes decision
                                     Leader presents tentative
                                     Decisions subject to change

                            Figure 3: Continuum of Leaders Behavior

                      Continuum of Behavior of Col Prakash

Relevance To The Case


44.    In the above continuum, CO practiced authoritarian as well as
democratic style of leadership depending on the situation. The resolve of the
CO to excel in all spheres led him to follow both styles of leadership.




Life Cycle Theory


45.    The Life Cycle Theory by Hersey and Blanchard is a model on
situational approach. According to it, situational leadership is based on the
interplay among the following: -
                                             23



         (a)       The amount of guidance and direction a leader gives.

         (b)       The amount of socio- economic approach he provides.


         (c)       The readiness level of the followers to perform the task.

         (d)       The readiness level of the followers to perform the task.
           HIGH                                                                   HIGH
   Low Task
High Relationship     Participating                          Selling              High Task
                                   S3                        S2                   High
         LOW                                                                      Relationship



                      Delegating                                      Telling

                        S4                                       S1
   Low Task                                                                       High Task
Low Relationship                                                                  Low Relationship
                                                                                      LOW
                                         Concern for Task

                                                                                Low
                    High                M3
                           M4                               M2        M1
                                       Maturity of followers
                                   Figure 6: Situational Leadership Model




  46.    Selecting the Appropriate Style.             The    leadership         style   one
  should use with individuals or groups depends on the readiness of the people
  the leader is attempting to influence. Matching readiness level to appropriate
  style will be as follows: -
                                             24


47.    Selecting the Appropriate Style.                    The   leadership    style   one
should use with individuals or groups depends on the readiness of the people
the leader is attempting to influence. Matching readiness level to appropriate
style will be as follows: -

           (a)     M1- S1 Style (Selling).
           (b)     M2- S2 Style (Telling).
           (c)     M3 – S3 Style (Participating).
           (d)     M4- S4 Style (Delegating).



Relevance To The Case.



48.              As per above theory, Col Prakash initially adopted S1 style
(Telling) when the morale of the unit was low. He took measures to alleviate
the morale of the unit. Subsequently he followed participating style, which led
to the Offrs and Jawans of the units to volunteer and take initiative .


49.    Nurturant Task, Authorization, Participative Leader.                     The
leadership style can also be analyzed as Nurturant, Authoritarian and
Participative as explained in the diagram below: -


           AUTHORITARIAN                    NURTURANT                PARTICIPATIVE
              LEADER                           TASK                     LEADER

                 Autocratic                  Extrovert                   Democratic
                 Influential                      Active
                                 Strict                                  Respected
                                                           Encouraging
                  Insecure                     Strong
                                 Pushes                                  Satisfying
                                his Ideas             Appreciative
                 Impractical
                                through                     of             Secure
                               Dominance       Firm subordinates
             Dissatisfying
                                                        activities        Skillful
                                            Independent
           Not respected by
            Subordinates                                                      Weak
                                               Alert

                 Figure 7: Nurturant Task Leader in Relation to Authoritarian
                                  and Participative Leaders
                                     25




50.   Relevance to the Case.     It could be derived that, Col Prakash had
shades of a Nurturing and Participative type of leadership. He sought the
views of his subordinates on matters pertaining to professional, sports and
welfare matters.




Motivation



51.   Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs. Abraham          Maslow’s     theory    of
Hierarchy of Needs (1908) suggests that man’s behaviour is governed by five
basic needs – physiological, safety and security, social, ego or esteem needs
and self-actualization. He opined that man’s needs are arranged in a
hierarchy of importance.

52.   Alderfer’s ERG Theory.     Some behavioural scientists have modified
Maslow’s model and compressed five hierarchical levels into three, called
ERG (existence – relatedness - growth).      Existence needs include both
physiological and safety needs. Relatedness needs concerns how people
relate to their surrounding social environment, and includes the needs for
meaningful social and interpersonal relationships. Growth needs, considered
to be the highest category, includes the need for self-esteem and self-
actualization. Both models are represented on a single diagram below.
                                         26




                 Self Actualisation
                                                       Growth Needs


               Esteem Needs


            Social Needs                                        Relatedness



       Safety Needs
                                                                           Existence

PHYSIO NEEDS




                Maslow’s                                  Alderfer’s ERG
                                                          Theory
               Hierarchy Needs




        Figure 9: Maslow’s Hiearchy Needs and Alderfer’s ERG Theory



 53.   Relevance to the Case.         CO, after taking over the unit had observed
 that the motivational level of the unit was very low as was evident from the
 initial conversations in the unit and subsequent interaction with the GOC. He
 felt that though the physiological, security and social needs (Lower Order or
 Maintenance Needs) were being fulfilled but there was a requirement to
 restore the self-esteems of men and provide panoply to their aspirations of
 growth. His initial focus was on higher order needs with the aim to improve
 collective self-esteem and confidence of the unit. He then focused on lower
 order needs, by improving the quality of administration and instituting various
 welfare measures. All this led to high level of motivation in the unit which was
 evident from the performance in various activities.
                                        27




     HIGHER                                                            5      RESTRAINING

                      APATHY                                                        FORCES
                                               POOR STD OF             4
                                                TRG OF PERS                   RESISTING
                                                                       3
                                                                              CHANGES
                                HOSTILITY                              2

PRESENT OUTPUT/                                                        1
                                                                             EQUILIBRIUM
                                                                       0
 PERFORMANCE
                                                                       1
                                                   PRESSURE            2      SEEKING
                                                     FROM                     CHANGE
                                                   SUPERIORS           3      DRIVING
                             INCENTIVES
                                                                              FORCES
                                                                       4
                 COMPETITION
                                                                        5

   LOWER                                  MOTIVATORS


            Figure 10: Driving and Restraining Forces in Equilibrium




  Organisational Climate And Effectiveness



  54.   Just as two places can be differentiated with reference to atmospheric
  climate, organizations can be differentiated on the basis of organizational
  climate prevailing in them. A close relationship is discernible between
  organizational climate, job satisfaction, performance of individuals and
  ultimately organizational effectiveness. Leaders play the main role in creating
  this climate. More so, in defence services where the Commander’s leadership
  style, decision making and understanding of motivation can create the right
  climate for subordinates to function and grow. A healthy climate serves as a
                                        28


‘force multiplier’ that can propel the most important resources of an
organization – human resources – to high levels of performance greatly
enhancing organizational effectiveness. Organization climate determines the
psychological climate within an organization and has been found to have a
profound    influence   on   the     human    resources   of   the   organization.
Organizational effectiveness process also involves the use of several
management concepts and techniques like leadership, motivation and
communication

Relevance To The Case.


55.    Organizational Climate. The organizational climate in the unit when
Col Prakash took over was not conducive for organizational effectiveness. It
was evident from the poor administration, low morale, and lack of motivation
and loss of confidence among the troops. With the achievement orientation
approach of the CO and introduction of reward system, recognition of
achievement improved performance of the unit. Autonomy at work granted to
subordinates, the JCOS and NCOs could enhance their self-esteem and team
spirit, boosted their self-confidence, which transformed the organizational
climate into a very healthy state.



56. Organizational Effectiveness.            The CO concentrated on weakening
the “restraining forces” by adopting problem solving, approach, improving
people’s commitment to tasks, better training and administration. In addition
personal leadership traits, motivational and communication skills of CO
improved organizational effectiveness of the unit.


.
                                      29




                             CONCLUSION



57.   This case clearly brings home the importance of the role of the leader
in creating the right climate in an organization for achievement of goals in the
most effective manner. Leadership is the most important aspect of human
behaviour as it gives a direction to the human resource and brings out the
best in a man. Due to complexities of today’s changing environment a leader
has a great responsibility in guiding the subordinates to work towards
satisfaction of higher order needs.
                                    30




                             BIBLIOGRAPHY




1.     Paul    Hersey , Kenneth H Blanchard and Dewey E Johnson

       “Management of Organisational Behaviour”.

2.     College of Defence Management Publication on “ Leadership ”.

3.     College of Defence Management Publication on “ Motivation “.

4.     College of Defence Management Publication on “ Organisational

Effectiveness “.
                         CONTENT




Ser No   Subject                          Page No
                                   From             To
  1.     Abbreviations             ii


  2.     Case Study                1                5

  3.     Case Notes                6                10

  4.     Case Analysis             11               29

  5.     Bibliography              30
               (ii)




          ABBREVIATIONS




ACC                   Army Cadet College
AOC                   Army Ordnance Corps
AP                    Ammunition Point
CO                    Commanding Officer
Col                   Colonel
DIV                   Division
DOU                   Divisional Ordnance Unit
DSC                   Defence Service Corps
DSSC                  Defence Services Staff College
EME                   Electronic and Mechanical Engineers
GOC                   General Officer Commanding
Offr                  Officer
Sub                   Subedar
Sub Maj               Subedar Major
CASE
                                       1



                                FIVE MILE
                                     BY
                    COL MOHAN LAL ASWAL




1.    ‘Five mile AP mein DSC jawan aur civilian labourer ke beech ladai
ho gai thee. Civilians aaj kaam per nahin aaye hain’. Told Sub Maj Tikka
Ram to Col Prakash, the new CO who had just taken over the DOU on 04 Mar
2005. This came as a bolt from the blue to the CO.


2.    Out going CO Col Shararat, had briefed Col Prakash that all the 5 APs
were functioning very nicely and there was just no problem amongst the men
in the unit. This unit had personals from AOC.EME, DSC, CIVILIANS men
and women and Fire Personals. They all had different service rules which
governed them.


3.    Sir, all the officers are in the conference room waiting for the
Corps Day planning conference, told Lt Col Good Man the 2IC, to Col
Prakash. The Corps Day was to be celebrated on 08 Apr 05, where in all the
Div Officers and families were to be invited. 2IC told that last year we had
started our preparation two months ago; this year we hardly have any time.
Col Prakash discussed the programme with the officers and distributed the
responsibilities to them as per their choice and capability he also told that we
must invite the Sarpanch and some other local personals to the unit
Barakhana. He told them that it was their show and he will not interfere in the
execution. On the final day Maj Gen K Singh appreciated CO for the excellent
show to which CO categorically said, Sir, I have just joined, you must give
credit to Good Man and all officers.
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4.     CO visited all the five APs located in High altitude areas ,which the
unit was manning .He asked Sub Pyara how is his family and what were his
children doing .Sub Pyara did not seem to be very happy , was the
observation of the CO. He came to know that though the Sub had brought his
family to the station and taken the quarter but he hardly got opportunity to stay
with his ailing wife. In FIVE MILE AP CO observed that one of the newly
married civilian labourer who had also brought his wife to the station was not
relieved from AP since four months. He was the one who had fought with the
DSC jawan .DSC JCO IC of AP Thang brought out that there high altitude
allce has not been adjusted since last one year.


5.     The policy of rotating men in APs in every two months was strictly put
in place. No newly married person was to be sent to APs for four months. The
basic amenities were noticed to be missing at the APs .On 12 Apr CO called
on GOC and requested him to visit the APs. The occasion was utilised to high
light the gross deficiencies in the basic amenities required for the men, GOC
agreed to take up one AP at a time for toilet, guard room, and cook house.


6.     Sahib, Armed guard water point per bhaij dia hai, informed Sub Maj
to CO. The water from the stream use to dry up in summers and hence the
bone of contention between villagers and the unit. There had been no of
occasions when unpleasant situations had come up. CO asked 2IC to call the
village Sarpanch to his office on 22 May. CO convinced Sarpanch that since
the villagers do not have facilities to store water and also there would not be
any requirement for it at night it would be better idea if entire water is made
available to unit since we had large capacity tanks, and during day we can
share .Sarpanch agreed to the point, the sending of the guard was
discontinued. Regular interaction with the village personals carried on. The
issue of water was discussed with Dy GOC Brig RP Rana the photographs of
the prevailing stream and water sit was explained, Dy GOC was persuaded to
sanction a pipe line which was agreed from Op Wks.
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7.      Since the unit location was an isolated one, the HQ was 35 km away
and used to take one hour plus to reach. The children were having problems
as there were no suitable coaching facilities available. With his personal
intervention a teacher was organised for the children to which families were
very appreciative. Maj Sharma informed CO that Hav Subash who was on TD
had called from DSC PAO Cananore that all the pending claims of the DSC
personals have been passed and will be credited in the pay account of Jul 05.


8.      After playing Football one day CO went to Guard room and noticed that
Nk CP Singh who was not on guard duty was busy with books on inquiry it
came out that he was keen to appear for ACC exam. Co observed that he had
the capability he just needed some support and motivation. Nk CP Singh was
sent to Corps School for eight months where special classes were run for
them.


9.      Mid of the night on 28 Sep 06 CO was woken up by the ring of the
mobile while travelling by train on his way to Wellington for evaluation of
DSSC exam papers. Sir, we have just come back after a rescue mission.
At 5 pm in the evening while returning from walk near unit, Sub Pyara
saw a civil bus going down the hill, he immediately got hold of all the
men who were playing and launched rescue operation, by the time I
came back from market the Sub Maj, Maj A Sharma and Lt khan had
reached the spot and with the help of ropes were pulling the injured up.
A waiting unit ambulance took them to Hospital after first aid. Lt Rita
brought blankets and hot tea and food for stranded passengers, since it
had become very chilly by night and rescue operation was still on. By
the time civil police and ambulance came we had already brought up 32
injured passengers and serious ones were sent to city hospital. Dead
bodies which had been swept down stream were recovered by civil
police. Informed, Lt Col Good Man. On return CO appreciated entire unit for a
                                      4




Military like task. GOC complemented the unit for taking initiative and waiting
for orders.




10.    Sharma, You have age with you, you are intelligent why don’t you
appear for DSSC? Asked CO. Sir I will not get time in the unit activity, I
will try from next unit .Replied Maj A Sharma. CO ensured that Sharma was
given adequate time and guided to prepare for the exam, he was sent for JC
Course. Since CO himself was DSSC Qualified, he was able to guide him
well. Since very few Officers from services appear for DSSC it was very
encouraging to see Sharma preparing for the exam.


11.    I want you both to organise a hiking trip for all the 41 children in
the unit. Make it interesting like you all see it on Discovery TV. Children
must remember the trekking in the Sikkim Hills. I want all the men who
have joined unit in last six months to also be present for the trek. We all
will carry our pack breakfast and lunch. I will join at PT ground at 6 AM
sharp on Sunday morning, also plan for a camp for children during Dec
school break .Said CO. Right Sir, replied Lt Khan and Lt Rita who had put in
barely six months of service. Sahib, Sab family men bahut khush hain ki
kisi nein to bachhon ki sochi. Informed ,Sub Maj next day.


12     Sub Pyara whose wife had recovered from the illness and whose
prompt decision to go ahead for rescue of ill fated bus was recognised, and
was awarded with GOC-in-C Commendation card. Three NCOs and one
civilian labourer were awarded with Corps Cdrs Commendation card. Fire
man Ram Pratap was also commended by GOC.


13.    Nk CP Singh got selected for ACC written exam with the help and
guidance from Maj Bahadur he was able to make place for himself in the Merit
list for ACC.Maj A Sharma also got through in the DSSC exam next year.
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14.   There was never ever a fight between any individuals in the unit the
harmony prevailed .The families were happier, children were happy and doing
well in the studies, men were dedicated and doing their job voluntarily. The
formation had all the positive things to tell about the unit. What else the CO
would have asked for .On 30th May 2007 when he was leaving the unit he
was touched to see tears in the eyes of men .He thanked them for making the
unit as a real family because it is only when a member of the family departs
such emotions can be felt.

				
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