CASE STUDY Name: COL MOHAN LAL ASWAL Title: FIVE MILE DS Guide: BRIG VK YADAV,SC cdm college of defence management CASE STUDY - FIVE MILE BY COL MOHAN LAL ASWAL DS GUIDE: BRIG VK YADAV,SC cdm college of defence management A Case study submitted to College of Defence Management in partial fulfillment of curriculum of Higher Defence Management Course – 04 and MMS Degree. DS COMMENTS Name of Participant: Col Mohan Lal Aswal DS: Brig VK Yadav,SC Fac/Dept: BS Subject: Case study- FIVE MILE Date- 15 Dec 2008 6 CASE NOTES 7 CASE NOTES Background 1. The Indian Army is a unique institution. It has covered itself with glory in the most trying of circumstances. The Army rests on the strong foundations, esprit de corps and discipline. The CO is the most important entity, on whom, the hopes and aspirations of the unit lie. He is a role model for his unit. The unit responses reflect his leadership traits. However, every CO must realise that the organisation he leads, will be more effective in achieving its goals, if all the managerial processes involved in its running are implemented effectively. To achieve this the commander must be flexible in his style of leadership to suit to the given environment and the group of people he is leading. Relevance and Importance of the Case 2. This case vividly brings out the importance of the right leadership style in all situations. This is especially true when the unit is in the low self- esteem. However, the CO is first a leader and then a manager. He should possess all the intangible qualities of charisma and heroism to be effective. Concern for the welfare and development of subordinates, need for a clear interpersonal communication, motivation and creation of the right environment within an organization are vital aspects for any organization to be effective. Author’s Access 3. The author was the Commanding Officer of the unit when the incident referred in the case took place. All identities, and the locations mentioned in the case have been changed for reasons of anonymity. 8 Aim 4. The aim of this case study is to highlight importance of leadership style, the interplay between power, authority and responsibility, motivation, and the creation of the right organisational climate for organisational effectiveness. Conduct of The Case 5. Suitability for Instruction. The case relates to the style of leadership in trying conditions. It is suitable for study by officers undergoing Staff Course, HDMC and SDMC. This case study may be scheduled after the capsules on Leadership, Communication, Motivation and Org Climate have been conducted for course officers. The case should preferably be conducted in groups of 25-30 officers. 6. Methodology. The suggested methodology for the conduct of the case study is as follows: - (a) The case be given to the participants two days in advance so that they can familiarise themselves with the events of the case in order to participate in the discussion meaningfully. One participant may be asked to prepare the milestones. (b) Participants be asked to read the case aloud in the class, starting from the beginning and pausing in between from one event to another to take stock of happenings and their bearing on the management aspects. These aspects be noted down on the black board also by the Directing Staff. (c) The session could culminate with the participants’ views on the ideal style of leadership that could have been followed in the unit in the given situation. 9 7. Time Plan. The discussion of the case should be conducted in two periods of 40 minutes each. General time frame for conduct of the case may be as follows: - (a) Introduction by DS 5 minutes (b) Enumeration of milestones 5 minutes (c) Reading of the part case by participants 5 minutes (d) Discussion on various management issues 25 involved. minutes (e) Break 5 minutes (f) Reading of the part case by participants 5 minutes (g) Discussion on various management issues 25 involved minutes (h) Summing up by DS 10 minutes Main Characters 8. Main characters in this case study are as follows:- (a) Maj Gen K Singh - GOC 71 Mtn Div (b) Brig RP Rana - Dy GOC (c) Col Shararat - Outgoing CO (d) Col Prakash -Incoming CO (e) Lt Co Good Man - 2IC (f) Maj A Sharma - OIC HQ (g) Lt F Khan - Newly arrived women officer (h) Lt Rita - Quarter Master (i) Sub Pyara - Stocking wing I/C (j) Sub Maj Tikka Ram - Sub Maj 10 Milestones 9. The important milestones of this case study are enumerated as under: (a) 04 Mar 2005 - Col Prakash takes over unit. (b) 08 Apr 2005 - Corps Day Celebration (c) 12 Apr 2005 - CO meets GOC (d) 22 May 2005 - Water Problem Starts (e) 28 Sep 2006 - Bus accident, Successful Rescue Op (f) 30 May 2007 - CO Posted out 11 CASE ANALYSIS 12 CASE ANALYSIS: LEADERSHIP 1. Leadership is the ability of a person to mobilise and direct the efforts of his group members for solving the group problem. A leader, in order to achieve results of a high order has to, not only manage resources available to him effectively but also, influence his subordinates in such a way as to obtain their willing obedience, confidence, respect and co-operation. Two relevant approaches of leadership are discussed in succeeding paragraphs. Functional Approach 2. The term leadership is equated with the term leader. But leadership is the result of the interaction of three main factors: the leader, the group and the situation. No one has proved an effective leader in all types of situations; no two groups are similar with regard to their background and exact characteristics; and no two problematic situations are alike. Leadership, therefore, is a function of leader’s ability and style, group members’ needs and values, and demands of the situation. This aspect of leadership has been explained with the help of a formula as given below. L eff = f (l, g, s) where, L eff = Leadership effectiveness f = function of I = leader g = group s = situation 3. Some of the important characteristics of the leader, the group and the situation, and their interrelations are discussed below. Leader Group Situation Figure 1: Leadership as a Dynamic Process 13 Characteristics of the Leader 4. Mental Ability. It is necessary that a leader have more basic intelligence than the average intelligence of his group. 5. Courage. It is the most important requirement of a military leader. The courage of a man is correlated with his risk taking ability. The risk taking ability is circumstantially determined and is situational related. 6. Motivation. This term refers to the inner desire of a person to do his job better. A leader motivates the members of his group in two ways: first, through personal example, and second, by providing them challenging tasks. 7. Energy. A military leader should be active and agile. 8. Social Orientation. A leader must achieve the objective of the organization through the genuineness of his behaviour, personal example, convincing arguments, mutual regard, courtesy or the combination of such behavioural qualities. 9. Maturity. Maturity can be defined, as the capacity to set high but obtainable goals (achievement motivation), willingness, and ability to take responsibility. Characteristics of the Group 10. In the overall process of leadership, the group has three functions to perform, that is, goal achievement, team maintenance, and at least partial fulfillment of individual needs of the group members. The relatively more 14 important characteristics of a group are discussed in the succeeding paragraphs. 11. Understanding of Goal. Higher the understanding of goal to be achieved by a group, the better would be the commitment of its members to achieve it 12. Sense of Responsibility. This refers to the degree of involvement of group members with the achievement of the group goal. 13. Need For Autonomy. It is a very strong need of the adult and intelligent persons. It does not reflect a person’s desire to be free from all types of controls and disciplines; it only reflects his desire to be a master of his own job situation. The Military leaders of the future, therefore, have to balance the desire for work related autonomy of their men within the norms of discipline of the services. 14. Interests and Motivation. A motivated person works more often for intrinsic rewards like challenge of the task, recognition by his group, actualization of his potential through the performance of job, etc, than for extrinsic rewards. 15. Knowledge and Expertise. Knowledge gives confidence to a person and expertise lends a shine to his personality. Both these characteristics fill him with a sense of importance and help him in improving the quality and quantity of his job. 16. Homogeneity. The members of a homogeneous group develop a cohesive bond, which helps them to move either towards or away from a goal in a united manner and with great speed. 15 Characteristics Of The Situation 17. The important aspects of a situation, which must be considered by a leader to prove effective, are discussed in the succeeding paragraphs. 18. Urgency. The correct analysis of the timely requirement to take action is a very important factor. 19. Pressure. A psychological pressure can be built around a military leader by the successes or failures of other troops operating in his area. An effective leader takes two steps to mitigate such a pressure. First, he gives correct information to his group members about their strength and position vis-à-vis the enemy. Second, he adopts a bold and authoritarian style of leadership. 20. Time. Time is the scarcest resource, and unless it is managed nothing else can be managed. An effective leader must learn to work systematically and cultivate an eye for detail. 21. Job Demands. A highly unstructured job, having no precedent or guidelines to perform necessitates authoritarian style of leadership. The jobs, which have scope for innovation and creativity, require the democratic type of leadership. Relevance To The Case 22. In this case, Col Prakash, CO displayed the following important leadership traits: - (a) Mental Ability. He displayed high basic intelligence by carrying out correct appreciation of the problem in the unit. Focusing on the key areas to get the desired results. 16 (b) Compassion. CO showed the compassion to various needs and problems of the men and their families. With these actions every individual identified himself with the unit. (c) Motivation and Energy. CO was himself highly motivated. He motivated all ranks to perform exceptionally well to achieve the goals set for the unit. (d) Social Orientation. CO believed in teamwork and persuasion. He set personal example in leading various events there by improving the bonding in the unit. (e) Maturity. CO displayed high level of maturity in selection of attainable goals and making each member a part of it. (f) Delegation. Due to the confidence in the men and delegation of work, men could take initiative in their work. 23. Group. The unit displayed characteristics of a homogeneous group. It fully understood the goal of becoming best unit of the formation. All ranks displayed sense of responsibility, were fully motivated, and interested in accomplishing the task. 24. Situation. Unit and APs were deployed in High Altitude Area at wide spread locations occupying isolated detachments. It required good administration to keep unit in a healthy state both physically and mentally. Having realized the situation Col Prakash systematically improved administration and morale of the unit. TRANSACTIONAL AND TRANSFORMATIONAL LEADERSHIP 25. The leadership researcher Bernard M Bass while studying leadership from the angle of motivating subordinates divided leaders into two categories: transactional leaders, and transformational leaders. Transactional Leadership. 17 26. A transactional leader considers relationship between him and subordinates as a transaction in which followers’ needs are met if their performance comes up to the explicit or implicit contract with the leader. He recognizes what are the objectives of his organization and knows actions to be taken by the subordinates to achieve those objectives. The transactional leader has the following characteristics: - (a) Contingent Reward and Punishment. He mainly works through the exploitation of the physiological and security needs of the subordinates to motivate them to work. (b) Management by Exception. He prefers to intervene only when things go wrong. (c) A Diffident Style. Somewhere deep down in his heart he remains unsure about the efficacy of his method of motivating the subordinates. He fails to become genuine and spontaneous in his interactions with his subordinates. (d) Ineffective Communication. He is more general than specific in giving feedback to his subordinates. 27. In sum, a transactional leader depends upon external reinforcement to motivate his subordinates. Transformational Leadership 28. Characteristics of Transformational Leader. A transformational leader relies more on intrinsic rather than extrinsic rewards, to motivate his subordinates. His main characteristics are: - (a) Situational Sensitivity and Style Flexibility. His approach to work is based on a balanced mix of rational and emotional factors. In designing work programmes, therefore, he provides enough scope for soothing the emotions of subordinates. 18 (b) Inspirational Leadership. He knows that striving for excellence and producing high quality performance could be as intense a desire of workers as any, provided they are explained their jobs thoroughly and given certain amount of freedom to develop their job related potentials. This approach of the leader improves the self- confidence of subordinates on the one hand and their belief in the leader on the other. (c) Individualized Attention and Consideration. A trans- formational leader understands the importance of ego and recognizes the contribution its promotion can make, to quality performances. He therefore builds up ego. (d) Role Model. He serves as the role model for his subordinates. It often inspires them to emulate the leader and produce high quality work. (e) Management by Human Values. He cares a lot for human dignity and equal rights. (f) Charismatic Leadership. He has greater chances to acquire the image of being charismatic as against a transactional leader. Charisma gets formed easily when the leader has high personal power and the subordinates are of a highly dependent type. Whenever required, he can arouse the subordinates emotionally and ask them to put in extra effort and achieve higher results. 29. Behaviour of transformational leaders. The transformational leaders gain the capacity to exert profound influence over others through these techniques: (a) First, they articulate a vision. They describe usually in vivid, emotion-provoking terms, what their organization could or should become. (b) They define the purpose of their organization in unique ways. 19 (c) They show greater than average willingness to take risks and engage in unconventional actions to reach their goals. 30. Other qualities of transformational leaders include: - (a) High level of self-confidence and Stirring personal style. (b) High degree of concern for follower’s needs. (c) Excellent communication skills. 31. Model for implementation in the Armed Forces is given below: - ORGANISATIONAL TRANSFORMATION • Creation of Reinforcement Armed Forces Reinforcement Culture-Values of Discipline, 3 Obedience, 7 Patriotism, Work 6 ethics, 4 Subordinate develop-ment Leaders Transf Exercis- • Group Cohesion Individual Increa- • Belief in and own ormati e of Commitm-ent to Identif- sed Org 1 2 5 Transf- onal Transf- ication Effecti- ormatio Leade ormati- INDIVIDUAL with Org veness TRANSFORMATION • Belief in Armed 4 Forces Values 7 • Awareness of and 3 Elevation to 6 Higher Order Reinforcement Needs Reinforcement • Moral Elevation • Belief in and Commitment to Superordinate Goals Figure 2: Leadership as a Dynamic Process 20 Transactional Leadership-Relevance To The Case 32. CO initially started with transactional type of leadership by awarding the achievement to achieve short terms objectives. Transformational Leadership Model- Relevance To The Case 33. The CO practiced Transformational kind of leadership. The transformational characteristics displayed by him are given in succeeding paragraphs. 34. Inspirational Leadership. CO convinced the men that they were capable of producing extra ordinary results. Personal interaction of the CO inspired all ranks to achieve organizational objectives. He went about meeting men and explaining them their goals and that of the unit. He gave freedom of action to subordinates. Thus he inspired the unit for achievement of unit goals. 35. Role Model. CO was physically present at all places, whether it was the games field, training area or the forward operational area. His high quality work inspired all ranks to emulate him. 36. Defining Purpose Of Organisation. He explained to all ranks that the purpose of the unit was to become the best unit of the formation. 37. Empowering Profile. The empowering profile of the CO was evident when he entrusted officers with corps day preparation tasks. 21 38. Confidence in Men and Officers. It was extreme confidence in men and officers that they came up with such good corps day event. The prompt actions taken by JCO and men without waiting for any instructions for such a large rescue mission shows that they were trained in taking decisions after logical analysis of any given situation. Also they had confidence in their command that they will be supported for any of their action. 39. Concern for Needs of Followers. CO displayed high concern for the needs of the followers. Some examples are: - (a) Recognizing their need for appreciation. (b) Publicly applauding them. (c) Being very responsive to their problems. 40. Stirring Style. CO was present everywhere with the troops sharing their aspirations and thoughts. BEHAVIORAL APPROACH 41. Symbolic Behaviour. This is the positional authority given to a leader by the organisation, in the form of legal authority. Giving authority to the SM and other JCOs and NCOs improved their performance. 42. Decision making behaviour. The four main abilities that make one decisive are: - (a) Self Concept. This is one’s estimation of one self. (b) Risk Taking Ability. This is one’s ability to take risks by sticking out the neck, when the group is faced with a critical situation. (c) Tolerance for Ambiguity. This is one’s ability to remain calm in uncertain situations. (d) Internal Vs External Control. This is one’s ability to rely more on own ability and effort to solve a problem, rather than rely on fate and chance. 22 Continuum Of Leadership 43. The Continuum of leadership behaviour is explained in the diagram given below, from ‘Authoritarian Task Oriented’ to ‘Democratic Relationship Oriented’. Authoritarian Democratic Task Oriented Relationship Oriented Source of Use of authority Authority by leader Area of freedom for subordinates Leader permits Leader makes decision subordinates to function and announces it (tells) within defined limits Leader sells Leader defines limits, asks Decision group to make decisions Leader presents ideas Leader presents problems gets and invites questions suggestions and makes decision Leader presents tentative Decisions subject to change Figure 3: Continuum of Leaders Behavior Continuum of Behavior of Col Prakash Relevance To The Case 44. In the above continuum, CO practiced authoritarian as well as democratic style of leadership depending on the situation. The resolve of the CO to excel in all spheres led him to follow both styles of leadership. Life Cycle Theory 45. The Life Cycle Theory by Hersey and Blanchard is a model on situational approach. According to it, situational leadership is based on the interplay among the following: - 23 (a) The amount of guidance and direction a leader gives. (b) The amount of socio- economic approach he provides. (c) The readiness level of the followers to perform the task. (d) The readiness level of the followers to perform the task. HIGH HIGH Low Task High Relationship Participating Selling High Task S3 S2 High LOW Relationship Delegating Telling S4 S1 Low Task High Task Low Relationship Low Relationship LOW Concern for Task Low High M3 M4 M2 M1 Maturity of followers Figure 6: Situational Leadership Model 46. Selecting the Appropriate Style. The leadership style one should use with individuals or groups depends on the readiness of the people the leader is attempting to influence. Matching readiness level to appropriate style will be as follows: - 24 47. Selecting the Appropriate Style. The leadership style one should use with individuals or groups depends on the readiness of the people the leader is attempting to influence. Matching readiness level to appropriate style will be as follows: - (a) M1- S1 Style (Selling). (b) M2- S2 Style (Telling). (c) M3 – S3 Style (Participating). (d) M4- S4 Style (Delegating). Relevance To The Case. 48. As per above theory, Col Prakash initially adopted S1 style (Telling) when the morale of the unit was low. He took measures to alleviate the morale of the unit. Subsequently he followed participating style, which led to the Offrs and Jawans of the units to volunteer and take initiative . 49. Nurturant Task, Authorization, Participative Leader. The leadership style can also be analyzed as Nurturant, Authoritarian and Participative as explained in the diagram below: - AUTHORITARIAN NURTURANT PARTICIPATIVE LEADER TASK LEADER Autocratic Extrovert Democratic Influential Active Strict Respected Encouraging Insecure Strong Pushes Satisfying his Ideas Appreciative Impractical through of Secure Dominance Firm subordinates Dissatisfying activities Skillful Independent Not respected by Subordinates Weak Alert Figure 7: Nurturant Task Leader in Relation to Authoritarian and Participative Leaders 25 50. Relevance to the Case. It could be derived that, Col Prakash had shades of a Nurturing and Participative type of leadership. He sought the views of his subordinates on matters pertaining to professional, sports and welfare matters. Motivation 51. Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs. Abraham Maslow’s theory of Hierarchy of Needs (1908) suggests that man’s behaviour is governed by five basic needs – physiological, safety and security, social, ego or esteem needs and self-actualization. He opined that man’s needs are arranged in a hierarchy of importance. 52. Alderfer’s ERG Theory. Some behavioural scientists have modified Maslow’s model and compressed five hierarchical levels into three, called ERG (existence – relatedness - growth). Existence needs include both physiological and safety needs. Relatedness needs concerns how people relate to their surrounding social environment, and includes the needs for meaningful social and interpersonal relationships. Growth needs, considered to be the highest category, includes the need for self-esteem and self- actualization. Both models are represented on a single diagram below. 26 Self Actualisation Growth Needs Esteem Needs Social Needs Relatedness Safety Needs Existence PHYSIO NEEDS Maslow’s Alderfer’s ERG Theory Hierarchy Needs Figure 9: Maslow’s Hiearchy Needs and Alderfer’s ERG Theory 53. Relevance to the Case. CO, after taking over the unit had observed that the motivational level of the unit was very low as was evident from the initial conversations in the unit and subsequent interaction with the GOC. He felt that though the physiological, security and social needs (Lower Order or Maintenance Needs) were being fulfilled but there was a requirement to restore the self-esteems of men and provide panoply to their aspirations of growth. His initial focus was on higher order needs with the aim to improve collective self-esteem and confidence of the unit. He then focused on lower order needs, by improving the quality of administration and instituting various welfare measures. All this led to high level of motivation in the unit which was evident from the performance in various activities. 27 HIGHER 5 RESTRAINING APATHY FORCES POOR STD OF 4 TRG OF PERS RESISTING 3 CHANGES HOSTILITY 2 PRESENT OUTPUT/ 1 EQUILIBRIUM 0 PERFORMANCE 1 PRESSURE 2 SEEKING FROM CHANGE SUPERIORS 3 DRIVING INCENTIVES FORCES 4 COMPETITION 5 LOWER MOTIVATORS Figure 10: Driving and Restraining Forces in Equilibrium Organisational Climate And Effectiveness 54. Just as two places can be differentiated with reference to atmospheric climate, organizations can be differentiated on the basis of organizational climate prevailing in them. A close relationship is discernible between organizational climate, job satisfaction, performance of individuals and ultimately organizational effectiveness. Leaders play the main role in creating this climate. More so, in defence services where the Commander’s leadership style, decision making and understanding of motivation can create the right climate for subordinates to function and grow. A healthy climate serves as a 28 ‘force multiplier’ that can propel the most important resources of an organization – human resources – to high levels of performance greatly enhancing organizational effectiveness. Organization climate determines the psychological climate within an organization and has been found to have a profound influence on the human resources of the organization. Organizational effectiveness process also involves the use of several management concepts and techniques like leadership, motivation and communication Relevance To The Case. 55. Organizational Climate. The organizational climate in the unit when Col Prakash took over was not conducive for organizational effectiveness. It was evident from the poor administration, low morale, and lack of motivation and loss of confidence among the troops. With the achievement orientation approach of the CO and introduction of reward system, recognition of achievement improved performance of the unit. Autonomy at work granted to subordinates, the JCOS and NCOs could enhance their self-esteem and team spirit, boosted their self-confidence, which transformed the organizational climate into a very healthy state. 56. Organizational Effectiveness. The CO concentrated on weakening the “restraining forces” by adopting problem solving, approach, improving people’s commitment to tasks, better training and administration. In addition personal leadership traits, motivational and communication skills of CO improved organizational effectiveness of the unit. . 29 CONCLUSION 57. This case clearly brings home the importance of the role of the leader in creating the right climate in an organization for achievement of goals in the most effective manner. Leadership is the most important aspect of human behaviour as it gives a direction to the human resource and brings out the best in a man. Due to complexities of today’s changing environment a leader has a great responsibility in guiding the subordinates to work towards satisfaction of higher order needs. 30 BIBLIOGRAPHY 1. Paul Hersey , Kenneth H Blanchard and Dewey E Johnson “Management of Organisational Behaviour”. 2. College of Defence Management Publication on “ Leadership ”. 3. College of Defence Management Publication on “ Motivation “. 4. College of Defence Management Publication on “ Organisational Effectiveness “. CONTENT Ser No Subject Page No From To 1. Abbreviations ii 2. Case Study 1 5 3. Case Notes 6 10 4. Case Analysis 11 29 5. Bibliography 30 (ii) ABBREVIATIONS ACC Army Cadet College AOC Army Ordnance Corps AP Ammunition Point CO Commanding Officer Col Colonel DIV Division DOU Divisional Ordnance Unit DSC Defence Service Corps DSSC Defence Services Staff College EME Electronic and Mechanical Engineers GOC General Officer Commanding Offr Officer Sub Subedar Sub Maj Subedar Major CASE 1 FIVE MILE BY COL MOHAN LAL ASWAL 1. ‘Five mile AP mein DSC jawan aur civilian labourer ke beech ladai ho gai thee. Civilians aaj kaam per nahin aaye hain’. Told Sub Maj Tikka Ram to Col Prakash, the new CO who had just taken over the DOU on 04 Mar 2005. This came as a bolt from the blue to the CO. 2. Out going CO Col Shararat, had briefed Col Prakash that all the 5 APs were functioning very nicely and there was just no problem amongst the men in the unit. This unit had personals from AOC.EME, DSC, CIVILIANS men and women and Fire Personals. They all had different service rules which governed them. 3. Sir, all the officers are in the conference room waiting for the Corps Day planning conference, told Lt Col Good Man the 2IC, to Col Prakash. The Corps Day was to be celebrated on 08 Apr 05, where in all the Div Officers and families were to be invited. 2IC told that last year we had started our preparation two months ago; this year we hardly have any time. Col Prakash discussed the programme with the officers and distributed the responsibilities to them as per their choice and capability he also told that we must invite the Sarpanch and some other local personals to the unit Barakhana. He told them that it was their show and he will not interfere in the execution. On the final day Maj Gen K Singh appreciated CO for the excellent show to which CO categorically said, Sir, I have just joined, you must give credit to Good Man and all officers. 2 4. CO visited all the five APs located in High altitude areas ,which the unit was manning .He asked Sub Pyara how is his family and what were his children doing .Sub Pyara did not seem to be very happy , was the observation of the CO. He came to know that though the Sub had brought his family to the station and taken the quarter but he hardly got opportunity to stay with his ailing wife. In FIVE MILE AP CO observed that one of the newly married civilian labourer who had also brought his wife to the station was not relieved from AP since four months. He was the one who had fought with the DSC jawan .DSC JCO IC of AP Thang brought out that there high altitude allce has not been adjusted since last one year. 5. The policy of rotating men in APs in every two months was strictly put in place. No newly married person was to be sent to APs for four months. The basic amenities were noticed to be missing at the APs .On 12 Apr CO called on GOC and requested him to visit the APs. The occasion was utilised to high light the gross deficiencies in the basic amenities required for the men, GOC agreed to take up one AP at a time for toilet, guard room, and cook house. 6. Sahib, Armed guard water point per bhaij dia hai, informed Sub Maj to CO. The water from the stream use to dry up in summers and hence the bone of contention between villagers and the unit. There had been no of occasions when unpleasant situations had come up. CO asked 2IC to call the village Sarpanch to his office on 22 May. CO convinced Sarpanch that since the villagers do not have facilities to store water and also there would not be any requirement for it at night it would be better idea if entire water is made available to unit since we had large capacity tanks, and during day we can share .Sarpanch agreed to the point, the sending of the guard was discontinued. Regular interaction with the village personals carried on. The issue of water was discussed with Dy GOC Brig RP Rana the photographs of the prevailing stream and water sit was explained, Dy GOC was persuaded to sanction a pipe line which was agreed from Op Wks. 3 7. Since the unit location was an isolated one, the HQ was 35 km away and used to take one hour plus to reach. The children were having problems as there were no suitable coaching facilities available. With his personal intervention a teacher was organised for the children to which families were very appreciative. Maj Sharma informed CO that Hav Subash who was on TD had called from DSC PAO Cananore that all the pending claims of the DSC personals have been passed and will be credited in the pay account of Jul 05. 8. After playing Football one day CO went to Guard room and noticed that Nk CP Singh who was not on guard duty was busy with books on inquiry it came out that he was keen to appear for ACC exam. Co observed that he had the capability he just needed some support and motivation. Nk CP Singh was sent to Corps School for eight months where special classes were run for them. 9. Mid of the night on 28 Sep 06 CO was woken up by the ring of the mobile while travelling by train on his way to Wellington for evaluation of DSSC exam papers. Sir, we have just come back after a rescue mission. At 5 pm in the evening while returning from walk near unit, Sub Pyara saw a civil bus going down the hill, he immediately got hold of all the men who were playing and launched rescue operation, by the time I came back from market the Sub Maj, Maj A Sharma and Lt khan had reached the spot and with the help of ropes were pulling the injured up. A waiting unit ambulance took them to Hospital after first aid. Lt Rita brought blankets and hot tea and food for stranded passengers, since it had become very chilly by night and rescue operation was still on. By the time civil police and ambulance came we had already brought up 32 injured passengers and serious ones were sent to city hospital. Dead bodies which had been swept down stream were recovered by civil police. Informed, Lt Col Good Man. On return CO appreciated entire unit for a 4 Military like task. GOC complemented the unit for taking initiative and waiting for orders. 10. Sharma, You have age with you, you are intelligent why don’t you appear for DSSC? Asked CO. Sir I will not get time in the unit activity, I will try from next unit .Replied Maj A Sharma. CO ensured that Sharma was given adequate time and guided to prepare for the exam, he was sent for JC Course. Since CO himself was DSSC Qualified, he was able to guide him well. Since very few Officers from services appear for DSSC it was very encouraging to see Sharma preparing for the exam. 11. I want you both to organise a hiking trip for all the 41 children in the unit. Make it interesting like you all see it on Discovery TV. Children must remember the trekking in the Sikkim Hills. I want all the men who have joined unit in last six months to also be present for the trek. We all will carry our pack breakfast and lunch. I will join at PT ground at 6 AM sharp on Sunday morning, also plan for a camp for children during Dec school break .Said CO. Right Sir, replied Lt Khan and Lt Rita who had put in barely six months of service. Sahib, Sab family men bahut khush hain ki kisi nein to bachhon ki sochi. Informed ,Sub Maj next day. 12 Sub Pyara whose wife had recovered from the illness and whose prompt decision to go ahead for rescue of ill fated bus was recognised, and was awarded with GOC-in-C Commendation card. Three NCOs and one civilian labourer were awarded with Corps Cdrs Commendation card. Fire man Ram Pratap was also commended by GOC. 13. Nk CP Singh got selected for ACC written exam with the help and guidance from Maj Bahadur he was able to make place for himself in the Merit list for ACC.Maj A Sharma also got through in the DSSC exam next year. 5 14. There was never ever a fight between any individuals in the unit the harmony prevailed .The families were happier, children were happy and doing well in the studies, men were dedicated and doing their job voluntarily. The formation had all the positive things to tell about the unit. What else the CO would have asked for .On 30th May 2007 when he was leaving the unit he was touched to see tears in the eyes of men .He thanked them for making the unit as a real family because it is only when a member of the family departs such emotions can be felt.