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					Alberta Ingenuity & CMASTE


Student’s Resource                                     Name

COSI Investigation 1: The Effect of Temperature on Bitumen Extraction
Reducing the temperature reduces the energy input needed to extract bitumen from oil sand.
Research provides information to determine the feasibility of reducing the temperature—by
testing the stated hypothesis. Complete the Purpose, Design, Materials, Evidence, Analysis and
Evaluation (Parts 1, 2 and 3) sections of the following laboratory report. Use the Problem,
Hypothesis and Procedure to help complete the Purpose, Design and Materials sections of the
report.

Purpose


Problem
How does the temperature of the chemical system affect the extent of bitumen extraction from
oil sand?

Hypothesis
According to Karl Clark and many other researchers since the 1920s, the extent of bitumen
extraction from oil sand increases as the temperature increases.

Design




Materials




Procedure
Safety: Do not overheat the vials—they may explode from air pressure. Be cautious with the hot
water (and glass). Wear safety glasses and a laboratory apron.
1. Obtain 2 sealed glass vials (marked for temperature) with oil sand in a controlled mixture.
2. Place the “60 ºC” vial vertically in an empty 150 mL beaker. Place the “20 ºC” vial vertically
    on the counter top.
3. Add enough boiling water (e.g., 100 mL) to three-quarters immerse the 60 ºC vial (to a
    controlled height) for about 5 min (for an equilibrium temperature of about 60 ºC).
4. Measure and record the temperature of the water in the bath/beaker at the equilibrium.
5. Remove the vial by grasping the plastic cap and avoiding the hot water.
6. Wrap several layers of paper towel around each (20 ºC and 60 ºC) vial and hold tightly.
7. Shake the vials for 45 s horizontally and 15 s vertically and set it to settle for 5 min.
8. Record evidence of the relative quantity of bitumen froth, water colour, bitumen layer on the
    sand, and bitumen bits in the sand.

67eb7142-1527-4b78-b5fa-db468ef0001a.doc   Imperial Oil-Alberta Ingenuity Centre for Oil Sands Innovation
                                            1/10
Alberta Ingenuity & CMASTE


Evidence
Table 1.1: The Effect of Temperature on the Extraction of Bitumen from Oil Sand

Vial   Temperature         Bitumen            Bitumen              Bitumen               Bitumen
          (ºC)             as froth           in water             on sand               in sand
1


2


Verified control of the initial quantity/height of oil sand, water and air. (yes/no)

Other evidence:

Analysis




67eb7142-1527-4b78-b5fa-db468ef0001a.doc    Imperial Oil-Alberta Ingenuity Centre for Oil Sands Innovation
                                             2/10
Alberta Ingenuity & CMASTE


Student’s Resource                                     Name

COSI Investigation 2: The Effect of Air on Bitumen Extraction
The empirical effect of air on bitumen extraction is very important to reducing the quantity of
energy (the temperature) and the pH of the water used. For example, does the air adhere best to
the water, the sand or the bitumen. Complete the Purpose, Design, Materials, Evidence, Analysis
and Evaluation (Parts 1, 2 and 3) sections of the following laboratory report. Use the Problem,
Hypothesis and Procedure to help complete the Purpose, Design and Materials sections of the
report.

Purpose


Problem
How does the quantity of air the chemical system affect the extent of bitumen extraction from oil
sand?

Hypothesis
According to the concepts of density and intermolecular forces, if air is bubbled into a bitumen
mixture and the air bubbles are captured within the bitumen, then more bitumen floats to the top
as froth.

Design



Materials




Procedure
Safety: Do not overheat the vials—they may explode from air pressure. Be cautious with the hot
plate and hot water (and glass). Wear safety glasses and a laboratory apron.
1. Obtain 2 sealed glass vials marked as 0 cm air and 4 cm air.
2. Place the vials vertically in an empty 250 mL beaker.
3. Add enough boiling water (e.g., 150 mL) to three-quarters immerse the vials (to a controlled
    height) for about 5 min (for an equilibrium temperature of about 60 ºC).
4. Measure and record the temperature of the water in the bath/beaker at about equilibrium.
5. Remove the vials one at a time by grasping the plastic cap and avoiding the hot water.
6. Wrap several layers of paper towel around each glass vial and shake horizontally for 45 s and
    vertically for 15 s, and then set the vials upside down on a paper towel for 5 min.
7. Record evidence of the relative quantity of bitumen froth, water colour, bitumen layer on the
    sand, and bitumen bits in the sand.



67eb7142-1527-4b78-b5fa-db468ef0001a.doc   Imperial Oil-Alberta Ingenuity Centre for Oil Sands Innovation
                                            3/10
Alberta Ingenuity & CMASTE


Evidence
Table 2.1: The Effect of Air on the Extraction of Bitumen from Oil Sand
Vial     Height of    Temperature       Bitumen       Bitumen      Bitumen              Bitumen
         air (cm)         (ºC)          as froth      in water     on sand              in sand
 1           0


  2         4.0


Verified control of the temperature and the initial quantity/height of oil sand. (yes/no)

Other evidence:

Analysis




67eb7142-1527-4b78-b5fa-db468ef0001a.doc   Imperial Oil-Alberta Ingenuity Centre for Oil Sands Innovation
                                            4/10
Alberta Ingenuity & CMASTE


Student’s Resource                                     Name

COSI Investigation 3: The Effect of pH on Bitumen Extraction
This investigation is restricted to studying the effect of pH on bitumen extraction from oil sand.
The research program herein includes studies of the effect of temperature, air, pH, calcium ion
concentration, and oil sand type. Complete the Purpose, Design, Materials, Evidence, Analysis
and Evaluation (Parts 1, 2 and 3) sections of the following laboratory report. Use the Problem,
Hypothesis and Procedure to help complete the Purpose, Design and Materials sections of the
report.

Purpose


Problem
How does the pH of the chemical system affect the extent of bitumen extraction from oil sand?

Hypothesis
According to Karl Clark and many other researchers since the 1920s, the extent of bitumen
extraction from oil sand increases as the pH increases.

Design




Materials




Procedure
Safety: Do not overheat the vials—they may explode from air pressure. Be cautious with the hot
plate and hot water (and glass). Wear safety glasses and a laboratory apron.
1. Obtain the three sealed and labeled glass vials with oil sand in a controlled mixture with
    water and air, but with varying pH of 7, 9 and 11.
2. Place the vials vertically in a 400 mL beaker.
3. Add enough boiling water to three-quarters immerse the vials (to a controlled height).
4. Measure and record the temperature of the water in the bath/beaker when the temperature
    reaches equilibrium at about 60°C at the end of about 5 min.
5. Remove the vials one at a time by grasping the plastic cap and avoiding the hot water.
6. Wrap several layers of paper towel around each vial and shake horizontally for 45 s and
    vertically for 15 s.
7. Record evidence of the relative quantity of bitumen froth, water colour, bitumen layer on the
    sand, and bitumen bits in the sand.



67eb7142-1527-4b78-b5fa-db468ef0001a.doc   Imperial Oil-Alberta Ingenuity Centre for Oil Sands Innovation
                                            5/10
Alberta Ingenuity & CMASTE


Evidence
Table 3.1: The Effect of pH on the Extraction of Bitumen from Oil Sand
Vial     pH      Temperature      Bitumen         Bitumen      Bitumen                    Bitumen
                      (ºC)          froth         in water      on sand                   in sand
 1         7

  2        9

  3        11

Verified control of the temperature and the initial quantity/height of oil sand. (yes/no)

Other evidence:

Analysis




67eb7142-1527-4b78-b5fa-db468ef0001a.doc   Imperial Oil-Alberta Ingenuity Centre for Oil Sands Innovation
                                            6/10
Alberta Ingenuity & CMASTE


Student’s Resource                                     Name

COSI Investigation 4: The Effect of Calcium Ion Concentration on Bitumen Extraction
The following investigation (with more sophisticated equipment) was recently carried out at the
Centre for Oil Sands Innovation at the University of Alberta. The research program herein
includes studies of the effect of temperature, air, pH, calcium ion concentration, and oil sand
type. Complete the Purpose, Design, Materials, Evidence, Analysis and Evaluation (Parts 1, 2
and 3) sections of the following laboratory report. Use the Problem, Hypothesis and Procedure to
help complete the Purpose, Design and Materials sections of the report.

Purpose


Problem
How does the concentration of calcium ions affect the extent and quality of bitumen extraction
from oil sand?

Hypothesis
Based upon previous laboratory (empirical) work, increasing the calcium ion concentration
increases the quantity of bitumen froth but decreases the quality (purity) of the froth.

Design




Materials




Procedure
Safety: Do not overheat the vials—they may explode from air pressure. Be cautious with the hot
plate and hot water (and glass). Wear safety glasses and a laboratory apron.
1. Place the varying calcium concentration vials vertically in an empty 250 mL beaker.
2. Add enough boiling water (e.g., 150 mL) to three-quarters immerse the vials (to a controlled
    height) for about 5 min (for an equilibrium temperature of about 60 ºC).
3. Measure and record the temperature of the water in the bath/beaker at the equilibrium
4. Remove the vials one at a time by grasping the plastic cap and avoiding the hot water.
5. Wrap several layers of paper towel around each vial and shake horizontally for 45 s and
    vertically for 15 s.
6. Record evidence of the relative quantity of bitumen froth, water colour, bitumen layer on the
    sand, and bitumen bits in the sand.



67eb7142-1527-4b78-b5fa-db468ef0001a.doc   Imperial Oil-Alberta Ingenuity Centre for Oil Sands Innovation
                                            7/10
Alberta Ingenuity & CMASTE


Evidence
Table 4.1: The Effect of Calcium Ions on the Extraction of Bitumen from Oil Sand
Vial [Ca2+(aq)]        Temp.      Bitumen        Bitumen         Bitumen         Bitumen
        (mmol/L)        (ºC)        froth        in water        on sand         in sand
 1          0


  2         10


Verified control of the temperature and the initial quantity/height of oil sand. (yes/no)

Other evidence:

Analysis




67eb7142-1527-4b78-b5fa-db468ef0001a.doc   Imperial Oil-Alberta Ingenuity Centre for Oil Sands Innovation
                                            8/10
Alberta Ingenuity & CMASTE


Student’s Resource                                     Name

COSI Investigation 5: The Effect of Oil Sand Type on Bitumen Extraction
The following investigation is often replicated (repeated) with slight variations of secondary
variables in research laboratories like the Centre for Oil Sands Innovation at the University of
Alberta. The research program outlined here includes studies of the effect of temperature, air,
pH, calcium ion concentration, and oil sand type. Complete the Purpose, Design, Materials,
Evidence, Analysis and Evaluation (Parts 1, 2 and 3) sections of the following laboratory report.
Use the Problem, Hypothesis and Procedure to help complete the Purpose, Design and Materials
sections of the report.

Purpose


Problem
How does the type of oil sand affect the extent and quality of bitumen extraction from oil sand?

Hypothesis
Based upon past experience in research and industry, the quantity of bitumen extracted from oil
sand is affected by whether the oil sand is allowed to dry in air.

Design




Materials




Procedure
Safety: Do not overheat the vials—they may explode from air pressure. Be cautious with the hot
plate and hot water (and glass). Wear safety glasses and a laboratory apron.
1. Obtain the two sealed glass vials with oil sand of varying dryness (i.e., dried vs. not).
2. Place the two vials vertically in an empty 250 mL beaker.
3. Add enough boiling water to three-quarters immerse the vials.
4. Measure and record the temperature of the water in the beaker when it reaches an equilibrium
    temperature at about 60 ºC
5. Remove the vials one at a time by grasping the plastic cap and avoiding the hot water.
6. Wrap several layers of paper towel around each vial and shake horizontally for 45 s and
    vertically for 15 s.
7. Record evidence of the relative quantity of bitumen froth, water colour, bitumen layer on the
    sand, and bitumen bits in the sand.

67eb7142-1527-4b78-b5fa-db468ef0001a.doc   Imperial Oil-Alberta Ingenuity Centre for Oil Sands Innovation
                                            9/10
Alberta Ingenuity & CMASTE


Evidence
Table 5.1: The Effect of Oil Sand Type on the Extraction of Bitumen from Oil Sand
Vial Oil Sands         Temp.        Bitumen        Bitumen       Bitumen       Bitumen
           Type         (ºC)         froth         in water       on sand       in sand
 1          dry


  2        fresh


Verified control of the initial quantity/height of oil sand, water and air and of the temperature.
(yes/no)

Other evidence:

Analysis




67eb7142-1527-4b78-b5fa-db468ef0001a.doc   Imperial Oil-Alberta Ingenuity Centre for Oil Sands Innovation
                                            10/10

				
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