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  Researchers in North Carolina are developing a new approach to                                  rebounds from these changes. This knowl-
                                                                                                  edge will provide insight for remediating
  understanding the behavior of a critical waterway, the Pamlico                                  the environmental and health effects of
  Sound. Hans Paerl, Kenan Professor of Marine and Environ-                                       ecological change on the coast.
  mental Sciences at the University of North Carolina Institute of                                A Fleet of Opportunity
  Marine Sciences in Morehead City, and Joseph S. Ramus, a pro-                                   Water monitoring within the Pamlico
                                                                                                  Sound has traditionally taken advantage
  fessor of biological oceanography at Duke University in                                         of fixed sampling sites including coastal
                                                                                                  locations and stationary buoys. FerryMon
  Durham, have put together an innovative project called                                          brings a new dimension to water sam-
  FerryMon to use that state’s extensive coastal ferry system to                                  pling. “The sound is huge,” says Paerl.
                                                                                                  “It’s 1,700 square miles, and it’s shallow,
  actively monitor water quality in the rivers and open waters of                                 so it can be unfriendly to small boats. But
  the sound. The system connects the mainland with the state’s                                    the state has a ‘fleet of opportunity’ in the
                                                                                                  ferries, and they cut across the sound in
  barrier islands (the Outer Banks) and crosses rivers in historical-                             some very strategic places.” By fitting
  ly rural coastal North Carolina.                                                                sampling equipment on the passenger/
                                                                                                  automotive ferries traveling established
      The sound, a broad body of water          the life cycles of economically important         routes through the sound, the researchers
  touching land, sea, and freshwater envi-      fish, shellfish, and marine plants. “There’s      have gained a new platform for frequent
  ronments, is part of the extensive            a grand-scale experiment going on with            water quality sampling.
  Albemarle–Pamlico estuary system, where       respect to excess nutrients,” Ramus says.             FerryMon depends on low-mainte-
  rivers from Virginia and North Carolina       “But the bottom line is, we don’t have a          nance equipment produced by the
  flow to the Atlantic Ocean. It is the sec-    clue how the Pamlico Sound system,                Massachusetts-based environmental mon-
  ond largest estuary in the United States,     which receives drained water from across          itoring device designer Endeco/YSI
  smaller only than the nearby Chesapeake       the state, functions [to process nutrients]       Incorporated, a corporation that develops
  Bay system. “The Pamlico Sound is the         in the first place.”                              hardy monitoring systems for long-term
  single most important fisheries nursery for       Environmental shifts can also lead to         environmental deployment. The “black
  the U.S. Atlantic coast,” Paerl says. “It     changes in dissolved organic carbon.              box” equipment (so called because the
  also handles about half of the freshwater     Dissolved organic carbon is correlated to         user doesn’t need to know anything
  runoff for the state of North Carolina.”      the presence of fecal coliform bacteria such      about it to operate it) is stashed in the
      Nutrient loads in the freshwater          as Escherichia coli and disease-bearing           ferry’s sea chest and samples sound water
  runoff are increasing, though, Paerl says.    organisms such as Vibrio and Clostridium          drawn in through cooling water intakes.
  “The coast is experiencing growth, and all    species, says Ramus.                              “The chief engineers who serve on the
  growth-related activities are impacting on        The FerryMon project will measure             individual ferries do a little daily opera-
  the estuarine system.” Wholesale land use     water quality indicators, day in and day          tional preparation for the system,” says
  change throughout the state including         out, along well-defined routes across the         Dan Noe of the North Carolina Depart-
  increased urbanization has resulted in        extensive body of water. Over time, mea-          ment of Transportation Ferry Division,
  excess nitrogen draining into the estuary.    surements will characterize baseline water        who is working with Ramus and Paerl to
      Excess nitrogen promotes eutrophica-      quality within the sound, allowing                outfit the ferries. “But that involves
  tion, or accelerated biologic production in   researchers to study how environmental            maybe five minutes in the evening and
                                                                                                                                                   Taglia e Incolla

  coastal waters. Eutrophication can funda-     changes ranging from alterations in nutri-        one minute in the morning. So it’s pretty
  mentally change the ecology of the coast      ents to arrival of sudden storms affect the       inconsequential as far as our workload is
  by stimulating algal blooms and affecting     sound’s water quality and how the estuary         concerned.”

A 220                                                                     VOLUME   109 | NUMBER 5 | May 2001 • Environmental Health Perspectives
                                                                                                                         Innovations   •   Sound Science

                   The system can be installed without       1999 storm that precipitated massive           This information will be useful for cali-
               interfering with normal ferry operations.     floods across eastern North Carolina and       brating satellite data, thus making the
               It actively monitors a number of water        considerable runoff of nutrient-rich water     satellite data more interpretable.
               quality indicators including salinity, tem-   into the sound. According to Ramus, the
               perature, turbidity, dissolved oxygen, pH,    initial cost of outfitting a ferry was about   Waves of Information
               and chlorophyll content (a measure of         $40,000, but improvements have lowered         Monitoring from the ferries will not give
               phytoplankton biomass). The system            the cost to about $30,000 for each new         a complete picture of the sound, howev-
               records the data as the ferry travels its     boat that comes on line. There are addi-       er. “As long as people realize the limita-
               route throughout the day, then uses a cell    tional laboratory costs for nutrient, dis-     tions of sampling methods, it is possible
               phone modem to send the results to a          solved organic carbon, and chlorophyll         to get useful data,” says Kevin Summers,
               computer in Ramus’s laboratory each           analyses, as well as costs for data manage-    who runs the Environmental Protection
               evening. The monitoring tools also            ment, says Paerl.                              Agency’s (EPA) Coastal 2000 program, a
               include a refrigerated collector that allows      In addition to the water sampling,         five-year effort to coordinate water qual-
               for transporting water samples to the lab-    other types of data are used to take a         ity, sediment quality, and biologic indi-
               oratory for further analysis such as mea-     “snapshot” of the sound, Ramus says. “We       cators in 24 coastal states and Puerto
               surement of dissolved organic carbon and      also want to see the whole surface of the      Rico to characterize U.S. estuaries and
               microbiologic examination.                    sound, so we rely on remote indicators         how they behave over time. “The con-
                   Monitoring from the ferry M/V Floyd       such as ocean color and sea surface tem-       cern would be that someone would take
               J. Lupton, which makes a 20-minute pas-       perature that are recorded by satellite.”      the data from the ferry routes and use it
               sage across the mouth of the Neuse River      Coordination of such data with Global          to extrapolate to the whole North
               40 times a day, has been ongoing since        Positioning System satellites allows precise   Carolina coast,” he says.
               September 2000. The ferry M/V Carteret,       measurement of the positions at which              Coastal 2000 provides a complement to
               which makes a passage of more than two        samples are taken by each of the ferries.      the ferry data, using probabilistic methods
               hours between the
               Outer Banks island of
               Ocracoke and the main-
               land town of Cedar
               Island to the southwest,
               began monitoring water
               quality the next winter,
               in February. The ferry
               M/V Governor Edward
               Hyde, which travels
               northwest from Ocra-
               coke to the town of
               Swan Quarter, will
               begin automated water
               quality monitoring in
               the near future.
                   Paerl says funding
               for outfitting the first
               three ferries has come
               from state dollars set
Ed Gordon

               aside for relief from
               Hurricane Floyd, the               M/V Governor James Baxter Hunt, Jr.

            Environmental Health Perspectives   • VOLUME 109 | NUMBER 5 | May 2001                                                                A 221
Innovations    •   Sound Science

to choose sample sites from varied statistically
selected representative sites along the coast.
This avoids the problem of overreliance on
data from individual sites that may prove
unrepresentative of the coast as a whole.
Coastal 2000 records data from waterways
around the United States, including North
Carolina’s coasts, in the EPA’s Environ-
mental Monitoring and Assessment Program
database, a research tool that compiles ecolog-
ic data for trends and status analysis. The data
collected by the FerryMon project will be
made available to the public. Data from both
approaches are already available to the scien-
tific community from the researchers and the
EPA (the EPA data are part of the Coastal
Assessment & Data Synthesis System main-
tained by the National Oceanic and
Atmospheric Administration, available
online at
     FerryMon is the first effort to use regular
ship routes to monitor water quality along
several transects in a relatively compact area.
However, it is not the first to use ferries to
monitor water quality. Since 1992 the
Finnish Institute of Marine Research has
used long-range passenger ferries (including
the GTS Finnjet, one of the largest ferries in
the world) to measure water quality indica-
tors and to sample phytoplankton in the
Baltic Sea between Helsinki and
Travemünde, Germany. The Finnish work
illustrates both the power and the problems
of this approach. Gathering data over the
very long distances—more than 600 miles—
traveled by the trans-Baltic ferry produces a
remarkably detailed picture of water quality
along the ferry’s transect, but not away from
it. Since ferry routes are fairly constant, a
great deal of data is collected about a very
limited segment of the sea, while the charac-
terization of nearby water remains relatively
data-poor.                                         Floating treasure. The FerryMon project takes advantage of the North Carolina ferry system to
     Within these limitations, though, the         actively monitor environmental indicators of water quality.
ferry systems may prove to be more gener-
ally valuable for monitoring water quality
indicators in coastal areas. Paerl notes that
there is interest around the United States,         Su g g e s t e d R e a d i n g
particularly in coastal areas of the north-
east and northwest, in developing similar           Leppänen J-M, Rantajärvi E, Maunumaa M, Larinmaa M, Pajala J. Unattended algal
ferry-based water monitoring systems. And              monitoring system—high resolution method for detection of phytoplankton blooms
in North Carolina, the program is wel-                 in the Baltic Sea. In: Proceedings of IEEE OCEANS ’94, “Oceans Engineering for
comed by those who make their living on                Today’s Technology and Tomorrow’s Preservation,” 13–16 September 1994, Brest,
the waters. “On their time off,” Noe notes,            France. New York: Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers,
“most of the guys who work on the ferries              1994;1:461–463.
go boating or fishing or crabbing or                Paerl HW, Bales JD, Ausley LW, Buzzelli CP, Crowder LB, Eby LA, Go M, Peierls BL,
                                                                                                                                                      Tart/EHP, Taglia e Incolla, NCDOT

shrimping. They are very aware of water                Richardson TL, Ramus JS. Recent hurricanes result in continuing ecosystem impacts
quality and are behind this one hundred                on USA’s largest lagoonal estuary: Pamlico Sound, NC. EOS Trans Am Geophys
percent. They see that anything that can               Union 81:457, 459, 462 (2000).
be done to help the water quality can’t be          Summers JK. Ecological condition of the estuaries of the Atlantic and Gulf coasts of the
anything but helpful in the long run.”                United States. Environ Toxicol Chem 20:99–106 (2000).
                         Victoria McGovern

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