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					Thomas Bowles                                                                         gth870t
MARTA (Past, Present, Future) – Final Report                                       902103864


Abstract:

       In this report, I investigated the mass transportation system of Atlanta known as

the MARTA (Metropolitan Atlanta Rapid Transit Authority). In my investigation I

provide information regarding the past, present and future for the MARTA system. From

its inception in 1976 having only a bus system to its present day rail and bus system, the

MARTA has gone through various changes. I also examined the MARTA and its position

as an aid for racist urban planning that has led to African American and low-income

workers to be burdened with economic, environmental and social costs that white city

dwellers have avoided.


General Overview of MARTA (Past, Present, Future):

       The transit system named MARTA (Metropolitan Atlanta Rapid Transit

Authority) was created in 1976 in order to accommodate the growing need for public

transportation throughout Atlanta. Thus, MARTA was born and soon began to run bus

transportation throughout the city, but had hopes of expanding the service to a rail system

that would span throughout the five counties surrounding Atlanta. As the rail service

began to expand to more sections of the city, the economic and physical development of

the city started to take shape. The MARTA stations became a source for development

throughout the city; while there were other factors that were influential in the

development, the MARTA station gave the means of accessibility to the area.

       From its inception in 1976 the MARTA has gone through some massive changes.

At the beginning of MARTA the service was merely a bus service that ran throughout

Atlanta, but today it has grown to a rail service with an incorporated bus system. The



                                              1
overall goals for the MARTA were to carry commuters from home to work, to transform

Atlanta into a healthier, more productive city, and to provide a significantly larger

number of jobs closer to where people live. But has MARTA truly lived up to its goals

and continually provided transportation that meets these goals throughout history? Not

exactly with fare hikes and poor quality of service MARTA has DESOMETHING. In her

article, “MARTA Marks 25 Years of Trains: Next Stop Unknown,” Julie B. Hairston

celebrates the triumph and importance of MARTA as a public service that has been

operational for 25 years, yet also underlines the severe problems with the service.

MARTA is no longer the icon for public transportation, rather with a fifteen percent

cutback in its bus service, MARTA is fighting to survive. By expanding its services, the

funding for expansion has come from increased fares, from the starting fare of fifteen

cents to its present day fare of $1.75. The price of MARTA has outreached that of its

main customer, the low-income worker, because they can’t afford the fare. Transportation

officials realize the blunder in MARTA policy and how they no longer truly believe in

the importance of transit in Atlanta, but were quick to blame the lack of external funding

from the state and federal level. Fighting for a vision MARTA officials are curious as to

whether MARTA will still be around 25 years from now.

       However, MARTA’s true triumph came in the summer of 1996, when Atlanta

hosted the Summer Olympic Games. In the years prior to 1996, MARTA went through a

rapid transformation in preparation for the Games. With an average patronage of 475,000

per day, MARTA was going to be pushed to 800,000 patrons each day of the 11 million

people that held tickets to the Olympics. Various problems were identified prior to the

Olympics such as there was no alternative plan to the rail system for those who use the




                                             2
park and ride lots outside of Atlanta and the Environmental Protection Agency ranked

Atlanta as one of the worst cities in terms of air quality.

       The future of MARTA lies within the light rail system that will be placed around

the outer edges of the Atlanta region. Although no plans for construction of the light rail

system have been cemented, the proposed light rail system named the Belt Line will

hypothetically stimulate growth, help revive downtown, relieve traffic congestion, and

foster the health of Atlantans. The Belt Line will hopefully be integrated into the

MARTA system allowing suburban workers to gain access into the city through the rail

system rather than having to drive through the heavily congested traffic. Also the Belt

Line will open up the outlying suburban areas surrounding Atlanta to the men and women

of low-income that are seeking better paying jobs and will be able to find them in

suburbia. Since the plan must get approved throughout the Atlanta region and won’t be

realistically finished for another 25 years, MARTA has been forced to find new ways of

getting more patrons to use the system. MARTA has created a new fare system called

“Breeze” that will replace the token system and hopefully stimulate revenue. The system

will use electronic cards that will be fully integrated into the bus systems throughout

Cobb, Gwinnet, Clayton, along with tolls throughout Georgia. Unfortunately for

MARTA, the future is looking grim even with the new “Breeze” system, the new goal

MARTA should undertake for the future is the expansion of its service to the suburban

areas surrounding Atlanta.


Focused Report on Racism, Mass Transportation and the MARTA:

       Throughout the United States there have been cases of discrimination and racism

in the mass transportation systems in major cities. Atlanta is a city still burdened with



                                               3
barriers of segregation through transportation such as the I-20 highway that segregates

Atlanta into the white northern section and the black southern section. City planners must

try to find a balance in their development of the city, including transportation, which

should not discriminate either race or economic group in order to be called an equitable

transit system. “Race is a ubiquitous reality that must be acknowledged if planners do not

want to simply be the facilitators of social exclusion and economic isolation” (Ross 367).

There are various disparities between urban planning based for the poor and people of

color as opposed to urban planning for the wealthy and white people. One of the major

disparities is in transportation, these disparities lead to health risks, economic concerns

and social costs. Without transportation, the poor are “denied the right to go to church,

visit family and friends, to attend cultural and educational programs, or even to look for

better paying jobs” (Targ 456).

       With the expansion of the MARTA into Fulton County, Dekalb County, and the

City of Atlanta, how come the expansion has stopped at only including three counties

when the original plan was to include five counties surrounding Atlanta? The riders of

MARTA are 78 percent African Americans and people of other color and the surrounding

counties of Atlanta are made up of a population that is 90 percent white. Unfortunately

for African Americans and people of low-income that reside in Atlanta, the three counties

are not part of the MARTA system because the suburban counties refuse MARTA to

expand into their area. Many residents in the suburban areas “fear it [expansion of

MARTA] would lower their property values, increase crime, and bring “undesirable”

elements into their communities, parks, With access to the suburbs through the MARTA

system, low-income workers that are forced to work within the Atlanta area, could branch




                                              4
out to the better more available jobs in the suburbs that were created in the sudden boom

of jobs between 1990 and 1997. This situation creates a reciprocal nature for the low-

income family because there is no allowance in the system for getting a better job in the

suburbs, thus there will be no rise in economic stature for inner city residents.

       In addition to the lack of access to suburbia, low-income residents and African

Americans that live within Atlanta face economic disparities. The purpose of mass

transit in an urban setting to provide low-income workers and families with low-cost

access to all parts of the city and suburban areas. The low-income people of Atlanta are

ridden with the tax burden of paying for MARTA on top of the $1.75 fare. Thus, when

suburbanites take advantage of the MARTA’s park and ride service to Hartsfield Atlanta

International Airport, they are using the transportation system paid for by low-income

workers.

       Finally, inequitable transportation leads to environmentally damaging situations

for inner city workers. Urban planning is essential to the elimination of environmental

racism. Environmental racism is the idea that the placement of something from the built

environment that could endanger the health of those around it is placed within a location

where mainly those of color or of low incomes live. The placement of highways and bus

depots around neighborhoods that are made up significantly of those with low-incomes

and of a different race, often leads to major health concerns. Health consequences for

these people often include diesel air pollution, noise, injury risks, and ugliness. African

American children that reside within Atlanta are five times more likely to have asthma

than white children or children of another race because of their location within the city

near highways and bus depots. This evidence leaves one to believe that the placement of




                                              5
the highways and bus depots coincides with the location of African Americans in Atlanta

and thus can be considered an environmentally racist problem.


City Design, City Life:

       The MARTA system has been an integral part of the development of Atlanta

since its inception in 1976. The development of the city has followed the placement of

the transit stations; the placement of a transit station produces an attraction to the area of

developers of both residential and commercial buildings. Some of the areas in Atlanta

that have been revived because of the placement of a MARTA station are Midtown and

East Point. In his article, “What hath MARTA Wrought?” Allen R. Myerson writes that

developers are to blame for the lack of revitalization in the South side of Atlanta. With a

population that is mainly African American, the lack of development in the South side

can be blamed on racism. However, one developer Harrison Merrill, with his Landmark

American Corp. began working to rebound the South side of the city with the East Point

Station; he was able to revitalize what once was a desolate area with the creation of over

100 businesses.

       The future of development throughout the Atlanta region still remains under the

control of where MARTA stations have been placed because the stations give an access

point to the area that surrounds it. In his article, “Urban restructuring: one goal of the

New Atlanta Transit System,” author Paul E. Potter insightfully wrote in 1979 that

MARTA would prove useful to the built environment and in some regard stimulate the

creation of the physical structure of the city. This has indeed become the case, MARTA

stations throughout the city are becoming places for joint-development. Robert Cervero

writes in “Rail Transit and Joint Development: Land Market Impacts in Washing, D.C.



                                               6
and Atlanta” that in order for areas to flourish and have substantial growth there needs to

be a joint development of transit stations with high density residential developments.


Literature Summary:

       The underlying factors that play into the past, present, and future of MARTA are

development based on transit station location and racism. Both factors had a slew of

information, fortunately most of the articles intertwined both concepts into a single

article. Although I was able to find a lot of information on racist urban planning and

issues that Atlanta faces, I wanted there to be more information on specific instances or

cases of racial discrimination in the planning process. Most of the articles gave broad

conceptual ideas that made the discrimination obvious, but was ambiguous as to the

specific source of these problems. After researching more in depth into the racist area

development of Atlanta I began to realize that many of the sources were either only about

urban planning or were about broad instances of racial discrimination within

transportation that occurred throughout various cities in the United States. This was

probably the reason why there was a lack of specific information pertaining to Atlanta

and certain areas that I wished to investigate particularly areas below the I-20 highway.

The I-20 highway marked the segregation of the city into blacks to the south and whites

to the north so I wanted to find two sections to compare, but was unsuccessful in finding

a particular article that went into that type of specific information. The specific

information I would have wanted for each side of the I-20 highway was economical,

environmental, health and social concerns that residents had living in an area that might

have been seen as an expendable area that could be used for placement of a highway.




                                              7
Future Research Questions:

       As I have progressed in my research I have come up with a topic of my own that

is merely an evolution of our topic MARTA: Past, Present and Future. My research has

led me to discover that the area development around MARTA stations is not universal

and not all areas of Atlanta were given the opportunity to develop and increase in there

economic status. I want to investigate the reasons why development of MARTA stations

to the south of the city did not take place except in the instance of East Point Station.

After collecting various articles that dealt with racial discrimination in urban planning

and transportation I came to realize that the poor in Atlanta was caught in a catch twenty

two situation. Unable to afford mass transit costs and unable to reach the outlying

suburban area where jobs were available. Inner city residents that reside in the southern

portion of the city also face the problems of economic disparity in the subsidies they

receive for MARTA and health hazards due to the increased pollution of having housing

near highways. I am now wondering how the city allowed the placement of the African

Americans and other groups within this built environment of hazardous spaces. Whether

it’s a highway or a bus depot these residents are still facing health hazards that residents

who live in the north part of Atlanta are not facing. To further investigate the situation I

would have liked to compare the two sections of the city, the north and south. I would

have used the economical, health, environmental and social standpoint of the two areas in

order to compare them. I would also want to broaden my research and try and make

comparisons with other cities around the United States. For instance in Los Angeles upon

the implementation of a subway throughout the city, the city stopped bus service to a

greater portion of the city. Why is it that this service that helped residents of the inner city




                                               8
reach the suburbs undermining the transportation structure and system that the residents

could afford and utilize effectively? Will the Belt Line project have a similar effect on

inner city residents of Atlanta?


Annotated Bibliography:

1.
Lerner, Jonathon. “Peach blossom special: will Atlanta’s reimagined future arrive on a
       train?” Metropolis 22.10 (2003 June): 154-157.

       Avery Search: Rapid rail transit systems - United States - Atlanta (Georgia) -
       MARTA

In this article, Jonathan Lerner, the author, takes on the issue of the proposed Belt Line
plan that will hypothetically stimulate growth, help revive downtown, relieve traffic
congestion, and foster the health of Atlantans. The article is structured in a manner that
contrasts the operating MARTA with the proposed plans for the Belt Line, light rail or
rubber-tired electric vehicles. The author begins the article by first describing the
problems wrong with MARTA and Atlanta as a whole. At its current status MARTA has
problems with the locations of stations at places that lack population in order for the
station to be useful and some are built in empty lots and near industrial sites. As incentive
for Atlanta to build better mass transit, the federal government stopped giving Atlanta
funding for highway construction because of the high levels of air pollution. The author
states that there are various proposals in order to solve the Atlanta transportation
problem. Problems that are arising as proposals are being developed such as the light-rail
proposal are “race and class suspicions, city-suburb tensions, and the challenge of
reviving enfeebled downtowns” (Lerner 156). The author suggests that it would be a
tough decision and transition for the middle class Atlantan to switch from the privacy of
his own car to the public light rail. Some problems with MARTA that are discussed are
that MARTA is limited by its layout in that it is only able to give access to the north,
south, east, and west parts of the city rather than any sections that are in between those
directions and the bus system is inadequate sometimes making customers wait 20 to 30
minutes. The Belt Line was first proposed by Georgia Tech graduate student Ryan Gravel
who believes that the 22-mile Belt Line and the land that is next to the route can be used
to create an event park. There is also an alternative plan that is being developed called the
C-Line which will run a light rail train from Emory University to Atlantic Station to
Georgia Tech to Atlanta University Center to Turner field and then possibly suburbs.
Unfortunately this plan would be costly and difficult to build because unlike the Belt Line
there is no preexisting infrastructure that could be built on. Racism underlines various
aspects of this project because project developers are trying to circumvent issues that
could arise over race and class. The underlying goal is develop a transportation system
that Atlantans want to ride and will be grateful that they have it.




                                             9
2.
Roughton, Bert. “MARTA: so far so good.” Planning 55.4 (1989 Apr.): 14-18.

       Avery Search: Rapid rail transit systems - United States - Atlanta (Georgia) -
       MARTA

In this article, Bert Roughton seeks to show that MARTA has a substantial impact on the
city’s evolution, yet it still has its criticisms from political and community figures that
live within Atlanta. MARTA once the beloved and high ranking transportation system of
Atlanta has sunk to its new low of high fares that according to community and political
leaders is racially insensitive and obsessed with attracting the middle class whites to the
trains. In order to entice other counties other than Dekalb and Fulton County to join the
MARTA system, MARTA offered the support of MARTA to foster and develop real
estate and job growth as was done in various areas around Atlanta where MARTA
stations are the central points of the city and include the tallest high risers. Some people
are against the density of growth that is occurring around the MARTA stations and do not
want that kind of high rising building near they’re station. While MARTA can be
influential in the development of some commercial buildings within the city, it also can
follow development as with the Georgia 400 highway. Some people hope to see MARTA
break down barriers of racism by allowing blacks to gain access to jobs on the
economically booming north side of Atlanta. MARTA’s new goal for the coming years is
to infiltrate the suburbs of Atlanta so there can be a flow of suburban people into the city
much like New Jersey Amtrak Transit that flows into New York City.

3.
Cervero, Robert. “Rail Transit and Joint Development: Land Market Impacts in
       Washington, D. C. and Atlanta.” Journal of the American Planning Association.
       Winter 1994: Vol. 60 No 1, p83-93.

       GIL Search: Metropolitan Atlanta Rapid Transit

In this article, Robert Cervero proves that within the creation or expansion of rail transit
is the possibility for a joint development of real estate and the surrounding area that the
transit provides access to. The most important relationship is that of the use of transit
with the development of the office building; the relationship surpassed that of nearby
freeway traffic volumes. Stations that utilized the program of joint development typically
had a more substantial growth of office and commercial businesses rather than that of a
station that did not use joint-development. The author suggests that the future of joint-
development lies within the joint development of transit stations with high density
residential developments. With the use of joint development with residential buildings,
the idea of a park and ride transit would be altered to a walk and ride transit. The author
also suggests that people that live in housing that is near a transit station should be
subsidized for their living and using the public transportation as it helps the environment.
The new concept for this article is joint-development which is idea that with the creation
of transit access and investment, the area surrounding the station or transit access area
will increase in land value and regional accessibility.



                                             10
4.
Potter, Paul E. “Urban restructuring: one goal of the New Atlanta Transit System.”
        Traffic Quarterly 33.1 (1979 Jan.): 45-60.

       GIL Search: Metropolitan Atlanta Rapid Transit Authority

In this article, Paul E. Potter seeks to develop a plan and goal for the new MARTA
system that had just been created in 1976. Since the article was written in 1979 it is
interesting to find out whether his goal of action for MARTA was accomplished. The
author makes some very keen judgments as to how the success of MARTA will be
detailed. The factors included the quality of service that MARTA provides, the rates for
fares, the cooperation between rail and bus services, and the state of the national
economy. The author hopes that MARTA will not only provide the people with a level of
transportation that is highly efficient, but also that it will prove to be useful to the built
environment and in some regard stimulate the creation of the physical structure of the
city. The author details that the MARTA system is not being put in place to replace the
network of freeways and roads that have been installed throughout Atlanta, but that it is
merely to foster this basic transportation system. The author provides insight into the
future of MARTA and is fairly accurate as to his proposals and accomplishments of
MARTA. The service is indeed faltering due to the increase in rates of fares and the
quality of service in the bus routing has decreased significantly. The overall goal for
MARTA was to carry some of the commuters from home to work, to transform Atlanta
into a healthier, more productive city, and to provide a significantly larger number of jobs
close to where people live. While these items outlined by Cervero have mostly come true,
the future of MARTA is digressing from these goals and rather becoming a company
without a vision.

5.
Niles, Chris. “Rail, real estate, and reality.” Environmental Action. Spring/Summer 1996:
        Vol. 28 Issue 1 / 2, p16.

       EBSCO Search: Metropolitan Atlanta Rapid Transit Authority

In this article, Chris Niles seeks to portray the idea that while rail transit is indeed the
“most environmentally sound forms of transportation,” it is also sadly one of the more
corrupted forms of planning. Developers seek to attain rail stations at their place of real
estate in order to stimulate growth and increase the need for construction. Thus the
political process of deciding where the rail transit is placed is lost and money as the issue
takes over. By reacting to anti-highway state legislation, the federal government began
funding local rail systems through the UMTA (Urban Mass Transit Administration). The
rails were seen as a way to “ensure maximal social benefit.” Unfortunately racism is still
present and developers see black communities as a risk to rail station development and
thus it is difficult for a rail station to be placed in a black community; thus there is a lack
of growth around black communities that the station would have provided. The author
explains that rail system are a great way to decrease air pollution, however the land



                                              11
owning developers are making decisions rather than politicians and thus urban sprawl is
occurring because these things are not based on purpose but on money.

6.
 Graglia, Lino A. “Race policy in three American cities.” Independent Review. Summer
       1999: Vol. 4, Issue 1, p. 119.

       EBSCO Search: Metropolitan Atlanta Rapid Transit Authority

In this article, Lino Graglia focuses on the changes in race relations between the people
of Atlanta from the 1960’s up until the time she wrote the article in 1999. She writes that
in order for there to be cooperation and unity between the two races there must be no
racial preferences. The racial situation in Atlanta is called “as good as it gets” and an
“uneasy coexistence.” During the 1970’s over 70,000 white people left the city of Atlanta
because Mayor Maynard Jackson was a black man. However due to corrupt politicians,
many rich white developers teamed up with black men who became the head of the
company in order to attain a MARTA contract. Race riots in the 90’s over the Rodney
King court verdict did not help to ease racial tensions among the citizens of Atlanta. This
article provides insight into some of the reasons for the MARTA and it constantly being
called a racial barrier because white people will not ride with the “poor” black people that
ride the MARTA.

7.
Hudson, Kari. “Atlanta's transit system "trains" for 1996 Olympics.” The American City
      & County. Pittsfield: Jan 1996.Vol.111, Iss. 1: 30.

       Proquest Search: Atlanta Georgia (location) AND Metropolitan Atlanta Rapid
       Transit Authority (company/org)

In this article, the author, Kari Hudson describes the massive operation that the mass
transit system (MARTA) underwent in preparation for the Atlanta Olympic Games in
1996. Some of the problems that were commented on by visiting transit officials were
that recreational vehicles were using park and ride lots, in case the rail system is shut
down there needs to be a bus alternative plan in place, and some maintenance issues.
While city and MARTA officials were able to deal with a drill disaster successfully and
able to cooperate between agencies, there is still a lot to do before the Games in the
summer such as operating the MARTA system with more than 1,000 additional buses.
MARTA which on average transports 475,000 patrons per day will be pushed to its limit
when transporting more than 800,000 patrons each day of the 11 million ticket holders.
Due to the limited parking MARTA and the additional buses that have been issued to the
city will be the only means of transportation for spectators to get to the events. One of the
key procedures to their plan of action is to encourage spectators to park their cars outside
I-285 and use the MARTA system to get into the city so the additional buses can move
throughout the city with ease. The article again bludgeons Atlanta with the ranking by the
EPA as one of the worst in terms of air quality. While MARTA is using several thousand




                                             12
extra buses to transport the spectators, they are also using safer vehicles for the air. A key
term for the article is the EPA or the Environmental Protection Agency.

8.
Myerson, Allen R. “What Hath MARTA Wrought?” Georgia Trend. Norcross: Mar
      1988.Vol.3, Iss. 7; Sec. 1. pg. 50

       Proquest Search: Metropolitan Atlanta Rapid Transit Authority

In this article, the author seeks to develop the idea that MARTA is responsible for the
urban development of some areas within the city of Atlanta while neglecting other inner-
city neighborhoods. The article progresses by identifying various parts of the city of
Atlanta and the author then expresses how he thinks MARTA was integral in the creation
or lack of creation in that section. The author begins to blame MARTA for the lack of
development in the south part of the city, but then turns his blame to the developers.
Fortunately, companies such as Harrison Merrill’s Landmark American Corp. are
working to rebound parts of the city particularly in the southern portion. Due to the
MARTA station at East Point Merrill had substantial input in the creation of over 100
businesses within that area that was once desolate. Merrill is enthusiastic that he can be
the pioneer for the creation and revitalization of the South Side of Atlanta through the use
of MARTA stations. One of the key concepts in this article is that MARTA is taking
responsibility for the economic development for the stations and their surroundings.
Places like Midtown and East Point are being revitalized and becoming integral parts of
the city because of MARTA.

9.
Hairston, Julie B. “Marta Marks 25 Years of Trains: Next stop unknown.” The Atlanta
       Journal-Constitution. June 30, 2004 Wednesday: Pg. 1B.

       LexisNexis Search: MARTA

In this article, Julie B. Hairston seeks to show the importance of MARTA and its moment
as a public service that has been working for 25 years, yet she also underlines the severe
problems with the service. The author flows the article from one of reminiscence to
criticism to celebration and finally to reflection. The criticisms that the author points out
are that MARTA is no longer the icon for public transportation, rather with its 15 percent
cut back in bus service, MARTA is fighting to survive. By expanding service and funding
these expansions by increasing fares from the starting fare of 15 cents to the present fare
of $1.75, the price for MARTA has outreached its main customer who can’t afford the
fare. Transportation officials realize the blunder in MARTA policy and how they no
longer truly believe in the importance of transit in Atlanta, but were quick to blame the
lack of external funding from the state and federal level. Fighting for a vision MARTA
officials are curious as to whether MARTA will still be around 25 years from now.


10.



                                             13
Hairston, Julie B. “MARTA displays future fare system; It can link to other lines.” The
       Atlanta Journal-Constitution. October 13, 2004 Wednesday: Pg. 1B.

       LexisNexis Search: MARTA

In this article, Julie Hairston explains the new fare system that MARTA will use next
year seeks to gain revenue for the company and promote regionalism. The new system
named “Breeze” will replace the token system with a system of electronic cards that will
be used to gain entrance through 6 foot tall jumper proof gates. MARTA hopes this
system will limit the $10 million annual lose to fare cheaters. The electronic card would
be able to pay for various bus systems throughout Cobb, Gwinnet, Clayton along with
tolls throughout Georgia. The General Manager hopes this system will create a “customer
loyalty and open up marketing possibilities not possible with the old system” (Hairston
1B). The fare gate system will cost $190 million dollars and MARTA hopes to spur
revenue through the new system.

11.
MARTA. “History of MARTA.” 2004. 9 Oct. 2005 <
    http://www.itsmarta.com/about/history/>.

       Internet Search: MARTA Atlanta, GA history

In this article, the author seeks to provide a brief history of the MARTA system; how it
was created, what it is used for and the changes from the beginning to present. The author
provides insight into the history by providing the reader with a chronological account of
MARTA particularly centered upon the three general managers of MARTA. The author
begins his argument by introducing MARTA as a transportation that did not always exist.
During the 1950’s and 1960’s planners began to realize the importance of public
transportation and how it would play into the development of Atlanta, particularly with a
new rail system. In 1965 the Metropolitan Atlanta Rapid Transit Authority Act was
passed, thus effectively creating MARTA; yet it was only in February of 1972 that
MARTA purchased the Atlanta Transit System and began running transportation
services. By reducing fares from 40 cents to 15 cents, MARTA was able to stimulate
overall use of the transportation system by 21% (11.5 million more passengers). Through
support of federal funding MARTA was able to create a rail service that in July of 1996,
over the course of three decades, spanned the City of Atlanta, Fulton County, and Dekalb
County. After the increase in railing and the Olympic Games in 1996, MARTA sought to
internalize its efforts and focus on the users of MARTA. The public transportation
service began to take customers ideas and concerns into consideration for improving the
service. In 2001 National P. Ford was appointed General Manager and CEO and became
the first African American chief executive. In the past years MARTA has expanded its
bus services to other suburbs of Atlanta. The most important term in this article is
MARTA which stands for Metropolitan Atlanta Rapid Transit Authority.

12.




                                           14
Saporta, Maria. “Transit fixes dependent on MARTA's inclusion.” Oct. 10, 2005: 1.
       http://www.ajc.com/business/content/business/saporta/1005/10saporta.html.

       Internet Search: MARTA

In this article, the author mockingly describes the retreat of the regional transportation
agencies as a useless meeting that requires the presence of MARTA in order to have the
meeting be useful. The author argues that MARTA is the backbone to the Atlanta region
and thus, in agreement with general manager Nat Ford, that MARTA needs to be
included in this planning because traffic congestion within the Atlanta region is reaching
an all time high. The author jokes that even Ray Myrand the man who attended to picking
up the regional transportation agencies was stuck in bumper to bumper traffic. MARTA
accounts for 98% of the transit trips within the Atlanta region and thus the talks between
these agencies without MARTA are pointless because in order to deflate congestion,
there needs to be an alternative means of transportation. Even the GRTA Chairman
agreed that MARTA should be included in the meetings. Thus the talks between the
agencies of road based solutions using ramp meters, traffic signals, revamped
interchanges and expanded roadways were useless because they will barely help to stop
the congestion that keeps growing. Ironically, the author includes, that on their way
home, the car got caught in a traffic jam.

13.
Bullard, Robert D. “The Routes of American Apartheid.” Form for Applied Research and
       Public Policy. Fall 2000: 66-74.

       Proquest Search: Racism in Transportation

In this article, the author Robert D. Bullard seeks to explain the discrimination that
blacks, poor people, and minorities face when it comes to transportation and what needs
to be done in order to change this bias. Much like the author of “Mean Streets,” Robert D.
Bullard separates the issue of transit inequity into two separate issues, the economic and
environmental. The author again reminisces on civil rights movements of the past such as
the Rosa Parks bus event and the bus boycotting that took place. Again the author uses
examples from present day cities particularly investigating Atlanta with regard to the
MARTA and the highway system that causes racial health effects on the lower class that
are now susceptible to asthma and other diseases. Louisiana first made the segregated
railroad cars into “white” and “colored” seating. The U.S. Supreme Court decision made
in 1896 by Plessy v. Ferguson upheld this segregation. The Plessy case upheld this form
of apartheid not only in transportation but all aspects of society including education until
finally in 1954 with the Supreme Court’s Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka
decision when education facilities were desegregated. With the increase in total vehicle
miles traveled in the United States by 59 percent from 1980 to 1995, many transportation
projects that were introduced in order to help create transit systems had unintended
consequences such as “dividing, isolating, and disrupting some communities while
imposing inequitable economic, environmental, and health burdens on them” (Bullard,
67). Poor people and people of color that live within central city locations feel that they



                                            15
need better transportation that can take them to the job rich suburban areas. Atlanta has
always been divided by I-20 a road that segregates the city into black and white.
Although there has been a dramatic increase in the number of people living within the
Atlanta area [suburbs], the City of Atlanta itself has had limited growth. MARTA had a
rocky start with a proposed plan for a five county transit system that today after being
rejected by the white majority counties only serves two counties which have a greater
mix of race. MARTA has again begun talk to expand the system into more suburban
counties, but “suburbanites object to MARTA for fear it would lower their property
values, increase crime, and bring “undesirable” elements into their communities, parks,
and shopping centers” (Bullard 70). The riders of MARTA are 78 percent African
Americans and people of other color, and whites make up 22 percent of MARTA riders.
MARTA provides the most parking spots to passengers that live in the North Line which
is mostly made up of white, suburban communities. Poor blacks who live in Atlanta pay
the MARTA sales tax, along with the $1.50 MARTA fare, thus helping to subsidize
MARTA’s operation for riders who live outside the service area, who are white
suburbanites who take advantage of the park and ride to get a stress free ride to Hartsfield
Atlanta International Airport. With the sudden boom of suburban jobs offered between
1990 and 1997, and the dramatic increase in available jobs could benefit Atlanta’s people
of color and the poor if only the public transit system extended into the job-rich suburbs.
Some key phrases that the author used were procedural inequity, geographic inequity, and
social inequity. Procedural inequity occurs when transportation decisions are not carried
out in a “uniform, fair, and consistent manner with involvement of diverse public
stakeholders” (Bullard 67). Geographic inequity occurs when the negative and positive
geography and “spatial” impacts transportation decisions. “Environmental justice
concerns arise when transportation systems disproportionately favor one geographic area
or spatial location over another” (Bullard, 68). Social inequity occurs when the benefits
and burdens from transportation are not evenly or randomly distributed across population
groups. Usually upper class citizens will receive the benefits of transportation and lower
class citizens will receive all the burdens from the transportation changes.

14.
García, Robert. “Mean Streets.” Form for Applied Research and Public Policy. Fall 2000:
       75-81.

       Proquest Search: Racism in Transportation

In this article, the author Robert García seeks to explain transportation equity through the
synthesis of economic, racial, and environmental issues that burden and hinder the
general rise in status of groups who are discriminated. He began the article by
reminiscing on the civil rights movement headed by Martin Luther King Jr. and then he
begins to describe the situation that many single parent mothers are in within several
cities. Their number one problem is transportation because they can spend up to five
hours on buses in one day, thus causing lost time with their children. The author then
begins to describe the transportation equity problem in three separate issues, economic,
racial and environmental. These three issues provide the structure in which the author
provides real life examples from the cities of Detroit, Los Angeles, and Atlanta among



                                             16
others. The issue of transportation within central cities is an economic, racial, and
environmental issue that throughout the nation needs transportation policies that promote
equity, economic vitality, and environmental quality. Transportation agencies need to
follow the money, who is benefiting and who is being left behind? They also need to
ensure that communities are involved in the transportation decision-making process.
Transportation agencies should also adopt non-discriminatory polices and practices
which don’t allow for intentional discrimination and no unjustified adverse impacts
against selected groups. There are various disparities that transportation agencies allow to
occur including racial, security, subsidizing, crowding, and the impacts of discrimination.
In Atlanta, the Environmental Defense challenged $700 million in highway projects that
were exempted from current requirements of the Clean Air Act. The Environmental
Defense claimed that the project violated the Clear Air Act, Title VI of the Civil Rights
Act of 1964, and other environmental laws. They claimed that the project would not serve
the needs of minority and low-income people who had limited access to cars, the project
would also pollute the air, harming all residents but having the greatest effect on African
American children who are five times more likely to suffer from asthma than whites or
other ethnic groups.

15.
Ross, Catherine L and Nancey Green Leigh. “Planning, Urban Revitalization, and the
       Inner City: An Exploration of Structural Racism.” Journal of Planning Literature.
       Vol. 14, No. 3, February 2000: 367-380.
       Humiliation

       Avery Search: Racism and Planning

“Race is a ubiquitous reality that must be acknowledged if planners do not want to simply
be the facilitators of social exclusion and economic isolation” (Ross 367).

In this article, the authors Catherine L. Ross and Nancey Green Leigh aim at explaining
the situation and problem of racism from the perspective of city and regional planners.
The authors begin their argument by first explaining four theories for planning or
approaches and rational thought for the decision making and planning process. In their
attempt to educate the reader before introducing the problem of racism, the authors then
outline several theories geared at revitalizing the inner city. After giving a brief synopsis
of the economic factor of planning, the authors begin their investigation into racism and
planning. They highlight zoning through the use of the Brownfield Dilemma, the crime
rates and the mass transportation systems as racial problems that hinder effective equity
planning. Racial discrimination forces the government to provide inner city businesses
contracts in order to stimulate the capital inflow. Although some complain that this
revitalization of the city gives the inner city an exuberant amount of money and
subsidies, the actual percentage of subsidies that is credited to the inner city populace is
quite low. Such discrimination that is highlighted by the authors carries over to the mass
transportation systems that are inherent in all major cities specifically mentioned in the
article, the MARTA in Atlanta. The authors argue that in order for there to be a rise in the
economic stature of inner city residents they must have access to the suburbs where there



                                             17
are countless employment opportunities that are not being filled. In Atlanta, in the two
highest growth counties of the region, they cannot get enough workers to fill the mass of
retail and other service positions that have been created. Instead of paying normal
minimum wage to fulfill these job openings, companies are forced to up the wage in
order to attract white suburban teenagers to the jobs. Within the inner city there is an
unused work force that is not being tapped into because of the lack of transportation that
would allow the inner city residents to take those jobs for minimum wage. Why? The
reasons behind the lack of transportation in these white suburban counties is because they
have refused to allow MARTA to extend into the counties and with a population that is
90% white, one can see that this decision is largely racist in nature. Some terms that are
defined within the article are structural racism, comprehensive planning, advocacy
planning, pluralism and equity planning. Structural racism refers to the idea that some
societal structures and institutions may be blatantly racist in their planning or have racist
outcomes although the effect was not part of their original plan. Comprehensive planning
is the theory that in plan preparation each alternative action and potential outcome has
been carefully and methodically considered. Advocacy planning is the theory that
planners should allow for some democratization of the planning process by working with
community groups or agencies to create a plan that meets the needs of those that are
traditionally underrepresented. Pluralism is the planning process where community
organizations prepare their own plans or participate in the creation of the comprehensive
plan by the planning commission. Equity planning is much like advocacy planning but
specifically gives the planners the role of the redistribution where there is an imbalance
of power and resources.

16.
Pucher, John. “Discrimination in Mass Transit.” American Planners Association Journal.
       Summer 1982: 315 – 324.

       Proquest Search: Discrimination in Mass Transit

In this article, the author John Pucher seeks to prove that there is indeed discrimination in
mass transit and that mass transit should be a system that helps to offset the mobility
deprivations of the poor. One of the questions that John Pucher poses to the reader
through his discussion is if mass transit is supposedly oriented to the poor person then
how come poor people don’t receive subsidies for the transit and why are transit
companies attempting to reach out to rich suburbanites by giving them the subsidies? The
author begins his argument by explaining several civil rights laws that have been passed
in order to stop the discrimination of minorities. After this review he begins to divulge
into a series of charts and statistics that prove that the poor people are indeed paying the
bulk of the mass transit costs and are not being sufficiently subsidized for these costs.
The author argues that in the modern day competition of public ownership, the goal of
providing mass transit for the poor has changed to the maximization of total transit
patronage stating that, “Due to financial constraints and auto unavailability, these
disadvantaged riders could be counted on in spite of poor service and inequitably high
fares” (Pucher 316). Between 1965 and 1979, 64 percent of the total subsidy was given to
rail rapid transit an only 24 percent to bus transit. The ridership for the poor is higher of



                                             18
the bus transportation than for rapid transit rail where the ridership tends to be headed by
white suburban passengers. In Atlanta rapid transit riders have significantly higher
incomes than riders of the Atlanta bus system and are also much more subsidized. The
author believes that long-distance riders are more subsidized than short-distance riders,
that peak hour riders are more subsidized than off-peak riders, and that riders in outlying
suburban portions of transit networks are more subsidized than inner-city riders. The
author calls for the transportation departments to stop the inequities in their service to the
poor as the poor is the justification for the original mass transit program. Some words that
were defined within the article are the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and price discrimination.
The Civil Rights Act of 1964 prohibits the discrimination against minority groups in any
federally funded project, i.e. mass transit programs. Price discrimination is within the
example of the transit system, the system offers the best service and most discounted
fares to those that don’t necessarily need the service, and conversely offers a lower
quality of service and higher fares to the customers that rely on the service everyday.

17.
Frunkin, Howard. “Health, Equity, and the Built Environment.” Environmental Health
       Perspectives. May 2005: 290-291.

       EBSCO Search: Transportation and Racism

In this article, the author Howard Frunkin attempts to show that disparities in the built
environment raise health problems within the African American community. This health
problem caused by these disparities is often refereed to as environmental racism. The
author segments the article into two paradigm shifts. He identifies the first paradigm shift
as an environmental health concern meshed with civil rights, thus creating the
environmental justice movement. The environmental justice movement had a huge effect
on environmentalism and on environmental health; people of the poor and of color
suddenly received attention. The second paradigm shift identified by the author has been
occurring in recent years. In the 1970’s the architectural changes and the rapid
urbanization of the world and the subsequent sprawling effect of cities, a new problem
has been raised, that of urban health. What are the roots of urban health? They lay within
the geography and the urban planning and thus within the built environment. The five
areas that the author then specifically sees as places for disparity within the built
environment are in housing, transportation, food, parks and green spaces, and squalor.
The transportation system is what connects places together and allows people to move
about a city or area with ease. Highways and bus depots become “locally undesirable
land uses,” unfortunately the majority of people that live around these locations are the
poor and people of color. Health consequences for these people include diesel air
pollution, noise, injury risks, and ugliness. The transportation system that is in place for
the poor and people of color does not provide access to employment and medical care
among other health necessities that they might need. The poor health for these people is
never-ending because with their inability to get to their jobs easily with create a
reciprocal poverty that digresses to poor health. An important term that is identified in the
article is environmental racism. Environmental racism is the idea that the placement of




                                             19
something from the built environment that could endanger the health of those around it is
placed within a location where mainly those of color or of the poor live.

18.
Targ, Nicholas. “Highway Robbery: Transportation, Racism and New Routes to
       Equity/Running on Empty: Transport, Social Exclusion and Environmental
       Justice.” Journal of the American Planning Association. Autumn 2005: 456-457.

       EBSCO Search: Transportation and Racism

In this article, the author seeks to review two books Highway Robbery: Transportation,
Racism and New Routes in Equity and Running on Empty: Transport, Social Exclusion
and Environmental Justice. He reviews both books within the same article because of the
similar content that each book has included. The author writes that both books seem to
agree on most points and they view mobility as the “ticket to social, economic, and civic
life” (Targ 456). The author of Highway Robbery, Eric Mann wrote that “When low-
income people have completely run out of money they just do not go places,… [T]hey are
denied the right to go to church, visit family and friends, to attend cultural and
educational programs, or even to look for better paying jobs” (Targ 456). Both authors
argue that transportation accessibility must be integrated throughout all aspects of
planning, from “land use and education to poverty alleviation and economic
development” (Targ 456). The authors also argue that transportation decisions must be
made by those who will be affected most by the change. In the book Running on Empty,
the author devotes a chapter to comparing case studies done in the United States and
those done in the United Kingdom. While the United States has always had to focus on
the issue of racial equality because of the civil rights movement and Title VI of the Civil
Rights Act of 1964, the United Kingdom did not have such a movement and thus has no
comparable focus on racial equality. The United Kingdom thus links transportation equity
to “social exclusion” and thus prevents discrimination against those with economic,
social, and environmental problems experienced by those on low incomes. Some terms
that were defined within the article were transportation equity and social exclusion.
Transportation equity is equitable distribution of both the benefits and burdens associated
with transportation systems. Social exclusion is what can happen when people or areas
suffer from a combination of linked problems such as unemployment, poor skills, low
incomes, poor housing, high crime environments, bad health, poverty and family
breakdown.

19.
Ramsey, Kikanza. “Riding the Freedom Bus in L.A.” Forum for Applied Research and
      Public Policy. Fall 2000: 77-79.

       Proquest Search: Racism in Transportation Development

In this article, the author Kikanza Ramsey seeks to give a historical account of how Los
Angeles community decided to fight transportation inequity. The author first gives
background information on the rebellion that was against institutional racism and



                                            20
economic devastation that was twenty years in the making. In 1993 the L.A. bus system
was being dismantled in order to fund a small urban subway and suburban commuter
trains. The rail system was being created not for the low income groups that mass transit
is intended for, but rather by billions in corporate profits that had been given rail
contracts. Thus, low income groups that were mainly of color faced service cuts in their
bus service, fare increases and highly polluting buses. When the MTA (Mass Transit
Authority) opened the new rail system, they cut bus service in those communities around
the rail, thus riders were forced to walk further and make transfers to a place that was
once within a bus ride or two. With a diverse group of bus riders including 60% female,
85% of color, 60% below poverty income, and 25% low income, the group all had similar
political interests and modes of transportation. In 1994, the Bus Riders Union and the
Billions for Buses campaign were launched to “Fight Transit Racism” and their demands
included a 50-cent bus fare, a $20 monthly bus pass, 2,000 new, low polluting,
compressed natural gas buses, a moratorium on all rail spending, and an elected MTA
board. In response the MTA board cut al monthly bus passes and increased the spending
on their rail project, the Bus Riders Union launched a federal civil rights law suit against
the MTA based on Title VI of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and instantly won a
restraining order against the fare hike and an elimination of the pass. This victory for the
community challenged the structure of a market driven society. It shows that
institutionalized racism can be stopped successfully and that a social policy needs to
implement policies based on needs of humans rather than needs for profits. The key term
used in this article was institutionalized racism and it is defined as a form of racism that
occurs in institutions such as public bodies and corporations.

20.
Ormond, Aiyanas. “Fair Transit.” Alternatives Journal. Spring 2005: 21.

       Proquest Search: Racism in Mass Transit

In this article, the author wrote an account or summarization of the people of Vancouver
and how they fought against the market driven TransLink (public transit authority) who
were increasing their fares. While the group was able to start a rebellion 5,000 strong that
would take the bus, but would refuse to pay the fare, the group is named the BRU (Bus
Riders Union) have other goals. Taking lessons from the Los Angeles Bus Riders Union,
the BRU is committed to building an anti-racist, anti-oppressive movement for social
justice saying that affordable, accessible transit is a human right. Much like in Los
Angeles in 2001 the late-night buses that TransLink used to run were cut during a period
of funding cuts, while billions of dollars were being used in the expansion of
Vancouver’s Sky Train system. TransLink said that the late-night busses were underused
and not cost-effective. Beginning a campaign for the reinstatement of the late-night bus
service, the BRU was successful in its mission in 2003 when TransLink reinstated
weekend late-night service. The main users of the late-night service were people of color
and thus it was a clear case of transit racism. The key term identified by the author was
transit racism which is the idea that because of intentional or unintentional racism, people
of color are not receiving the full transit service or are receiving the burden of the service
either socially, economically or environmentally.



                                             21
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                                            23
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                                           24
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                                           25
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                                          27
5. LexisNexis

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       Transportation



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Shelton, Stacy. “MARTA makes tracks for Alpharetta; due 2025.” 21 Oct. 2000: 1A.

       Search Words: MARTA, Metropolitan Atlanta Rapid Transit Authority, Atlanta
       Transportation

Shelton, Stacy. “MOBILITY 2030: METRO ATLANTA'S 25-YEAR
       TRANSPORTATION BLUEPRINT: End of the rail; Metro transit, MARTA's
       role being scrutinized.” 27 Sept. 2004: 1F.

       Search Words: MARTA, Metropolitan Atlanta Rapid Transit Authority, Atlanta
       Transportation

6. Internet

City of Atlanta Bureau of Planning. “Transportation.” 5 Aug. 2004. 9 Oct. 2005. <
        http://apps.atlantaga.gov/citydir/DPCD/Bureau_of_Planning/BOP/Transportation/
        Web_Pgs/transportation.htm>.

       Search Words: Atlanta Transportation System History MARTA

Donsky, Paul. “MARTA bus route would link hotels, tourist spots.” Oct. 18, 2005: 1.
      http://www.ajc.com/metro/content/metro/atlanta/1005/18metbus.html.

       Search Words: MARTA

Donsky, Paul. “MARTA proposes tourist sites route.” Oct. 17, 2005: 1.
      http://www.ajc.com/metro/content/metro/atlanta/1005/17martabus.html.

       Search Words: MARTA

Hutchby, Kevin S. “Marta.” 9 Oct. 2005.
      http://www.itsnottingham.info/wcmt/wcmt2000_Atlanta_03.htm.

       Search Words: Atlanta Transportation System History MARTA

MARTA. “History of MARTA.” 2004. 9 Oct. 2005
    http://www.itsmarta.com/about/history/.

       Search Words: MARTA Atlanta, GA history

MARTA. “Marta Planning Studies.” 2005. 9 Oct. 2005. <
    http://www.itsmarta.com/newsroom/planstudy.htm>.

       Search Words: Within www.itsmarta.com I found the link.




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The Atlanta-Journal Constitution. “Transit fixes dependent on MARTA's inclusion.” Oct.
       10, 2005: 1.
       http://www.ajc.com/business/content/business/saporta/1005/10saporta.html.

       Search Words: MARTA

Toon, John D. “Metropolitan Atlanta Rapid Transit Authority.” 20 Oct. 2003. 9 Oct.
2005. <
       http://www.georgiaencyclopedia.org/nge/Article.jsp?path=/Transportation/LandT
       ransportation&id=h-1023>.

       Search Words: MARTA Atlanta, GA




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