ECEN2802 Advanced English for Science Students Grammar by sif19147


									   ECEN2802: Advanced English for Science Students
       Grammar Proof-reading Diagnostic Test
                Semester 2, 2009-10:

                             ANSWER KEY

It is recommended that you download and attempt the test
before looking at this answer key.
 Errors are underlined.
 Corrections are suggested in red, blue boxes show related items.
 There may be alternative corrections.
 The numbers in red boxes indicate error types according to the following list. Use
  this information for self-improvement using the self-access learning materials
  indicated on the course website:

List of error types:

  1    Prepositions of time and place

  2    Common prepositional errors

  3    Conditionals

  4    Use of “Besides,…”
  5    Use of “although”

  6    Use of pronoun referencing

  7    Use of “born” and “died”

  8    Confusion of verbs and adjectives ending in “ing” and “ed”

  9    Reported speech

  0    Other errors
                           Curing the Plague: The role of Hong Kong
        Throughout the history of the human race the plague has been a disease that has been greatly
        feared                                                                           devastating
    8   fearing. No other disease has ever been able to spread so quickly or have such a devastated effect          8

        as the plague and yet been so badly understood (Marriott 2003). Now, however, the plague is less
    8   prevalent and far less fearing. The purpose of this article is to show what caused this change and the

    2   role that Hong Kong played on bringing about the change.

                                                        feared                  its                                     6
    8   The reason that the plague has always been so fearing is because of her ability to spread rapidly, to

                                                                                                  on                    2
        kill quickly and to be unstoppable. The level of risk of a human disease spreading depends people-
    8   relating factors like wars, urbanisation and social movement or natural factors like earthquakes, floods

        and droughts (Goldstein 1992). Clearly the risk increases dramatically where large numbers of people

    2   come in together and even more so when sanitary conditions cannot be controlled among those
    2   people because of over-crowding or a lack facilities.

        After thousands of years of fear and misunderstanding of the plague the situation started to change at      1

        1894 in Hong Kong when two scientists, working independently of each other, both discovered the

                                                                                       born                         7
        plague bacillus (Anon. 2009). Kitasato Shibasaburo was a Japanese scientist borned in 1853.
                               born                    from            They
7   1   Alexandre Yersin was borned in 1863 and came of Switzerland. He both arrived in Hong Kong in                6
                                                                  across / over / throughout / through
        1894 to study the rapidly spreading bubonic plague that was at that time raging on southern China           1
                                                                                           could have killed
        and which had killed at least 60,000 people (Bibel and Chen 1976). If nothing was done it could kill up     3

        to a third of the population like the Black Death of medieval Europe.

6       Within months of his arrival they had both discovered the bacillus that causes the plague. It should be
                                                                                            it / the bacillus
        noted that, in the past, writers argued about whether both scientists really discovered them. Some                 6

                                   did                                                             added
9       writers said that Kitasato does not describe the bacillus with enough accurate detail and adds features            9
             did                                                                                   described
9       that do not belong to the bacillus. The writers also said that Yersin, on the other hand, describes it             9
9       perfectly and includes all the right details. Yersin is now more frequently credited with discovering the

        bacillus which is named after him although some modern writers and encyclopaedias do still mention

        Kitasato as a simultaneous discoverer. By 1896 Yersin had also developed an anti-plague serum and

        then successfully cured a plague victim (Perry and Fetherston 1997). Besides, it is quite remarkable           4

        that it only took two years from discovering the bacillus to developing the serum.

                                              in / into
2       To put the importance of this discovery on perspective it is necessary to look at the effects of the
             in / during                                             from / out of
1       plague under this period in history. The plague started to spread out China around 1855 as the result          1
2       on war with the movement of troops causing a rapid spread of the plague south to the coast (Perry

5       and Fetherston 1997). Although the plague continued to spread from southern China to India in 1898
                                                                                                during / in
        and eventually by the early 1900s to most other parts of the world (except Australasia) along which            1

        time it killed many millions of people including 12.5 million in India alone between 1898 and 1918

        (Perry and Fetherston 1997). Although many millions died from the plague, if it had not been for the
                                                                        would have
3       discoveries made in 1894 and 1896 in Hong Kong, the epidemic had claimed even more lives.

    5                                    Place although in one of the three places marked.

        So it can be seen that Hong Kong hosted an important historical moment when Yersin discovered a

        cure for the plague, it was many years before the full effect of that discovery could be felt in all

        communities. It seems strange that having discovered a cure in 1986 it was not possible to
                                                                                                               DELETE or
2       immediately stop the disease to spreading. If the cure had been made available to everyone             use from

                                             would have been
3 immediately there is a chance that the disease will be eradicated or at least prevented from

    spreading. However, this lag in reaction time was probably related to two major factors. Firstly, then
3 as now, there is the lead-in time. If it will take time to develop enough medicine to treat a large

    population and during that time the disease continues to spread, the size of the population requiring

    treatment will have increased.

                                                                                          After deleting of, add a
                                                                                          comma here
5 Secondly, the disease had been identified and a cure discovered it was still not known how the
                                                    could have been
    disease was transmitted. If this had been known, action can be taken more quickly. At that time in
9   Hong Kong some people expressed the view that it is the government’s responsibility to provide

5   medical care for everyone. Although, there was also a widely-held belief that the plague was spread
    by contact with dirty people. As a result of many measures were taken of the government to: isolate in              2

    a hospital ship people they suspected of being sick; surround certain poor residential districts with

    guards to prevent people from leaving; or, in some cases, to evacuate the people and then burn his                  6
                                          inconvenienced             died
8 houses (Benedict 1996). Many people were inconveniencing and some were died unnecessarily at                          7

4 this time. Besides, in a less hysterical and more scientific attempt to find a cause for the spread of the
    disease, some researchers used observation and experimentation to arrive on the suggestion that the                 2

    cause was fleas on rats. However, this was not formalised until 1898 by Paul Louis Simon after

    observations in cases of the plague in India, and even then the evidence was not absolute until further

    experiments a few years later (Zietz and Dunkelberg 2004).

    In conclusion, the discovery of a cure for the plague was a major breakthrough for medical science
    that / which
5   although it would spread from its origin in Hong Kong for to benefit millions of people all over the            2

    world. In some ways the association of this discovery with Hong Kong was fortuitous. Yersin was born

    in                      in                 by
1   of Switzerland, trained of Paris, sponsored with the French government and chose Hong Kong simply 1            2
6   because she happened to have an outbreak of plague. Nevertheless, Hong Kong has a place in the
    history books as the place in which Alexandre Yersin made their famous discovery of what has since         6
    become called Yersinia pestis, the plague bacillus; and where it developed a successful cure for it.       6

    Anon. Alexandre Yersin [Internet]. [cited]. Available from:
    Benedict C. 1996. Bubonic Plague in Nineteenth Century China. Stanford, Calif. : Stanford
            University Press.
    Bibel DJ, Chen TH. 1976. Diagnosis of plaque: An analysis of the Yersin-Kitasato controversy.
            Bacteriol Rev. 40(3):633-651.
    Goldstein MD. 1992. Plague (Yersinia pestis). In: Feigin RD, Cherry JD, editors. Textbook of
            Pediatric Infectious Diseases. 3rd ed. Philadelphia: W. B. Saunders Company. p.
            1218- 1222.
    Marriott E. 2003. Plague: A Story of Rivalry, Science, and the Scourge That Won't Go Away.
            New York Metropolitan Books.
    Perry RD, Fetherston JD. 1997. Yersinia pestis—Etiologic Agent of Plague. Clinical
            Microbiology Reviews(Jan. 1997):35–66.
    Zietz BP, Dunkelberg H. 2004. The history of the plague and the research on the causative
            agent Yersinia pestis. Int. J. Hyg. Environ. Health:165-178.

                                 -------- END OF PAPER --------


To top