Hooking struggling Readers Using Books They Can and

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					Hooking struggling                                   problems. The intermediate grades will often be
                                                     these students’ last chance for reading success.
                                                          Like many struggling readers, Charles has

Readers: Using                                       problems that can be diagnosed. His attention
                                                     span is short. He doesn’t have flexible reading
                                                     strategies—if sounding out doesn’t work quickly,

Books They Can and                                   he’ll guess or read blithely on. He doesn’t monitor
                                                     his own comprehension, continuing on even if
                                                     the text is making no sense to him. Nonetheless,

Want to Read                                         Charles knows that reading is important, and he
                                                     wants to read well. He knows that the jobs in his
                                                     future will require reading. He even knows that
                                                     there is a great delight to be had in stories and
Kenneth Schatmeyer                                   books, but that delight is simply beyond his reach.
Wright State University                              As teachers, our job is to extend that reach.

                                                     increasing the Quantity and Quality of His
One of the keys to helping struggling readers is
to provide them with books that they can and
want to read. Fiction for struggling readers must    There is extensive research to support the prem-
have its own textual integrity: realistic charac-    ise that the best way to become a better reader is
ters, readable and convincing text, and a sense      to read more (Allington, 2001). Unfortunately,
of the readers’ interests and needs. Texts such as   often the instructional solution for readers like
nonfiction books, newspapers, magazines, and         Charles is to focus on “skills instruction” rather
even comic books can also hook students into         than connected reading. As a result, he usu-
reading.                                             ally ends up reading less than his classmates,
     Charles is a struggling reader. Like three      thereby having fewer opportunities to build
out of four children with reading difficulties,      competence, a phenomenon Keith Stanovich
Charles is a boy. He started school with limited     (1994) calls “The Matthew Effect.”
experience with print, struggled through activi-          If Charles is to increase both the quantity
ties with letters and sounds, and tended to be       and quality of his reading, he needs reading
“off task” when there was independent reading        materials that he can read and will want to read.
time. He learned in second grade to have his         While capable readers often have a wide range
reading buddy do most of the reading. By third       of reading interests, and can access texts in a
grade, when most of his classmates were fairly       variety of genres and levels of difficulty, strug-
fluent, Charles was still guessing at words, using   gling readers tend to be more narrowly focused
picture clues and avoiding books whenever he         both in terms of interest and ability. Finding
could. In fourth grade, when the illustrations       the “right book” for Charles is essential for him
were gone, Charles was in obvious trouble.           to build both confidence and proficiency.
     There are few tasks more challenging for             As far back as 1946, researcher Emmett Betts
teachers than reaching struggling middle school      suggested that we should be giving students
readers like Charles. These students not only        texts in which they could read at least 90% of
have a history of reading failure, they have         the words and comprehend at least 75% of the
developed attitudes and coping strategies which      information in order to enhance both learning
lead them to avoid, rather than fix, their reading   and attitude (Betts, 1946, in Allington, 2001).

                              HookIng stRugglIng ReadeRs: usIng books tHey Can and Want to Read            
    Subsequent research supports the premise that                Effective materials for struggling readers
    success with learning generates more learning          have their own textual integrity: realistic char-
    (Allington, 2001). Yet, all too often, struggling      acters, readable and convincing text, and a deep
    readers are subjected to texts that are much too       sense of the readers’ interests and needs. Con-
    difficult for them, that inhibit learning and          sistency is important. A text whose readability
    decrease motivation.                                   runs from grade 2 to grade 8 may still have an
                                                           average readability of grade 4, but many sec-
                                                           tions will be too difficult for a reluctant reader.
    Find Effective High-interest, Low                            Writers of controlled-readability materials
    Vocabulary Books                                       must be aware that the interest of a book must be
    The term high-interest, low vocabulary (hi/lo)         sustained throughout. Authors of regular novels
    is often used to describe books for youngsters         can spend more time describing characters and
    like Charles. These are materials with controlled      settings; authors of good hi/lo books know that
    vocabulary and reading difficulty levels that          it’s important to keep the plot spinning. Not all
    have plots and topics appropriate to older stu-        hi/lo materials meet these criteria. Consider this
    dents. Such books avoid the problems of having         passage from a novel in the Woodland Mystery
    Charles, a young teen, reading a picture book          (1996) series:
    about teddy bears or butterflies. Even so, effec-
    tive hi/lo materials must provide very similar                  Mrs. Tandy said, “Well, I have a plan
    supports for struggling readers as those early             you’ll like, I think. Let’s make sandwiches for
    picture books: illustrations to support the text,          lunch, and have a picnic!”
    carefully chosen vocabulary, simple sentences,                  Sammy said, “Perfect! First the snack,
    compelling stories, and characters that interest           then ATTACK!”
    the reader. The very best hi/lo materials provide               Kathy said, “Let’s put the sandwiches into
    these supports invisibly so that students like             paper bags. Then we can use the bags for pick-
    Charles are not stigmatized by reading a “baby             ing plums later.”
    book.”                                                          Mrs. Tandy said, “Here’s cold turkey and
         Effective hi/lo materials should always be            home-baked ham, and lettuce, and bread.”
    developed with attention to measured read-
    ability levels. Typical readability formulae, such     The sentences are short, the polysyllabic words
    as the Fry and the Flesch-Kincaid offered with         few, and the difficult vocabulary virtually non-
    Microsoft Word, are based on sentence length           existent. Measured readability is slightly over
    and syllable count. More sophisticated formu-          grade 3. But is this high interest? How did
    lae, such as the Dale-Chall, Harris-Jacobsen,          this picnic episode—which continues down
    and the Lexile systems, are based on three fac-        an entire page—make its way into a mystery
    tors: (1) sentence length, (2) syllable count, and     novel? Let’s contrast it with a selection from
    (3) word difficulty. The basic idea is that longer     another hi/lo novel:
    sentences, polysyllabic words, and abstruse
    vocabulary make it more difficult for readers to                 The two wrestlers came together, a mass
    decode text (Zakaluk & Samuels, 1988)                      of arms and knees. Tom kept trying to throw
         Unfortunately, the nature of any mathe-               Jes to the mat, but Jes kept slipping free. At
    matical formula makes it possible to artificially          last Jes saw his chance. He ducked and got his
    lower the measured readability of text by simply           head under Tom’s shoulder. Then fast—fast as
    chopping sentences into pieces or substituting             anything—he flipped around behind Jes’s back.
    monosyllabic vocabulary.                                   The older boy was forced down to the mat.

   IllInoIs ReadIng CounCIl JouRnal      Vol. 35, no. 1
        “Blue, one point,” the coach yelled. (From       every difficult word should be presented in
    Tag Team [New Series Canada], 2002)                  such a way as to be sure its meaning is clear).
                                                     •   straightforward plot development (avoid-
The technical readability of this section is below       ing flashbacks, time shifts, and confusing
grade 3, but the subject matter and rhythm of            changes in point of view).
the prose keep the story moving and the reader       •   simple sentence structures (the subject and
engrossed. Ultimately, this must be the test of          predicate must be physically close to each
effective hi/lo fiction.                                 other; subordinate clauses should follow the
                                                         main clause or be clearly set off by commas;
                                                         semicolons are avoided).
Books That support struggling Readers
Sophisticated genres like the mystery or             Effective characterization is the key to good
chopped-down “classics” are inappropriate in         narrative text. Readers need to care what hap-
programs for struggling readers. Think about         pens to the characters and how their problems
all of the reading strategies required to enjoy      will be resolved in the story. This is particu-
a mystery novel: a reader must be able to read       larly important for reluctant readers. Novels
for detail, recall a series of clues, make infer-    for struggling readers need clearly defined and
ences and connections within the text, and           differentiated characters. This does not require
sustain interest until the end of the book when      a lot of description; it does require that the
the mystery is resolved—all the things in which      characters are clearly distinguishable from one
struggling readers are weakest. Similarly, clas-     another. Spiegel (1981) found that even the
sic novels that have been adapted for weaker         characters’ names should be visually different
readers still retain the complex plot twists and     from one another to prevent confusion on the
heavy concept load of the original text. Read-       part of the reader.
ing Huckleberry Finn remains difficult even if            Good hi/lo reading materials contain
Twain’s rich vocabulary and syntax are stripped      enough illustrations to help in comprehend-
from the novel.                                      ing the text. Not only do illustrations sup-
    The best materials for struggling readers are    port the storyline, they also “pad” the text so
carefully written, edited, and designed to pro-      that the book appears longer but can still be
vide supports for struggling readers. These sup-     read quickly. The text may look the same as in
ports include . . .                                  any other book, but space between lines in a
                                                     hi/lo text is wider, and words are not broken
•   a compelling storyline and credible              at the end of lines in order to facilitate return
    characters.                                      eye sweep and avoid impediments to fluency
•   topics and issues with which readers can         (Ryder, Graves, & Graves, 1989).
    make personal or emotional connections.               Sophisticated literary devices, such as flash-
•   supportive formatting that includes illustra-    backs, sudden plot twists, or complex subplots,
    tions and appropriate text placement on the      increase the difficulty of reading for struggling
    page (hyphenation is a problem for reluc-        readers. Story structure should be straightfor-
    tant readers; line spacing is more important     ward and move the reader through the text
    than type size; some type faces are more         quickly and efficiently. Are there sacrifices here
    easily readable than others).                    in the depth and complexity of the novel? Of
•   careful introduction and reinforcement of        course. But the goal here is reading and enjoy-
    difficult vocabulary and concepts (no dif-       ment; serious literary study can wait for other
    ficult word should be used only once, and        novels later on.

                                HookIng stRugglIng ReadeRs: usIng books tHey Can and Want to Read          
          Making connections from one’s own experi-           Nonfiction text, especially, provides a number
     ence to the text is an important reading strategy        of supports for the struggling reader: headings
     and a basic literacy skill. It is important that stu-    and subheadings, graphics and illustrations,
     dents be able to relate to the topics and issues         introductions, and summaries. These provide
     in the books they read. Such a connection may            structures that help the reader access informa-
     allow a student to read material with a measured         tion even if the measured readability is beyond
     readability two grade levels or more beyond his          his capacity. A further advantage to nonfiction
     tested ability (Allington, 1977).                        text is that the reader does not need to read
          For instance, much of Shakespeare’s Hamlet          the entire book in order to benefit from it; the
     has a lower measured readability than the news-          reader can gain information and pleasure from
     paper sports page. Teachers know, however,               reading short segments.
     that students will have difficulty relating to the            Ultimately, we must also banish the bias
     situations and language in Hamlet without sig-           that books are the only legitimate reading that
     nificant teacher assistance. Many, however, can          students can do. Newspapers and magazines
     handle the sports page with ease because they            are good sources of short, interesting pieces of
     are familiar with both the game, the players, and        expository text in a variety of genres. A 1992
     the specialized “technical” vocabulary involved.         NAEP survey (Foertsch, 1992, in Allington,
          Finally, a traditional appearance for hi/lo         2001) found that “the only group of fourth
     material is vitally important for middle grade           graders who achieved reading performances
     students, whose self-esteem as readers may be            above the national average were those who
     lacking as much as their reading proficiency.            indicated that they regularly read story books,
     Such books should not appear obviously “spe-             informational books, and magazines” (p. 61).
     cial” or have their reading levels marked in any         Even comic books have their place in a stu-
     apparent way. In fact, the best hi/lo books fre-         dent’s reading repertoire as they are fun to read
     quently have as much appeal for good readers as          and have been proven to increase vocabulary
     they do for struggling readers—the good read-            (Worthy, Broaddus, & Ivey, 2001).
     ers just go through the books that much more                  Learning to select books that captivate us,
     quickly. A listing of books that meet the criteria       that inform us, that validate us, and that extend
     discussed above is included in Appendix One.             our thinking is a life skill. A balance of many
                                                              kinds of reading is essential for all readers.
                                                                   The Canadian Book and Periodical Coun-
     Teachers Who Tap into students’ interests                cil (2003) found that children choose books to
     Struggling readers should not be limited to hi/lo        read for themselves for about the same reasons
     books in all their reading. Most of us can read          that adults do. In 2003, the CBPC surveyed
     material well beyond our measured “instruc-              people purchasing books in a bookstore with
     tional level” if we are interested in the topic and      the question, “Why did you choose this book?”
     motivated to read. Similarly, even the weakest           The answers, in order, were as follow:
     reader will struggle through a book that is “hot”
     or “cool.”                                               •   Recommendation by friends (peers)
         For boys especially, nonfiction has consid-          •   Interest in the topic or story
     erable appeal, particularly when titles can be           •   Interest in the author
     found that match their interests and hobbies.            •   Cover and back-cover blurb
     The key is linking reading material to the things        •   Display
     that interest the students—from extreme sports           •   TV tie-in or promotion
     to World War II fighter jets to NHL hockey.

0   IllInoIs ReadIng CounCIl JouRnal        Vol. 35, no. 1
Students are motivated by these factors as well,
                                                                  About the Author
and a good teacher can use them to promote
                                                                  Dr. Kenneth Schatmeyer teaches graduate and under-
titles to all her students. A classroom “best-                    graduate courses in literacy education at Wright State
seller” list or book recommendations by stu-                      University in Dayton, Ohio.
dents themselves are good places to begin.
Author studies such as Jerry Spinelli or S. E.
Hinton often work well because these authors                      Appendix one
have created works at a number of readability
levels so that all students can be engaged in the                 High-interest/Low Readability Books for
authors’ different novels. Classroom libraries                    the Middle Grades
should include many kinds of books, especially                    Third Grade Reading Level
those with short-term popularity, so that chil-                   Animal Rescuers: A Chapter Book by Rosanna Hansen
dren can join in the enthusiasm of reading a                      Animorphs #1: Invasion by K. A. Applegate
popular choice.                                                   Animorphs #2: Visitor by K. A. Applegate
     Matching texts with readers in the upper                     Assassination of Abraham Lincoln by Kay Melchisedech
grades is an ongoing challenge because of the
                                                                  Battle of the Alamo by Matt Doeden
many factors which enter into the match-up—                       Blackwater by Eve Bunting
from complexity of the text to the background                     Boy at War by Harry Mazer
experience of the reader. It is important that                    Boy No More by Harry Mazer
teachers take on that challenge, however. It is                   Bull Rider by Marilyn Halvorson
up to us to provide Charles and his buddies                       Burn Out by Paul Kropp
                                                                  Cliffhanger by Skip Press
with accessible reading in school so that they
                                                                  Condor Hoax by Elaine Pageler
may build the attitudes and strategies necessary                  Cottonmouths by Linda George
to become readers for life.                                       Crash by Jerry Spinelli
                                                                  Danger on Midnight River by Gary Paulsen
                                                                  Dead On by Paul Kropp
References                                                        Disappearing Act by Sid Fleischman
Allington, R. (1977). If they don’t read much, how they           Doing Time Online by Jan Siebold
   ever gonna get good? Journal of Reading, 21, 57-61.            Drive-By by Lynne Ewing
Allington, R. (2001). What really matters for struggling          Fast Company by Rich Wallace
   readers: Designing research-based programs. New York:          Fastback Beach by Shirlee Smith Matheson
   Longman.                                                       Gang War by Paul Kropp
Canadian Book and Periodical Council (CBPC). (2003).              Ghost in the Desert by Susannah Brin
   Retrieved October 3, 2006, from www.bookand                    Gold Rush Fever by Penn Mullin
   periodicalcouncil.ca.                                          Himalaya by Jonathan Neale
Ryder, R., Graves, B., & Graves, M. (1989). Easy reading:         Ice Mummy: The Discovery of a 5,000-Year-Old Man by
   Book series and periodicals for less able readers (2nd ed.).       Cathy & Mark Dubowski
   Newark, DE: International Reading Association.                 Iditarod: Story of the Last Great Race by Ian Young
Spiegel, D. (1981). Reading for pleasure: Guidelines.             Mauna Loa: World’s Largest Active Volcano by Joanne
   Newark, DE: International Reading Association.                     Mattern
Stanovich, K. (1994). Romance and reality. The Reading            Mean Waters by Frank Woodson
   Teacher, 47, 280-291.                                          Mountain Blizzard by Ed Hanson
Worthy, J., Broaddus, K., & Ivey, G. (2001). Pathways to          Nightmare Room #1: Don’t Forget Me! by R. L. Stine
   independence: Reading, writing and learning in grades          Nightmare Room #3: My Name Is Evil by R. L. Stine
   3-8. New York: The Guilford Press.                             Pack by Susannah Brin
Zakaluk, B. L., & Samuels, S.J. (Eds.). (1988). Readabil-         Rising Water by P. J. Petersen
   ity: Its past, present and future. Newark, DE: Interna-        S.O.R. Losers by Avi
   tional Reading Association.

                                     HookIng stRugglIng ReadeRs: usIng books tHey Can and Want to Read                     
     Seikan Railroad Tunnel: World’s Longest Tunnel by            Escape from Fire Mountain by Gary Paulsen
         Mark Thomas                                              Escaping the Giant Wave by Peg Kehret
     Sinking of the Titanic by Matt Doeden                        Forged By Fire by Sharon M. Draper
     South by Southeast by Anthony Horowitz                       Forming a Band by A. R. Schaefer
     Stick Like Glue by Colin Wells                               Frozen Fire: A Tale of Courage by James A. Houston
     Storm Chasers: On the Trail of Deadly Tornadoes by Matt      Gadget by Paul Zindel
         White                                                    Harley-Davidson Motorcycles by Eric Preszler
     Swear to Howdy by Wendelin Van Draanen                       Heroes Don’t Run: A Novel of the Pacific War by Harry
     Talented Animals: A Chapter Book by Mary Packard                 Mazer
     Tentacles!: Tales of the Giant Squid by Shirley Raye         Hideout by Peg Kehret
         Redmond                                                  Hindenburg: The Fiery Crash of a German Airship by
     Then Again Maybe I Won’t by Judy Blume                           Kathleen W. Deady
     Treasure Hunting: Looking for Lost Loot by Caitlin Scott     History of Skateboarding: From the Backyard to the Big
     U.S. Air Force by Matt Doeden                                    Time by Michael J. Martin
     U.S. Army by Matt Doeden                                     Hostages by Ed Hanson
     U.S. Marine Corps by Matt Doeden                             Hot Cars by Paul Kropp
     U.S. Navy by Matt Doeden                                     Into the Dream by William Sleator
     Volcano! When a Mountain Explodes by Linda Barr              Inventions: Great Ideas and Where They Came from by
     What Do Fish Have to Do With Anything? by Avi                    Sarah Houghton
     White Water by P. J. Petersen                                Jet Fighter Planes by A. R. Schaefer
                                                                  Lost at Sea by Ed Hanson
     Fourth Grade Reading Level                                   Million Dollar Shot by Dan Gutman
     Air Disasters by Ann Weil                                    Monster Trucks by A. R. Schaefer
     Alien Encounter by Susannah Brin                             Moon Over Tennessee: A Boy’s Civil War Journal by Craig
     Amazon Adventure by Ed Hanson                                    Crist-Evans
     Among the Betrayed by Margaret P. Haddix                     Mount St. Helen’s Volcano by William Bankier
     Attack Helicopters: The AH-64 Apaches by Bill Sweetman       NASCAR’s Wildest Wrecks by Matt Doeden
     Attack Submarines: The Seawolf Class by Michael &            Night the Heads Came by William Sleator
        Gladys Green                                              Party Girl by Lynne Ewing
     Bear Attacks by Patrick Fitzgerald                           Pass by Ed Hanson
     Bloodsuckers: Bats, Bugs, and Other Bloodthirsty Creatures   Rescue: A Police Story by Alison Hart
        by Sarah Houghton                                         Return of the Eagle by Paul Buchanan
     Blue Moon by Marilyn Halvorson                               Rewind by William Sleator
     BMX Bikes by Kathleen W. Deady                               Roar of the Crowd by Rich Wallace
     Brickyard 400 by A. R. Schaefer                              Runt by Marion Dane Bauer
     Buzzard’s Feast by Todd Strasser                             Scott O’Grady: Behind Enemy Lines by Barbara A. Somervill
     Call of the Wild—Saddleback Classics by Jack London          Sea Disasters by Ann Weil
     Camp Wild by Pam Withers                                     Search and Rescue by Susannah Brin
     Castles: Towers, Dungeons, Moats, and More by Matt           Shackleton Expedition by Jil Fine
        White                                                     Shark: The Truth Behind the Terror by Mike Strong
     Choosing Up Sides by John Ritter                             Shipwreck by Gordon Korman
     Civil War Sub: The Mystery of the Hunley by Kate Boehm       Skateboarding Greats: Champs of the Ramps by Angie
        Jerome                                                        Peterson Kaelberer
     Cobras by Linda George                                       Skeleton Man by Joseph Bruchac
     Countess & Me by Paul Kropp                                  Skull Talks Back and Other Haunting Tales by Zora Neale
     Danger at 20 Fathoms by Ed Hanson                                Hurston & Joyce Thomas
     Deadly Game by Janet Lorimer                                 Someone Is Hiding on Alcatraz Island by Eve Bunting
     Deer Hunting by Randy Frahm                                  Something Upstairs by Avi
     Desert Ordeal by Ed Hanson                                   Spies! Real People, Real Stories by Laura Portalupi
     Dirt Bike by Paul Kropp                                      Stealth Bombers by Bill Sweetman
     Early Winter by Marion Dane Bauer                            Sword of the Samurai: Adventures Stories from Japan by
     Emergency Quarterback: Winning Season by Rich Wallace            Eric A. Kimmel

   IllInoIs ReadIng CounCIl JouRnal            Vol. 35, no. 1
Tears of a Tiger by Sharon M. Draper                          Jon Krakauer’s Adventure on Mt. Everest by Scott P.
Technical Foul by Rich Wallace                                   Werther
Tornado by Ed Hanson                                          Journal of Rufus Rowe: Witness to the Battle of
Tripping Over the Lunch Lady and Other School Stories            Fredericksburg by Sid Hite
   by Nancy E. Mercado                                        Journal of Scott Pendleton Collins: A World War II Soldier,
Vampire Bats by Anne Welsbacher                                  Normandy, France, 1944 by Walter Dean Myers
Virtually Perfect by Dan Gutman                               Lands of Mystery by Judith Herbst
World’s Fastest Indy Cars by Glen & Karen Bledsoe             Last Flight of 007 by Frank Woodson
X-Games: Action Sports Grab the Spotlight by Ian Young        Mindstorms: Stories to Blow Your Mind by Neall
You Wouldn’t Want to Be a Roman Gladiator! by John               Shusterman
   Malam                                                      My Life of Crime by Richard W. Jennings
                                                              Oak Tree Horror by Anne Scraff
Fifth Grade Reading Level                                     Odder Than Ever by Bruce Coville
Aircraft Carriers: The Nimitz Class by Michael & Gladys       Rattlesnakes by Mary Ann McDonald
   Green                                                      Remotely Piloted Aircraft: The Predators by Michael &
Air Superiority Fighters: F/A-22 Raptors by Michael &            Gladys Green
   Gladys Green                                               Second Stringer by Thomas J. Dygard
Aliens by Judith Herbst                                       Sees Behind Trees by Michael Dorris
Aquamarine by Alice Hoffman                                   Shark Attacks by Patrick Fitzgerald
Attack of the Killer Video Book: Tips and Tricks for Young    Shooting Monarchs by John Halliday
   Directors by Mark Shulman                                  Square Root of Murder by Paul Zindel
Backstage at a Movie Set by Katherine Wessling                Stray Voltage by Eugenie Doyle
Ballistics by Barbara Rollins & Michael Dahl                  Straydog by Kathe Koja
Bermuda Triangle by Aaron Rudolph                             Super Cobra Attack Helicopters: The AH-1 W by Michael
Blizzard Year: Timmy’s Almanac of Seasons by Gretel Ehrlich      & Gladys Green
Boa Constrictors by James Martin                              Tracker by Gary Paulson
Bomb by Theodore Taylor                                       Transportation of the Future by Mark Beyer
Bow Hunting by Aileen Weintraub                               U.S. Army by Matt Doeden
Bull Run by Paul Fleischman                                   U.S. Navy by Matt Doeden
Canine Connection: Stories About Dogs and People by           Weapons Carrier Helicopters: The UH-60 Black Hawks by
   Betsy Hearne                                                  Michael & Gladys Green
Castaways: Stories of Survival by Gerald Hausman              Whaleship Essex: The True Story of Moby Dick by Jil Fine
Chase: A Police Story by Alison Hart                          What If an Asteroid Hit Earth? by Holly Cefrey
Chief: The Life of Peter J. Ganci, A New York City            What If We Lived on Another Planet? by Olive
   Firefighter by Chris Ganci                                    MacDonald
Contest by Gordon Korman                                      What Makes You Cough, Sneeze, Burp, Hiccup, Yawn,
Crisis in Space: Apollo 13 by Mark Beyer                         Sweat, and Shiver? by Jean Stangl
Dark Pond by Joseph Bruchac                                   Wildfires by Anne Schraff
Discovery by Gordon Korman                                    Winter Room by Grary Paulsen
Earthquake! On a Peaceful Spring Morning Disaster             Wolf Stalker by Gloria Skurzynski & Alane Ferguson
   Strikes San Francisco by Shelley Tanaka                    Wrango by Brian Burks
Essential Deer Hunting for Teens by Jonathan Ceasar           You Wouldn’t Want to Be a Crusader! by Riona
FBI by Sheela Ramaprian                                          Macdonald
Ferocious Fires by Julie Richards                             You Wouldn’t Want to Be a Medieval Knight!: Armor You’d
Half-A-Moon Inn by Paul Fleischman                               Rather Not Wear by Fiona Macdonald
Hatchet by Gary Paulsen                                       You Wouldn’t Want to Be a Pyramid Builder! by Jacque-
Hostage by Willo Davis Roberts                                   line Morley
Indy 500: The Inside Track by Nancy Roe Pimm                  You Wouldn’t Want to Be an Egyptian Mummy! by David
Infantry Fighting Vehicles: The M2A2 Bradleys by                 Stewart
   Michael & Gladys Green                                     You Wouldn’t Want to Be in Alexander the Great’s Army!
Johnny Hangtime by Dan Gutman                                    by Jacqueline Morley
                                                              You Wouldn’t Want to Be on Apollo 13! by Ian Graham

                                   HookIng stRugglIng ReadeRs: usIng books tHey Can and Want to Read