PROPOSAL FOR EXPERIMENTAL SEED PRODUCTION OF BT COTTON

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PROPOSAL FOR EXPERIMENTAL SEED PRODUCTION OF BT COTTON Powered By Docstoc
					The Indian Experience of Biotechnology
          in Agriculture: 2004

                Raju Barwale
              21st October 2004
   Biotech Center, Wagistrasse 25, CH 8952
               Schlieren-Zurich
Department of Biotechnology (DBT)


Biotechnology Development Board (BDB) established
in 1982 and became a full fledged department of
biotechnology (DBT) in 1986
Main Goals: Promotion of Research and Human
resource development in Biotechnology
Spent in excess of 1.5 Bn US$ over last ten years
Estimated to spend 1.5 Bn US $ in 10th 5 year plan
(2002-07) for crop biotechnology
Significant Private expenditure expected
              Transgenic plants have broad
                  applications for India



Crops
 Rice
 Cotton
 Wheat
 Pigeon pea                            Applications
 Soybean                                Insect resistant crops
 Sorghum                                Hybridization system
 Maize                                  Herbicide tolerant
 Mustard                                crops
 Sugarcane                              Disease resistance
 Vegetables                             Nutrition
                                        enhancement
                                        Abiotic stress
Institutions involved in transgenic research


  8 Universities
   – Delhi University, Ag Universities etc
  13 Research Institutes
   – IARI, CICR, CCMB, TERI, ICRISAT, ICGEB, DRR,
     CPRI, CRRI, CTRI, Bose Institute, etc
  16 Private sector companies
   – Mahyco, Monsanto, Ankur, Proagro PGS,
     Syngenta, Nath, Rasi, Metahelix, Avesthagen, etc
Current status of various applications

Insect resistance
 – Bt Cotton approved
 – Bt Rice, Bt Vegetables under field test
Herbicide tolerance
 – Corn under field evaluation
Hybridization systems
 – Barnase Barstar Bar system in Mustard under field evaluation
Viral tolerance
 – Broad Resistance to Gemini Virus
Nutritional improvement
 –   Nutritionally enhanced Potato ( Field trials)
 –   High Beta carotene Rice ( Golden Rice)
 –   High iron content rice under development
 –   Golden Mustard
Abiotic stress tolerance
 – Salt tolerance
 – Drought (Water stress) tolerance
Bt cotton: First transgenic crop released in
        environment on large scale

     Approved in April 2002 now under
     cultivation for 3 years
           Benefits of Bt cotton

Provides in built protection to cotton against
lepidopteran pests.
Significantly reduces the number of sprays for boll
worm complex, reducing farmers costs and debt
Large yield savings leading to improved productivity
Additional benefit ranges from Rs 5930 to 9600 per
acre ( Rs 7260) after deducting the increased cost of
seed (Rs1200)
Whiter and cleaner cotton
Provides significant health and environmental
benefits. Safety established.
Reduces the risk of cotton growing
Mechanism of Action

            Caterpillar consumes
            foliage with Bt protein
            Protein binds to
            receptors in the gut
            wall
            Gut wall breaks down,
            leading to leaching of
            ingested material
            Caterpillar dies in 1-2
            days
     Area under Bt cotton cultivation
           2002, 2003 & 2004


      Year       2002     2003     2004

Area in acres    72682    213098 1292000


No of Farmers    21000     52000   250000
      What do these benefits mean?

Bollgard crop of 2004 can help farmers to earn Rs.
4850 million additional income
Overall cotton production increased by 370K quintals
of seed cotton (380000 bales of lint)
Industry will have 1.2 million quintals of extra cotton
seed for oilseed purpose from which 17 M liter of oil
can be extracted
Farm workers have earned an additional Rs. 555
lacs in harvesting of this additional crop
Bollgard reduced pesticide application by 1523.5 KL
(formulated)
Premium of Rs 80 per quintal over non bollgard
cotton                                         Source: ACNielson ORGMARG
Outlook going forward for Bollgard cotton

  Coverage under Bollgard cotton at 7 million acres
  Estimated additional production 4 million bales
  Industry will have 6 million quintals of extra seed
  85 M liter of edible oil can be extracted
  Farm workers can earn an additional Rs. 2775 lacs
  in harvesting of this additional crop
  Bollgard reduced pesticide application by 7615.5 KL
  (formulated)
  Creating cost competitiveness Higher productivity
  the DRC will be more favorable to Indian cotton
  All these measures can lead to increased
  availability in a cost effective manner benefiting
  the farmer, trade and textile industry
           Outcome

Established the regulatory process
Created confidence in agri biotech
Creating interest in agri biotechnology
– New crops
– Newer players
– Additional investment
Agri biotechnology is here to stay
    Typical plant morphology of Bt and non Bt cotton plants




Plant protected due to Bt protein   Damage by top shoot Borer
Plant showing characteristic bearing of floral parts in Bt cotton




                                      Monopodia




                                                   Sympodia
Boll bearing characteristics in Bt cotton MECH 162 Bt
         Going forward

Likely crops to be commercialized in
next 5 years
– GM mustard (Bar, Barnase, Barstar)
– Bt vegetables ( Brinjal, Tomato, Cabbage,
  Cauliflower)
– Bt field crops ( Sorghum, Pigeon Pea)
– Nutritionally enhanced Potato/Rice
– Vegetables with broad tolerance to Gemini
  virus